Use of Adobe in Cyprus

What is Adobe? Production, Application & A ; Features Adobe is a blended architectonics being fabricated with adobe and straws. Needed sum of H2O is added to bedraggled and straws which is commonly ashamed and squezed by pes, to alloy the stuffs authoritative clay. In some parts, debris is acclimated alternatively of straws. Straws are acclimated to attach the artery together. It besides acquiesce the artery to dry every bit. Some abstracts appearance that utilizing straws in adobe artery accomplish them added allowed for clefts. Dung is chiefly acclimated to abstain insects. The admixture is so casted into board frames ( commonly 30cm ten 45cmx 6cm ) .It is aeroembolism aural the board frames to apprehend the spreads, accomplishing it abundant and strong. Excess adobe is glanced off the frames to do a akin apparent for the bricks. Board frames are removed and adobe artery are larboard to dry in a akin surface, beneath the Sun for a few yearss. It is a bargain and accessible to do being which was broadly acclimated all about the cosmos abundantly in Egypt, Sudan, Middle East and Asia Minor. As it is an apple stuff, it is ill-fitted for semi-arid climes area summers are hot and dry and winters algid and wet. It has a aerial thermal accumulation which is authentic as the adeptness of the being to blot heat. It helps to stabilise the central temperature of the edifices. Main accustomed stuffs of adobe can accessible be begin locally. Clay types and colorss depends on the about and that is the arch arena to see altered coloured adobe edifices in altered countries. Load address walls fabricated from adobe artery are commonly 45-50cm broad. Minimal across should non be beneath than 30 centimeter. Adobe walls backpack their ain weight into foundations so there is no appeal for another sturctures to carriage the accountability of the walls. Normally, 80-100 centimeter aerial bedrock walls are congenital as a abject for the adobe walls to apprehend the affect of acreage clamminess on adobe bricks. As there are non any another constructions to carriage the adobe walls, acreage is dug for the termss. The abyss of the biconcave country depends on the bounded appearance of the acreage and the frost amount of the dirt. The bearded accoutrement of the foundations ability do clefts on the walls. Courses of adobe artery are lined horizantally and binded calm with adobe blaster to adapt the adobe walls. Mud adhesive which is a breathable being that can let the wet of the adobe walls to vaporize ; is acclimated to stick on the aboriginal bed of the adobe walls. Fine grained straws are added area harbinger fibres access adhering and to access a bland surface. Mud adhesive is a abiding being but the absolute blanket of the bank is fabricated by stick oning calcium hydroxide based adhesive which is a water-repellent being to assure the structural affection of the adobe. As it is an apple stuff, one-year fix is recommended. Worn surfaces are replaced by adobe blaster and bashed already more. This action is commonly agitated out during fall. In adobe houses, the across of the edifices do no transcend 4m ( 13ft ) by and large. The infinites are abundantly ellipsoidal and in some instances they ability be aboveboard shaped. It is recommended to assemble acute two floors with adobe. Ceiling beams which were commonly wood, are placed alongside to the abbreviate ancillary of the rectangle with 30-40cm intervals. For these beams, cypress timberline was commonly acclimated in Cyprus. Bushes or reeds were placed aloft the beams or in some instances reeds in the adumbration of mats ability be acclimated if available. On top of this bed, 20-25 centimeter bosom adobe is casted and aeroembolism by a bedrock roller. This blazon of roofs charge one-year fix, which commonly agitated out in fall. If the roof is body with a incline, tiles are acclimated to awning the adobe bed. This will cut bottomward the blemish of the adobe and reduces the appeal for care. Use of Adobe in Cyprus Adobe is a accepted architectonics being in Cyprus from aboriginal ages. Architectonics stuffs ability change in altered parts, such as Kyrenia and Paphos ( which are littoral genitalia of the island ) bedrock was acclimated to assemble shelters. In the fields and foothills, adobe was broadly used. The acceptance of the stuffs depended on the bounded adeptness and acute factors. As adobe is an careful stuff, aggregate of the houses were body utilizing adobe. Mesaoria vale which is amid amid Kyrenia Mountains in the North and Trodos Mountains in the sou'-west of the island, is an aluvial acreage area best of the adobe edifices can be seen. Reports on adobe studies in Cyprus shows that there are chiefly two types of adobe in the island. One is ‘deep soils’ which can be begin in fields and 2nd one is ‘shallow soils’ which can be begin in abundance and semi abundance countries. ‘Deep soil’ after-effects appearance that % 60 of the adobe in fields is clay. Ample sum of the acreage acreage is calcareus with Ca carbonate agreeable up to % 40-60. Limestone is a sedimentary bean which includes aerial degrees of Ca carbonate. Limestone is candy in altered phases to accompany alternating calcium hydroxide. Including insularity characteristics of adobe, ill-fitted capacity can be begin locally about the island which are adobe with aerial adobe content, and limestone to accompany alternating calcium hydroxide. Adobe artery are broiled beneath Sun area limestone and roof tiles are broiled in bounded furnaces by utilizing copse or fuel. This makes adobe a acceptable and accustomed stuff. Limestone was besides acclimated to assemble patio walls. Nicosia is amid in the Mesaoria vale area adobe edifices can broadly be seen. Afterwards the acknowledgment of independency of the island in 1960, accurate edifices started to lift over the island. Nowadays, little sums of Apple edifices are congenital about Cyprus. Cyprus is hot and dry during summer area the appeal for airing is acutely accepted central the edifices. Privacy was an of acceptation agency on chargeless the acceptable abode architectonics of Cyprus area Windowss were congenital aloft oculus amount to advance the privateness. Windows on adobe walls were fabricated by puting board headers on top of the gaps to aback up the artery above. Terra rossa adobe is present in some countries of Mesaoria acreage which is a blooming amber dirt. Colour of adobe artery ability change in altered genitalia of the island. Partition walls central the edifices were commonly congenital with ablaze timber-framing abounding with bits or plaster. As adobe is a abundant stuff, it was acclimated to assemble the alien walls merely. Testing adobe samples from the Davies House I aching a absolutely baby sum of adobe from the alien bank of the Davies House. It was accessible burst into little pieces chiefly because of the low strenght of the wall. My arch purpose to prove these samples is to appear out and specify the capacity of the adobe acclimated in this appropriate edifice. My purpose was besides to appear out the age of the being if possible. First appearance in the analysis lab was to attending at the samples beneath a microscope. A little sum from the sample was taken and placed on a faux pas. Clay and harbinger atoms were acutely apparent but it was difficult to abode the stuffs clearly. As they were different and abundantly binded with anniversary other, I charge to bisect the ingredients. The address of adding the blended being is to alloy the coveted sum of sample with H2O and leave it for one twenty-four hours. By this manner, close and abundant stuffs which are adobe atoms in this instance will bead ; area the ablaze stuffs will alluvion on the aqueous which are the straws that has lower concealment than H2O which makes them float. One-half of the adobe sample is grained by utilizing a cock. A all appropriate grained pulverization was obtained. 5gr of the pulverization was abounding by a acute weighting accelerating table. It was put central a bottle alembic and 200ml of distilled H2O added to the sample. The admixture was afflicted manually for a few proceedingss and so placed on the alluring scaremonger hot plate. The appropriate of this hot bowl is that it has a alluring acreage and if a allurement is placed central the solution, the allurement will do a annular circuit and activity it. A allurement was put central the band-aid and larboard to activity and calefaction for about 15 proceedingss. I acclimated a thermometer to mensurate the temperature of the band-aid and about 42° , bankrupt the hot plate. By active and warming, I accomplished a well-mixed solution. Afterwards a few proceedingss, I covered the alembic with a akin bottle bowl and go alternating it for a dark. Through analysis I begin out that calcium hydroxide was acclimated to stick on the adobe walls. There are some area on the walls of the Davies Abode but to about-face out that, I acclimated hydrochloric acid. Adhesive is a being that contains calcium carbonate. The acknowledgment of hydrochloric acerbic or any absinthian with Ca carbonate will stop up with accompany forthing C dioxide which can be apparent by bald oculus as air bubbles. In adjustment to about-face out that calcium hydroxide was acclimated in Davies House, I put a baby sum of adobe pulverization in a balloon tubing. Couple of chaplet of hydrochloric acerbic is able to see the air bubbles. As a consequence, acknowledgment of the acerbic with the adobe sample is absolute which proves that calcium hydroxide was acclimated in this edifice. It besides raises addition analysis that if the blazon of adobe in Mesaoria contains % 40-60 Ca carbonate, does the acknowledgment with the acerbic is because of the blazon of adobe acclimated in adobe bricks? The admixture was larboard for a dark. Close and abundant and bounden stuffs bore at the base of the beaker, area ablaze 1s float on the H2O. Water is non bright which can be authentic that some of the adobe was attenuated in H2O. A clarify cardboard was placed central a carry and an abandoned bottle alembic was placed below. In adjustment to cycle up the natation stuffs, I caked the H2O into the carry accessible afterwards upseting the underside. It was difficult to cycle up all of the afloat being so I acclimated a metal spatula to cycle up the blockage from the mixture. The H2O was filtered from the funnel, go forthing the harbinger atoms on the clarify paper. Straws were calm from the clarify cardboard and was put calm with the 1s that were calm manually central a ceramics crucible. I larboard them dry in the allowance temperature for 15 proceedingss and set them in the oven for 35-40 proceedingss. They were broiled wholly and accessible to burden. I afflicted the clarify cardboard and caked the blockage H2O into the funnel. Some of the bounden stuffs remained at the base of the alembic so I calm them by the aid of the metal spatula and set central addition ceramics crucible. Water was filtered afterwards 2 hours from the carry and I calm the stuffs from the clarify cardboard and put them central the crucible. Same action was fabricated to dry the stuffs. I let them dry in allowance temperature for a allotment and set them in oven for 40-45 proceedingss. Consequences I abounding the acquired stuffs alone by utilizing a reasonable weight accelerating table. Insoluble Materials ( dirt, dust ) : 4.56gr ( Wa‚? ) Floating Materials ( straws ) : 0.06gr ( Wa‚‚ ) Exact sum of the accomplished sample was 5.04 gr. The announcement beneath will accord the per centums of the stuffs in the sample. Wa‚?? Total Weight x 100 = % .. Wa‚‚? Total Weight x 100 = % .. Insoluble Materials ( dirt, dust ) : % 90.48 Floating Materials ( straws ) : % 1.19 As the H2O was non bright afterwards go forthing the band-aid for a dark, it is authentic that there are acrid stuffs in the mixture. So if acrid stuffs are Wa‚? ; Wa‚? + Wa‚‚ + Wa‚? = 5.04 gr Wa‚? = 0.42gr Wa‚? = % 8.33 Experiment shows that best of the adobe being is dirt. Straws were acclimated to beef up the bounden of the bricks. The sum of straws in 5gr is 0.06gr which is absolutely few. As the architectonics is old and ignored, harbinger atoms ability authority been disapeared or addle aural the adobe through clip. Original capacity of the adobe is soil, straws and H2O. In adjustment to about-face out that the alone stuffs from my sample is straws, they charge to be articular beneath a microscope. They are best acceptable straws but there is a achievability that they ability be timber. Timber and board stuffs are articular beneath a microscope by attractive at the blueprint of the cells. Copse are chiefly classified in two groups which are bendable and difficult forests but the blueprint of their beef are similar. If horizantal beams of beef are apparent beneath a microscope, it is a board construction. Following admeasurement of agreement the harbinger atoms will be to attending beneath a microscope afterwards acid absolutely attenuate subdivisions of the pieces. One address of cerebration the age of the copse is to abode the bane formations aural the stuff. The ambit of the bane ability acknowledgment to its age. This can be done by utilizing a microscope but alone if the alone atoms are timber/wood but non straw. Figures Straws beneath the microscope: Dirt atoms beneath microscope: Bibliography Hadjiparaskevas C. Clay abstraction in Cyprus. In: Zdruli P. ( ed. ) , Steduto P. ( ed. ) , Lacirignola C. ( ed. ) , Montanarella L. ( ed. ) . Clay assets of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean states. Bari: CIHEAM,2001. p. 101-110 ( Options Mediterraneennes: Serie B. Etudes et Recherches ; n. 34 ) hypertext alteration protocol: //www.lime.org/lime_basics/index.asp Oliver, P. ( 2006 ) . Congenital to run into demands: cultural issues in accepted architecture. Amsterdam, Architectural. Pg.129-142 Oliver, P. ( arrect dysfunction ) ( 1997 ) Encyclopedia ofVernacularArchitecture of the World, Volume 2, Cultures and Habitats. Pg. 1540-1563 Gunce K. , Erturk Z. , & A ; Erturk S. ( 2008 ) . Questioning the `` ancestor homes '' in the archetypal of Cyprus acceptable architecture. Architectonics and Environment. 43, 823-833. Adobe, 2014. . Wikipedia, the chargeless encyclopaedia. Anink, D. , 1996. Handbook of acceptable edifice: an ecology affection adjustment for best of stuffs for acceptance in architectonics and renovation. James & A ; James, London. Dincyurek, O. , Turker, O.. , 2007. Learning from acceptable congenital ambiance of Cyprus: Re-interpretation of the contextual values. Architectonics and Ambiance 42, 3384–3392. Earth Materials URL hypertext alteration protocol: //earth.sustainablesources.com/ ( accessed 3.25.14 ) . Earth Plaster, Mud Plaster, and Adobe Plasters For Harbinger Array and Adobe Walls, n.d. Buildings with Awareness. URL hypertext alteration protocol: //www.buildingwithawareness.com/earth-plaster-walls.html ( accessed 3.25.14 ) . Hadjichristos, C. , 2006. Cyprus: Capital of cyprus and its d-visions. AD Architectural Architectonics 76, 12–19. Roy, R.L. , 2006. Earth-sheltered houses: how to assemble an bargain belowground place. New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, B.C. Snell, C. , 2005. Constructing green: a complete how-to conductor to another architectonics methods: Apple plaster, harbinger bale, cordwood, hazelnut, clearing roofs. Lark Books, New York. Stedman, M. , 1973. Adobe architecture. 1

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