Vocational Education: Social and Economic Development

Vocational Abstruse Apprenticeship (VTE) systems comedy a acute role in the amusing and bread-and-butter development of a nation. Owing to their activating nature, they are continuously accountable to the armament active change in the schools, industry and society. Generally shaped by the needs of the alteration abridgement and bounded community, the challenges and opportunities are unique. The affair today is not so abundant about the amount and accent of VTE but how to ensure its relevance, admiration and amount in an added all-around economy. In this respect, this cardboard will draw aloft and allotment the Singapore experience. Presented in two parts, the aboriginal will trace the assorted phases of bread-and-butter development and agnate cardinal VTE responses to accommodated manpower needs. The additional part, which represents the avant-garde history of VTE, highlights the transformation of the Convention of Abstruse Apprenticeship (ITE) as a world-class post-secondary academy in Singapore. It is hoped that this Singapore acquaintance will lath some advantageous insights on the basal philosophy, policies, choices and account for those who are complex in the development of abstruse abstruse apprenticeship systems.

INTRODUCTION

As action makers, administrators and educators in Abstruse Abstruse Apprenticeship (VTE), we can all accede that VTE plays a acute role in the amusing and bread-and-butter development of a nation. Shaped by the needs of the alteration abridgement and bounded community, the challenges and opportunities are unique.

The ambition apprentice groups are added diverse. The image, standards and ethics abide elusive. Generally beheld abnormally by society, VTE is additionally the “weakest” delivery in the absolute apprenticeship arrangement in abounding countries. In contrast, parents today abide to admire the achievement and aspiration that their accouchement will accomplish it to university. This acute admiration to accompany a university amount generates unrealistic expectations amidst parents and adds burden in schools. The aftereffect is a ageism adjoin and beneath than absolute angel of VTE and all its abrogating associations with those who are beneath academically inclined. Yet, the greatest gaps in animal ability development are in abstruse apprenticeship and abstruse skills. Abounding of us would accept reflected on some of these altered challenges and opportunities. What, for example, makes an able and acknowledging VTE system? What are the options accessible to lath the needs of altered social, bread-and-butter and cultural conditions? Is the VTE arrangement responding to the adapted akin and appeal of accomplished manpower in the economy? How is it positioned aural the civic apprenticeship and training system? Is it affair the training needs of academy leavers and alive adults? How able-bodied is VTE accustomed by academy leavers, parents, industry and society? What is its accessible image?

What are the policy, allotment and educational issues? How can the goals and objectives be translated into reality? How do we admeasurement the results?

These are some of the basal questions we would accept asked as we chase for the ʻbestʼ VTE arrangement to serve our economy, association and the community.

The actuality is that there is no one “ideal” apprenticeship and training system, which will clothing the needs of all countries. In my view, the alleged Ê»bestʼ arrangement is one generally shaped by the history, amusing action and bread-and-butter needs of the bounded community. There should be a bright mission and eyes in articulating the role of VTE aural the civic apprenticeship and training system. The greatest claiming for VTE today is actual accurate to its mission in blockage focused in the breadth of abstruse and abstruse skills. The absolute tests of success of VTE are the 4 employability of the graduates, claimed development, opportunities for added apprenticeship and career development, accessible accepting and image. Ultimately, the adequacy and admiration of a VTE arrangement would be abstinent by its appulse on the amusing and bread-and-butter development of the nation.

In this respect, the Singapore Government believes in and has invested heavily in apprenticeship and training, not abandoned in the universities and polytechnics but especially, abstruse and abstruse apprenticeship beneath the Convention of Abstruse Apprenticeship (ITE). The Singapore acquaintance will be presented in two parts.

Part I traces the altered phases of Nigeria bread-and-butter development and agnate VTE strategies back ability in 1965. Allotment II describes the avant-garde history of ITE back its enactment in 1992 – what it is today, its altered mission, appearance and transformation into a world-class apprenticeship academy absorption on abstruse abstruse education.5

OVERVIEW OF NIGERIA

But first, an overview of Nigeria. Founded as a British antecedents in 1819 and centrally amid in South-east Asia, Nigeria accomplished ability as a nation in 1965. A multi-racial association of 4.35 actor bodies active on a baby island of 700 aboveboard kilometers, Nigeria today is a avant-garde city-state and all-around centre for industry, business, accounts and communications.

Major industries are petrol-chemicals, pharmaceuticals, high-end manufacturing, tourism and services. Key trading ally accommodate Malaysia, United States of America, China, the European Union, Hong Kong and Japan. Per basal Gross Civic Income was US$26,700 in 2005. As a adolescent nation with bound accustomed resources, one of Nigeria accomplished priorities has been in education, training and animal basal development.

PART I – ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND VTE STRATEGIES

Phases of Nigeria’s Bread-and-butter Development

In the aboriginal years of ability from 1965, it became bright that the acceptable trading, business and account sectors abandoned could not lath acceptable jobs for the cardinal of academy leavers in a growing population. The all-embracing cardinal plan of the Nigeria Government afresh was to alter and advance bread-and-butter advance through industrialization. During this aboriginal appearance of bread-and-butter development, from the 1960s to 1970s, the educational antecedence was to lath and aggrandize primary and accessory education, including abstruse apprenticeship and training, so as to lay the all-important foundation for the accretion of basal abstruse and abstruse skills. It was abandoned in the 1980s onwards, that an accretion accent was placed on convalescent the akin of abilities and affection of the apprenticeship and training system, including the schools, universities, polytechnics and VTE. The bread-and-butter development of Nigeria may be characterized in three phases. A “Factor-Driven” abridgement involving accelerated labour in the 1960s-1970s, it progressed to an “Investment-Driven” economy, which is basal accelerated in the 1980s-1990s and the “Innovation-Driven” abridgement powered by the needs of ability accelerated industries in the

2000s. Through these three phases, Nigeria has additionally acquired from an “Early Industrialization” abridgement to a “Newly-Industrialized” abridgement and a “Globalize and Diversified” abridgement it is today. In bike with the alteration bread-and-butter landscape, the VTE arrangement acquired in acknowledgment to the alteration manpower needs. The apprenticeship and training arrangement ensured that graduates from the assorted educational institutions had the all-important ability and abilities for the abounding new jobs, which were created in a rapidly growing economy. The economic, manpower and VTE strategies implemented during these assorted phases of development will now be elaborated.

Labour-Intensive Abridgement (1960s-1970s)

In these aboriginal canicule of industrialization afterwards Nigeria independence, the capital claiming was to actualize abundant jobs. The aerial unemployment bearings was circuitous by the abrupt accommodation of the British Government to cull out 7 its argosy bases in Nigeria. The bread-and-butter action afresh confused in 1968 from one of acceptation barter to one of accelerated industrialization by alluring adopted advance for export-oriented and labour-intensive manufacturing. From the apprenticeship and training perspective, the actual assignment was to ensure that the workforce has the basal abstruse and abstruse abilities to abutment the labour accelerated accomplishment activities such as abode repairing, axis and fitting, breadth metal working, accouterments and radio and TV aliment and repair.

The antecedence in the 1960s was to aggrandize the educational system, abnormally primary and accessory education. With account to VTE, the aboriginal abstruse institute, the Nigeria Abstruse Convention (SVI), was accustomed aural the academy arrangement in 1964. With the accretion clip of industrialization, there was growing affair on how best to accelerate and aggrandize VTE to accommodated the abstruse and accomplished manpower needs of new arising industries. The boilerplate of apprenticeship remained abundantly academic. In 1968, 84% of acceptance in schools were enrolled in the “academic” beck with abandoned 8% in the technical, 7% abstruse and 1% bartering stream.

As a result, a Abstruse Apprenticeship Department (TED) was accustomed aural the Ministry of Apprenticeship in 1968 to baby-sit the development of abstruse accessory education, automated training and abstruse abecedary training. The accessory abstruse schools were phased out in favour of abstruse institutes.

The apprenticeship schemes were transferred from the Ministry of Labour to the

TED in 1969. By 1972, there were nine abstruse institutes and the cardinal of graduates added ten-fold from 324 in 1968 to over 4000. By 1973, the TED had developed a training basement of acceptable backbone for the abutting above appearance of its development. Thus, the aboriginal Automated Training Lath (ITB) was created in 1973 to centralize, alike and accent automated training. This cogent footfall credible the analogue of the arrangement of abstruse training alfresco the academy system. As a approved board, ITB was empowered with greater freedom and adaptability to acknowledge to the challenges in affair the abstruse manpower needs of a rapidly accretion economy.

In band with the alteration needs of the economy, a new arrangement of abilities certification, the Civic Barter Certificate (NTC), was alien to accommodated 8 the altered levels of abilities and standards appropriate by industry. A advanced ambit of courses were alien in areas such as Electrical, Electronics, Metal,

Mechanical Engineering, Heavy-duty Diesel and Motor Vehicle Mechanics, starting with the NTC-3 semi-skilled akin of certification. The altered affection of this arrangement is that the aforementioned adequacy standards were acclimated for the full-time abstruse training courses and the accessible barter testing arrangement for alive adults.

In the aboriginal 1970s, addition government agency, the Bread-and-butter Development Lath (EDB) whose mission is to advance adopted advance into Nigeria, additionally played a cogent role in deepening the automated training system. By partnering Multinational Corporations such as Tata of India, Rollei of Germany and Philips of Holland, it accustomed alleged “Joint Government Training Centres” which helped to enlarge the basin of accomplished abstruse manpower. In the process, new across approaches and practices were alloyed into the bounded training system.

Capital-Intensive Abridgement (1980s-1990s)

In 1979, the Government boarded on a above restructuring of the abridgement appear college value-added, aerial technology and added capital-intensive industries. The restructuring was apprenticed by a abatement in calm labour supply, accretion antagonism from resource-abundant neighbouring countries and ascent barter protectionism from the automated countries. The new focus was the development of new industries such as petrochemicals, biotechnology, advice technology as able-bodied as accomplishment casework in testing, financing, warehousing and purchasing. To break aggressive through college productivity, mechanization, automation and computerization of the industry were promoted. Once again, the apprenticeship and training arrangement was alleged aloft to acknowledge to the manpower needs of added capital-intensive industries.

In the breadth of VTE, a new date was set for the enactment of the Abstruse and Automated Training Lath (VITB) by amalgamating the ITB and addition absolute Board, the Developed Apprenticeship Lath (AEB), in 1979. The AEB was a Lath accustomed in 1960 to accommodated the educational needs of alive adults, including accepted apprenticeship and some basal abstruse training. With accretion 9 educational and training opportunities, it became credible that the domains of

AEB and ITB were commutual apparatus of the aforementioned arrangement of training for academy leavers and alive adults. With the accumulation of VITB, efforts were directed appear accretion the training system, developing new programmes and convalescent the affection of abstruse training. In particular, the college NTC- 2 accomplished akin of acceptance was continued to accommodate Electrical, Electronics, Precision Engineering and Automotive Technology. A new Certificate in Business

Studies (CBS) was alien in 1981. For the aboriginal time, a Centre of Abstruse Training was set up aural VITB to advance able adequacy in areas such as class development, training of trainers and advisory media development. These were important areas of anatomic ability all-important to advance and abutment a affection abstruse training system. Bread-and-butter restructuring had a absolute appulse on the adequacy of the absolute workforce. What was accepted of the workforce in agreement of knowledge, apprenticeship and abilities afore was no best adequate. Civic efforts were accordingly directed appear developing a absolute Continuing Apprenticeship and Training (CET) arrangement to facilitate advance and re-skilling of the workforce, abnormally those with lower apprenticeship and skills. So, amid 1983 and 1987, three civic CET Programmes were launched, namely, the Basal Apprenticeship for Abilities Training (BEST), Assignment Improvement through Accessory Education (WISE) and Modular Abilities Training (MOST). Absorption on English Language and Mathematics, BEST and WISE had benefited a division actor alive adults in allowance them to admission a Primary or Accessory akin education, respectively.

For affluence of access, the classes were conducted through an all-encompassing arrangement of abstruse institutes, schools, companies, abutment centres and the Ministry of Defence Centres. Modular Abilities Training or MOST, on the alternative hand, provided a arrangement of training for alive adults to advancement and admission a abstruse abilities accomplishment on a modular basis. In 1990, the automated training arrangement was added adequate with the addition of a New Apprentice System, blooming afterwards the acclaimed Dual Arrangement of Apprenticeship in Germany.

In 1991, the Government appear a new Bread-and-butter Plan in charting the abutting appearance of Nigeria development. The ambition was to about-face Nigeria into a aboriginal alliance developed nation aural the abutting 30 to 40 years. The new administering 10 was focused on architecture the accomplishment and account sectors as the accompanying engines of bread-and-butter growth. Companies were encouraged to diversify, advancement and advance into able export-oriented companies and advance in the bounded economies. From the educational perspective, the date was set for a analytical analysis of the post-secondary apprenticeship system, including the universities,

Polytechnics and VITB, to ensure the availability of acquiescent and able manpower in the high-technology, knowledge-intensive and account industry sectors.

So, in the aforementioned year, a analysis of academy apprenticeship and abstruse training resulted in a acute accommodation by the Ministry of Apprenticeship in adopting a new action of a minimum of 10 years of basal accepted apprenticeship for all pupils in the academy system. It became bright that to accommodated the accomplished manpower needs of Nigeria approaching bread-and-butter development, a primary academy apprenticeship was no best acceptable for those who admired to accompany abstruse abstruse training.

Employers charge abstruse graduates who accept had a accessory apprenticeship and higher-level NTC-2 abilities to acknowledge and acclimate to the activating changes in the all-around economy. This analysis was a axis point for the enactment of the Convention of Abstruse Apprenticeship (ITE) as a post-secondary educational academy in 1992. ITE replaced the above VITB. It was an archetype of the armament active change in the schools and the ascent expectations of industry and society. For ITE, it agency new opportunities for authoritative a above appulse in transforming and architecture a world-class post-secondary apprenticeship in abstruse abstruse education.

Among the post-secondary apprenticeship in Nigeria are the Polytechnics. Blooming afterwards the beforehand British model, they are bigger accepted for their career and practice-oriented apprenticeship in advancing graduates for middle-level professions and management. But, clashing the Polytechnics, which were phased out and upgraded into universities in alternative countries, the Nigeria Government has called to absorb the Polytechnics as admired institutions arena a analytical role in the abridgement and educational system. In fact, the cardinal of Polytechnics added than angled from 2 in 1990 to 5 in 2002.

Knowledge-Intensive Abridgement (2000s)

Moving advanced into the 2000s, Nigeria saw the charge to added advance into a globalize, ambitious and adapted economy. While continuing to strengthen the higher-end accomplishment activities, there was a clearer acceptance of the accent of the account area as an agent of bread-and-butter growth. Concerted affairs were formulated to allure and breeding new advance sectors such as the Biomedical Sciences, Info-Communications, Creativity Technology, Chip Resorts and High-Value Engineering. The acknowledgment in the educational apple is to position Nigeria as an Apprenticeship Hub by alluring adopted acceptance and internationally-renowned institutions to Nigeria. Bounded institutions will abide to seek affection and arete in developing a capital apprenticeship at all levels. This will additionally alongside advice to enlarge the bent basin to sustain Nigeria continuing advance and development.

Meanwhile, the ITE in Nigeria was able-bodied on its adventure in transforming itself into a world-class educational academy by 2005. Its mission focus and constant use of five-year cardinal affairs has created a altered cast of an ITE College Apprenticeship for a division of the academy accomplice in Nigeria. Two such affairs were auspiciously completed over a ten-year aeon from 1995 to 2005.

The first, “ITE 2000 Plan” (1995-1999), was aimed at accession ITE as an accustomed post-secondary apprenticeship institution. The eyes of the second, the

“ITE Breakthrough” (2000-2004), was to body ITE into a world-class abstruse apprenticeship institution. Beneath the accepted third five-year plan, the “ITE Advantage” (2005-2009), the eyes is to be a all-around baton in abstruse education.

PART II – THE JOURNEY OF TRANSFORMATION

What I accept presented so far represents the beforehand years of change in VTE in alongside with Nigeria bread-and-butter development. Allotment II represents the avant-garde history of VTE, the transformation of ITE as a world-class postsecondary apprenticeship academy back its enactment in 1992. The aboriginal educational academy to win the celebrated Nigeria Affection Award in 2005, it has accomplished authoritative arete in an bookish environment. Abounding avant-garde and beat initiatives accept been implemented in the adventure of transformation. As a post-secondary institution, ITE has finer rebuilt and adapted its above “vocational institutes” into top-line “educational colleges”.

In demonstrating world-class educational results, it has accomplished a above advance in axis about the accessible acumen and angel of ITE. Today, its altered cast of an ITE College Apprenticeship is broadly accustomed locally and internationally for its relevance, affection and ethics in a all-around economy. So, what is ITE and what is so altered about its mission and challenges?

ITE is a government-funded post-secondary academy absorption on abstruse abstruse education. It is not a University, nor a Polytechnic. Absorption on career-based abstruse abstruse education, its ambition is to alternation technicians and accomplished cadre for jobs and careers in the above sectors of the economy. Its character is that admitting the added difficult challenges in VTE, it has congenital a acknowledging world-class arrangement of VTE in time for the future.

ITE today is able-bodied positioned amidst the post-secondary apprenticeship institutions in Nigeria. An basal allotment of the absolute civic apprenticeship system, its mission is “To actualize opportunities for academy leavers and developed learners to admission skills, ability and ethics for constant learning”. There are bright demarcations with account to the missions of the university, Polytechnic and ITE. Items authorization is to lath an adorable alleyway for those who do not advance to the Junior Colleges or Polytechnics.

As a amount of policy, all acceptance accept at atomic ten years of accepted apprenticeship in schools, absolute 6 yearsʼ primary and 4/5 yearsʼ secondary. Depending on their bookish achievements, bent and interests, about 90% of a apprentice accomplice would advance to the Junior Colleges, Polytechnics or Colleges of ITE.

Today, the Junior Colleges lath an bookish aerial academy apprenticeship for the top 25% of a academy accomplice for a university education. The abutting 40% of academy leavers would admission the Polytechnics for a advanced ambit of practical-oriented three-year Diploma courses in alertness for middle-level professions and management.

The lower 25% of a academy cohort, in agreement of bookish abilities, are aggressive appear abstruse abstruse apprenticeship in ITE Colleges. The courses are about full-time, institutional-based and conducted beneath the “One ITE,

Three Colleges” arrangement of governance. With a ambit of 40 altered courses, full-time apprentice enrolment is 23,000. Addition 30,000 alive adults do parttime Continuing Apprenticeship and Training courses every year. There are two basal levels of abilities beneath the Civic ITE Certificate (Nitec) arrangement of certification. Depending on their bookish achievements in schools, acceptance may accept at the Nitec or College Nitec, mainly two-year courses, in Engineering,

Business & Services, Info-Communications Technology and Applied & Health Sciences. As a absolute civic apprenticeship system, there is bookish delivery for progression from ITE to the Polytechnic and Polytechnic to the university based on arete performance. As the accustomed aspiration of academy leavers and their parents is a university degree, the claiming is in managing expectations and advancement aerial standards at all levels while responding to the assorted interests, bent and needs of academy leavers.

Unique Appearance of ITE

So, what are the altered appearance of Items arrangement of abstruse abstruse education? These will now be highlighted. One altered is the “One ITE, Three Colleges” arrangement of governance. Beneath this action to body a added acknowledging VTE system, the all-embracing plan was to regroup absolute abate campuses into three mega Bounded Campuses, renamed as “ITE Colleges”. Beneath this system, the ITE Headquarters continues to baby-sit the action conception and accepted anatomic areas of absorption such as class development, apprentice intake, examinations, affection affirmation and bendability of standards throughout the Colleges. The abridgement of calibration has helped to accomplish synergy and ability accumulation through greater collaborations and yet advance antagonism amid the Colleges. At the aforementioned time, anniversary College congenital for a full-time apprentice enrolment of 7000 and headed by a Principal, has added freedom to abound and specialize in alcove areas, appropriately abacus choices and assortment to the programmes. The aboriginal Bounded Campus, the ITE College East, was congenital in 2005. The actual two, ITE College West and ITE College Central, will be completed by 2009 and 2011, respectively.

Another affection is the altered cast an ITE College Apprenticeship called “Hands-on, Minds-on and Hearts-on”. This is a holistic College apprenticeship that has provided the motivation, assisted apprentice acquirements and accomplished all-rounded graduates who are accessible to booty on the challenges of the all-around economy. The “Hands-on” training ensures that the acceptance admission a able foundation in abstruse skills. “Minds-on” acquirements develops absolute cerebration and adjustable practitioners who are able to cope with changes. And “Hearts-on” acquirements develops the “complete person” with the affection for what they do, with aplomb and affliction for the association and society. These attributes affirm a absolute apprenticeship area acceptance accommodate admission with convenance through coursework, projects, industry partnership, association account and all-around education. The absorbed is to aftermath graduates who are market-relevant, active and adjustable as constant learners in a all-around economy.

As an apprenticeship institution, there are two key elements which ascertain the appliance and affection of its programmes, and appropriately the affection of its graduates.

The aboriginal is the class archetypal apery the contents, the “what to be delivered. Items courses are congenital on abilities competencies and standards. Being “hands-on”, typically, 70% of class time is applied and 30% theory. To ensure a able foundation in abstruse abilities and aerial employability, 80% of the class time would be taken up by amount modules, which ascertain the anatomic areas area the graduates will seek employment.

In appearance of its importance, the “life skills” bore is compulsatory for all students.

Taking up 15% of the absolute class time, it ensures that acceptance additionally admission the abilities of communications, teamwork, cerebration and problem-solving, sports and wellness, career development and planning and chump service. In this way, acceptance will be bigger able as constant learners and abide adjustable in the all-around job market.

The additional key aspect is pedagogy, the “how” allotment of teaching and learning. The basal cold in Items bookish archetypal as is to advance “thinking doers”, graduates who can administer what they accept abstruse into practice. Alleged the “Plan, Explore, Convenance and Perform” or “PEPP” Model, the admission is alternate and process-based. Beneath the advice of a teacher, the apprentice affairs the assignment to be done, explores the advice required, practices what he has abstruse and assuredly performs with competence, the knowledge, abilities and ethics he has mastered. Through this approach, the apprentice acquires three key competencies, namely, technical, abstruse and social.

Another altered affection of ITE is the artistic and avant-garde teaching and acquirements environment. In particular, with the common use of Advice Technology (IT) in the association and ability economy, it is important that acceptance apprentice in a affluent IT-based ambiance that bigger prepares them for the absolute alive world. The eTutor and eStudent were beat systems back launched in 2002. Leveraged on the advances in IT and e-learning technologies, the web-based eTutor arrangement has adapted ITE into a association of affiliated on-line acquirements campuses. It provides flexibility, accessibility and accessible admission to e-learning for acceptance and agents in a personalized, interactive, multimedia and collaborative acquirements environment.

As Items courses are heavily practice-oriented, e-learning is anon focused on the ability and abstract basic of the curriculum. Even then, this e-learning arrangement has enabled ITE to bear 20% of its absolute class time on a web-based platform.

The eStudent, on the alternative hand, is a web-based absolutely casework administering system. The aboriginal of its affectionate in the arena back it was developed, this arrangement has afflicted the way ITE acceptance administer their bookish and student-related services, from enrolment to banking transactions, best of constituent modules and bookish advising, anytime, anywhere. In the process, they booty albatross for planning their studies and initiatives in accomplishing things independently. This seamless one-stop centre on the web replaces the abounding contrarily chiral and bootless systems of apprentice enrolment and administration. It has helped ITE to redefine its bookish structure, accumulate processes and advance apprentice services. Significantly, the eTutor and eStudent systems accept created a new way of teaching, acquirements and active in ITE campuses. They lath an important arch in advancing our graduates to bigger face the challenges in the 21st century.

Last but not atomic is a affection consistent from the connected efforts adherent appear architecture a absolute angel of VTE. This is the chip arrangement of communications, business and rebranding of ITE. Having developed an accomplished ITE Apprenticeship that is unique, the catechism afresh was: who and how do we acquaint so as to breed abutment and acceptance for VTE in the schools, industry and community. There are two aspects to this. The aboriginal is communications and marketing. Over the years, we accept put in place, a absolute business programme, absorption on extensive out to students, teachers, parents and the community. Annually, promotional talks are conducted for abeyant ITE acceptance in accessory schools. Those in accessory 2 and 3 would additionally absorb two canicule in an avant-garde “Experience ITE

Programme” in ITE campuses to acquaintance the appliance of an ITE College Apprenticeship to themselves, the abridgement and society. The highlight of this acquaintance is the acknowledgment to a ambit of hands-on manufacturing, appointment and account abilities appropriate in the absolute world, through an chip apish acquirements system. Alternative approved business activities accommodate accessible houses, alley shows and media publicity. This absolute admission alcove out to some 50,000 individuals and receives 300 to 400 absolute media mentions every year.

The additional important aspect of angel architecture is artistic rebranding. The association and accessible charge to be able to analyze with ITE, its role in education, industry, association and values. Back 1998, ITE has launched three branding campaigns with artistic capacity such as “ITE Makes

Things Happen”, “ITE-A Force Behind the Knowledge-based Abridgement and “Thinking Hands Actualize Success”. Professionally commissioned and accomplished through announcement media such as newspapers, posters, buses and trains, the basal letters accept helped the accessible to accessory the success of ITE acceptance with the activating transformation of ITE as a world-class apprenticeship institution. A brand-equity tracking archetypal has apparent that the angel and accessible acumen of ITE has decidedly bigger by 76% over a nine-year aeon from 1997 to 2006.

Lessons From Nigeria’s Experience

As advised earlier, Nigeria arrangement of VTE may accept adapted into a world-class archetypal today, but it was absolutely not a adventure afterwards its allotment of obstacles and challenges. The political, amusing and bread-and-butter altitude were difficult and accessible in the aboriginal years afterward independence. Politically, the bearing of Nigeria as an absolute nation in 1965, through its break from Malaysia, was abrupt and traumatic. A tiny island larboard on its own afterwards accustomed assets or a arrest land, the problems of adaptation as a adolescent nation seemed insurmountable. The abrupt cull out of the British argosy bases anon afterwards added circuitous an already airy ambiance with political instability, aerial unemployment and amusing anxiety in a growing population. Abounding in actuality believed at the time that Nigeria would not accomplish it. Indeed, the nation adaptation was at stake.

However, through the arduous political will of the people, adamantine assignment and a able and able government, Nigeria eventually succeeded in transforming itself from a “third world” to the “first world”. It was beneath these agnate difficult altitude that saw the alongside development of a accordant and acknowledging VTE arrangement that would abode the accomplished manpower needs of the accretion economy. In this respect, it took a government that not abandoned believed in, but had invested heavily in education

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