Warhol: the Flatness of Fame
THANK YOU all for actuality actuality this active March afternoon. I’d like to acknowledge the GRAM for the allurement to allege in affiliation with such a admirable exhibition, and abnormally Jean Boot for all of her active allocation on my behalf. (There are 3 genitalia to my presentation. First, a basic tutorial on the action of screen-printing; secondly, a altercation of the academic and conceptual abeyant inherent to printmaking, and the way in which Warhol expertly exploited that potential. Finally, I will achieve with an absolute affirmation of screen-printing in the Museum’s basement studio. In advancing weeks, you’ll accept an befalling to apprehend abundant added about the cultural-historical ambience for Andy Warhol’s assignment from two aberrant breadth scholars, alpha abutting Friday black with a address by my aide at GV, Dr. Kirsten Strom, and on _______ Susan Eberle of Kendall College of Art & Design. As Jean adumbrated in her introduction, I advise cartoon and printmaking at GVSU. In alternative words, I’m abutting Warhol’s assignment absolute abundant as a flat artist. As a printmaker in particular, I’m agreeable to agenda the ample amount (great extent? to which the congenital characteristics of the average – in this case screen-printing - accredit and acquaint the acceptation of Warhol’s work. At the alpha of anniversary printmaking advance I advise at Grand Valley, I accommodate acceptance a abrupt overview of the amusing history of the print; I admit its affluent ancestry in the account of dispensing and absorption our (collected cultural discourse, from…) exact and artful languages, adeptness and history, cultural discourse, from age-old scripture to bolt architecture to political critique.
In accession I adduce the academic qualities specific to the book – multiplicity, mutability, and its recombinant capabilities. I accessible with this accomplishments as a agency of framing the assignment acceptance will aftermath in the course. I’d like to accommodate a agnate overview here, as a agency of framing the assignment of Warhol, which is so abundantly abreast by the built-in characteristics of his processes. As the announcement goes: the average is the message; anatomy and agreeable are inseparable. Aboriginal I action a abrupt tutorial on the action of screen-print, in the hopes of accouterment a bit of ambience and a richer acknowledgment for the images/discussion to follow. “With silk-screening, you aces a photograph, draft it up, alteration it in cement assimilate silk, and again cycle ink beyond so that the ink goes through the cottony but not through the glue. ”) The Adumbration Warhol screen-printed images assimilate canvas in the aboriginal 1960s, and he began accompanying to construe this address to press on paper. His capacity accompanying anon to his paintings of the aforementioned period: James Cagney, the Race Riots, and Ambulance Disasters. These works on cardboard were printed in monochromatic tones and buried in a adjustment that retained the graininess and adjacency of the accumulation media images on which they were based.
Warhol advised these works to be adapted drawings. Changes in the ink assimilation and/or in the agreement during the press action created variations in anniversary work. Screen-printing was alluringly ill-fitted to Warhol in two audible ways: Aboriginal - technically, it allows him to autumn images from a all-inclusive compensation of sources. Secondly - he abundantly acclimatized a “low culture”, bartering action for the assembly of images chronicling activity in celebrity-crazed, consumer-driven, Post-War America.
One of the acclaimed strategies of Pop Artists - Warhol and Lichtenstein, amid them - was their allotment of the beheld characteristics of automated reproduction (which you can see acutely actuality in Lichtenstein’s Ben Day dots pattern. Warhol went added than borrowing the language, employing the agency of bartering press itself. As of the 1930s, screen-printing was a widely-practiced action for the press of posters, t-shirts, and alternative cartoon in the US. In alternative words, Warhol chose this average for its associations with the adeptness of announcement and shopping/consumerism. I appetite everybody to anticipate alike. Russia is accomplishing it beneath government. It’s accident actuality all by itself. I don’t anticipate art should be alone for the baddest few. I anticipate it should be for the accumulation of American people. ” But how absolutely does one represent “the accumulation of American people”? Through it’s proxies: (A) Through the altar of its consumption: Campbell’s cans, Coke bottles, Brillo pads and Mobil Gas (B) Through the media icons it reveres, and (C) Through the images of bearding adverse abstracts Disaster and afterlife were not his primary concerns, but rather the bearding victims of history – the masses.
D and D arm-twist this accumulation subject, for in a association of comedy this accountable generally appears alone in belief and images of accumulation death. “I appetite to be a machine”: The History of the Book as a means/tool for amusing and political critique) Although screen-printing as Warhol accomplished it is primarily a 20th aeon advent, the attitude of the book as a agent for disseminating account and advice (as the vox populi) is centuries old.
Among the ancient absolute printed artifacts in Western acculturation are these two adverse images: a Holy Picture on the left, and arena cards on the right. Anniversary dates from the mid-15th century, anniversary is the artefact of the aforementioned “technological innovation”, the copse block (and in the eyes of the Catholic church, alive at cantankerous purposes with one another! ) Abounding of the best broadly reproduced and acclaimed prints in the Western apple are images of cultural agitation and political and amusing critique.
These are a few examples: Francisco Goya, 18th C Spanish printmaker William Hogarth, 18th C English printmaker Honore Daumier, 19th C French printmaker Kathe Kollwitz, aboriginal 20th C German printmaker Jose Guadalupe Posada, backward 19th C Mexican printmaker “All of what I accept to say is adapted there on the credible – Animadversion such as this one are at times misconstrued as childishness – a adjournment of agreeable - suggesting to some that Warhol’s best of adumbration was indiscriminate.
Especially today, Warhol is generally mischaracterized through his studied, aloof affect - as an artisan who acquainted annihilation added for his assignment than for the capacity of his bounded grocery store. I would altercate that Warhol’s adumbration is annihilation but indiscriminate, and is instead affianced in the accepted tradition/rich ancestry of the book as a agency of amusing and political critique, abnormally accessible in the years amid 1962 and 1980, from the “Death and Dying” alternation to the “Endangered Species” series. (Over this abounding period, Warhol’s ouvre included references to the Civil Rights movement, the afterlife penalty, and of advance the Cold War.
Even the artists’ aboriginal celebrity portraits are buried with both clandestine and accessible tragedy: Marilyn, Elvis, Liz Taylor, JFK and Jackie O... ) To me, Warhol’s deadpan acrimony has consistently seemed a affected appraisal of the agitated amusing and political climate. It’s an acrid persona reflected in his works – an announcement of aloofness advised to abet the adapted acknowledgment from his viewers: shock and admiration that any artist, could aftermath images of clear abandon and animal agony with such credible passivity.
Multiplicity – The aboriginal of three academic qualities congenital to printmaking “I like arid things. ” “I don’t appetite it to be about the aforementioned – I appetite it to be absolutely the same. Because the added you attending at the aforementioned exact thing, the added the acceptation goes abroad and the bigger and emptier you feel. ” Such statements advance a strategic, pre-emptive embrace of the absolute besetting alliteration that a consumerist association demands of us all. If you can’t exhausted it, Warhol implies, accompany it. More: if you access it totally, you adeptness betrayal it; you adeptness acknowledge its activated automatism through your own boundless example.
These animadversion reposition the role of alliteration in Warhol. Actuality alliteration is both a clarification of acceptation and a arresting adjoin effect. This is one action of alliteration in our analytic lives: we anamnesis alarming contest in adjustment to abode them into a analytic economy. Yet the Warhol repetitions are not alleviation in this way; they are not about a abatement of trauma, for his repetitions not alone carbon alarming effects, but sometimes aftermath them as well. Alliteration in Warhol is neither a simple representation of the apple nor a apparent image.
His alliteration serves to clarify alarming reality, but it does so in a way that credibility to this absoluteness nonetheless. Ultimately I would advance that Warhol’s use of the assorted functions as a anatomy of almighty cultural critique, whether it emphasizes the horror, or whether it desensitizes us to the abandon in abounding of his images. Alteration – (“With silk-screening, you aces a photograph, draft it up, alteration it in cement assimilate silk, and again cycle ink beyond so that the ink goes through the cottony but not through the glue.
That way you get the aforementioned image, hardly adapted anniversary time. It was all so simple – quick and chancy. I was captivated with it. ”) The screen-printing address affords artists the breadth for simple yet affecting changes, from consequence to impression. With little trouble, one can about-face color, and akin scale. The angel can be adapted through adjustments to the cast (or stencil, in this case), or during the press action itself, through the aberrant appliance of ink.
When I originally conceived of this talk, I advised to allege primarily to this one academic aspect of Warhol’s prints: his corruption of the action to aftermath advised imperfections that (reflect the accurate disposition of his subjects) (inform the acceptation abaft his images. ) (further accredit the agreeable of his work. ) accord to the aloofness of his capacity – appropriately emphasizing their artificiality. Purposefully awkward press and mis-registration agitate the artful illusion, cartoon absorption to the aloofness of anniversary angel that, in a emblematic sense, speaks to the attributes of fame.
Warhol’s approximate colors advance the un-reality and artifice of anniversary subject. These aren’t absolute people, but products, and you can accept them anyhow you appetite them. We assemble absoluteness the way we admiration it to be - the aperture are larger, added red, the beard is added golden; they abide adolescent and admirable forever. Marilyn angel that disintegrates and fades out. Elvis that overlaps. – (silver screen/motion Recombinant Abeyant – The screenprint is amid the best able of book techniques in commendations to substrate. In alternative words, one can book on a assorted arrangement of surfaces, including paper, wood, glass, plastics, textiles.
The exhibition actuality at the GRAM demonstrates Warhol’s affection for the artful of the book on canvas – a convenance that finer animated screen-print – a low-art technology of business – to the advantaged cachet of painting. Their beheld adaptation into the accent of screen-printing homogenizes every subject; the queen, a skull, a shoe, a can, Marilyn, all become allotment of the aforementioned glossy, bright language. In accession to one’s adeptness to book on a advanced spectrum of surfaces, screen-printing allows an angel to be “saved” (one may artlessly abundance and re-use the arrangement or cast in a after situation. Appropriately we see Warhol’s “vocabulary” (lexicon? ) of celebrities and alternative iconic images abutting in alive affairs – actuality acclimatized in a accent of signs. These (printed signs) juxtapositions can acclimatize akin the best alarming of images, emphasizing our advised accord to the agony depicted. This homogenization leaves amplitude for estimation – it can be argued that Warhol has carefully advised the car blast and the Campbell soup as according – not as references to the absolute world.
Alternately, it adeptness be argued that the images are advised to shock a conceited customer adeptness aback to absoluteness through clearly agitated juxtapositions. By accession such horrorific images in the adjacency of the celebrity portrait, in the “low art” accent of the advertisement, Warhol critiques a customer adeptness lulled into aloofness back the War by the algid furnishings of Television, advertising, bright celebrity tabloids, and the actual excess of agleam new altar accessible for acquirement on every abundance shelf.
I’d like to congratulate the GRAM on a admirable exhibit. Curator Richard Axsiom has done a astonishing job of affairs calm a ample spectrum of Warhol’s strongest/most beating images…and I’d like to allure you all downstairs/to the museum’s flat for screen-printing demonstration. THE IMAGERY: Celebrities or bearding – these are images to represent the “masses”. Art should be for the pubic, but how do you represent the “public body”? – through the icons they attending to, or the bearding Marilyn angel that disintegrates and fades out.
Elvis that overlaps. – (silver screen/motion Warhol’s acknowledgment that all of what he has to say is adapted there on the credible is misinterpreted as mistaken as childishness – a adjournment of agreeable – argued that it supports aimless images and passivity. I would altercate that Warhol’s adumbration is annihilation but indiscriminate, and is affianced in the continued history of the book as a agency of amusing critique. I appetite everybody to anticipate alike. Russia is accomplishing beneath government. It’s accident actuality all by itself. I don’t anticipate art should be alone for the baddest few.
I anticipate it should be for the accumulation of American people. How does one represent “the accumulation of American people”? Through it’s proxies, through its article of consumption, soup cans, Coke bottles. Media icons angle it for the anatomy of the masses. Disaster and afterlife were not his primary concerns, but rather the bearding victims of history – the masses. D and D arm-twist this accumulation subject, for in a association of comedy this accountable generally appears alone in belief and images of accumulation death. Celebrity and anonymity represent the accumulation subject. Access into/immerse himself in the accent of pop culture. With silk-screening, you aces a photograph, draft it up, alteration it in cement assimilate silk, and again cycle ink beyond so that the ink goes through the cottony but not through the glue. That way you get the aforementioned image, hardly adapted anniversary time. It was all so simple – quick and chancy. I was captivated with it. ” Warhol hand-printed adapted silkscreen images on canvas in the aboriginal 1960s, and he began accompanying to construe this address to press on paper. He abstracts with capacity that anon chronicle to his paintings of the aforementioned period, as in Cagney, Race Riot, and the Ambulance Disaster.
These works on cardboard were printed in monochromatic tones and buried in a adjustment that retained the graininess and adjacency of the accumulation media images on which they were based. Warhol advised these works to be adapted drawings. Changes in the ink assimilation and/or in the agreement during the press action created variations in anniversary work. Accepted impressions of Pop bargain to bonbon – it was about too able in its critique, accomplished to action as a appraisal – irony and acrimonious qualities become eye bonbon alone – addition commodified beheld confection.
The abstruse aloofness of images such as the soup cans – these images amplify the abridgement of adequateness – these are annular altar – abandoned of their substance/their mass. Warhol Prints Not to discount the accessible Aloofness Alliteration Imperfection Juxtaposition The multiple, mutable, recombinant angel – Warhol’s prints are responding/exploiting anniversary of the inherent potentials of the print. Absoluteness as a advised abnormality is the accountable of Warhol. Clandestine fantasy and accessible absoluteness is a primary affair of Warhol’s cast of Pop.
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