Traditional Malay House: Overview

The acceptable Malay abode is one of the richest apparatus of Malaysias cultural heritage. The purpose of this abstraction is to accept and assay acceptable colloquial Malay abode actuality avant-garde and the furnishings of avant-garde actual applied. Admitting the accession action transforms and changes the materials, it still maintains the aboriginal architectonics design, function, adorning element, and cultural accent to its bounded context. Literature reviews based on assorted sources apropos the acceptable colloquial Malay abode are referred, as able-bodied as interviews of the abode buyer will be conducted. To added enhance the research, the Malay houses in Kampong Bharu, Kuala Lumpur were alleged as the prime archetype of the avant-garde colloquial Malay house. Malaysia is a close acute country due to its abode in the axial allotment of the Southeast Asia. The architectonics of the roof was abrupt and it was animated is to baby the cloudburst rain division in Malaysia. Due to the balmy climate, best of the Malay houses accept ample openings on the abandon and grilles are provided at the aerial akin gable ends and the architectonics its aloft up are for blast purposes. There are three aloft elements of the acceptable Malay house, which is acclimatized into avant-garde context, namely the roof, window and pillars. The colloquial houses attempts to attach to acceptable activity appearance alike admitting it acclimated avant-garde architectonics abstracts while maintaining, the cultural and acceptable architectonics of Malay house. Nowadays the use of acceptable abstracts has diminished. Unfortunately, these acceptable qualities of Malay abode accept transformed. Hence, through the abstraction there are advantages and disadvantages application avant-garde architectonics abstracts in acceptable Malay house. While one exemplifies a abysmal cultural significance, the alternative is an actual acknowledgment to the evolving environment. It is arresting that abounding aspects of architectural styles and its applications were apparent through this case abstraction research.

Case abstraction (Kampung Bharu, Kuala Lumpur)

This abstraction is to assay the avant-garde acceptable colloquial Malay house. How is the agent Malay abode actuality transform into avant-garde colloquial houses and what is the aftereffect of abreast materials. The kampong Baru is amid in the basal burghal of Malaysia, Kuala lumpur. This is a aloof breadth for the Malay indigenous groups. From the case abstraction will begin out the acute aftereffect of application abreast abstracts in the acceptable Malay abode by the afterward questions:

  1. How is the altitude of Malaysia?
  2. How did the acute factors of Malaysia access the architectonics of the acceptable colloquial Malay house?
  3. How did the acceptable colloquial Malay abode actuality modernization?
  4. What are the acute furnishings on the avant-garde colloquial Malay house?

Introduction

In this paper, is to abstraction and assay the influences of Malaysia acute factors on the architectonics of the acceptable colloquial Malay houses. Basically it is allotment of the analysis on the acute furnishings on the abreast architectonics abstracts in the acceptable colloquial Malay houses in Malaysia. The abstraction is added focused on the adaption of the bounded altitude on the acceptable colloquial Malay houses and how the architectonics was acclimatized into avant-garde colloquial Malay houses through the accession action additionally the furnishings of application avant-garde architectonics abstracts in the avant-garde colloquial Malay houses.

During the aboriginal 20th century, accession and colonization periods the British had brought multiracial immigrants into Malaya. Then, Malaysia defines as a multiracial country that included Malays, Chinese, Indian and others. During the colonization period, multiracial accumulation is blockage separately. The majority blockage in countryside mostly is Malays accumulation and the Chinese and Indian were blockage in the city. The Malay ancestral accumulation depends heavily on the environment. Villages can be accustomed alike a distinct acceptable Malay abode and the added houses came later. Normally, the barrio that congenital carefully calm were usually ancestors members. The best cogent characteristics of acceptable colloquial Malay abode are the adaption accustomed acute factors in Malaysia.

The acceptable colloquial Malay house

The acceptable colloquial Malay abode defines as a richest basal of Malaysia cultural heritage. The barrio congenital with bounded abstracts and bounded techniques. Mostly, the addressee will alternate in the action of architectonics and construct, it is to apparent the artful abilities of the Malays.

The armpit planning of the architectonics based abundantly on Islamic behavior and its environment. The blueprint was breach into two parts, advanced and aback yards. Obviously, advanced allotment will be the affable bedfellow breadth and it is busy with altered types of accessory plants and flowers. Aback backyard is the breadth affiliated to kitchen and bathroom and it is placed abreast water, as the kitchen needs acute baptize usage. The conjugal cachet additionally reflected the architectural appearance of the architectonics because of the Islamic beliefs.

The abode anatomy had developed and acclimatized over a continued aeon to amuse best of the cultural, occupants needs and affairs changes. The acceptable Malay houses are bamboo or balk houses aloft on stilts (timber). The architectonics mostly is a column and axle anatomy with balk or bamboo walls and a thatched gabled appearance roof. There are consistently ample openings on the abandon of the architectonics to accouterment acceptable ventilation. From a ambit the acceptable Malay abode seems to accommodate artlessly with the environment. The ample gabled appearance roofs, dominates the low walls and with altered orientations and sizes created an absorbing beheld form. Overall the Malay abode is advised to baby the bounded acute factors by assorted blast and bounded abstracts that are low thermal accommodation materials. Besides the able-bodied adaption to the environment, the architectonics of the acceptable Malay houses are adjustable is to baby the needs of user and it acquired a architectonics arrangement alleged prefabricated. The architectonics has developed a adult accession arrangement that allows the architectonics can be calmly continued with the needs of the occupants.

There were assorted acceptable Malay abode forms can be begin in Peninsular Malaysia. Normally, they classified based on the shapes of roof. The basal forms of Malay abode are alleged the bumbung panjang, bumbung lima, bumbung limas and bumbung perak. The best accepted architectonics of the Malay abode anatomy was bumbung panjang that with a simple continued gable roof, accurate by the capital posts. The bumbung panjang is the simplest one of the four roof shapes and it is an oldest articular in Malaysia. The bumbung panjang anatomy became best acceptance acclimated on the Malay abode amid the poorer users and those congenital the barrio by themselves. Due to the bumbung panjang abode form, it is artlessness and become a actual able roof appearance for the building. Mostly the actual acclimated for the bumbung panjang is attap. Attap is a beard covered and angry calm with nipah and others approach copse that can calmly begin in the bounded area. The simple carry appearance of bumbung panjang roof is a actual able in blast properties. The roof can cools the abode finer is because of application the blast grilles at the ends of the gable alleged tebarlayar and the blast joints to accommodate bigger ventilation.

Besides the bumbung panjang, the bumbung lima, bumbung limas, and bumbung perak are all not agent attitude roof shapes, it has acclimatized and developed through adopted influence. Furthermore, the bumbung lima Malay abode consistently with a hipped roof, the bumbung perak Malay abode anatomy consistently with a gambrel roof and the bumbung limas abode consistently with a cone-shaped roof. Hence, they are two blazon of houses believed that were afflicted by Dutch and British architectonics during the colonization. Lastly the bumbung perak abode anatomy additionally accepted as the bumbung potongan Belanda which is a blazon of Dutch roof and it is a acclaimed roof in East Coast.

Originally, spaces in acceptable Malay houses can be afar into advanced allotment and aback portion. Therefore, the amount abode (rumah ibu) or capital breadth charge be at the advanced and the kitchen (Dapur & Rumah Tengah) breadth will be on the aback portions of the house. The selang is a bankrupt aisle covered by leaves and acclimated to be a bond accessory for the advanced and aback portions. The selang is accouterment acceptable blast and accustomed sunlight entering the house. Besides the breadth of the ancillary access to the kitchen, it is additionally a amplitude for womenfolk to associate and chat. Best of the acceptable Malay houses access there will be a covered balustrade alleged the anjung that acts as a alteration abode amid the clandestine and accessible spaces. The anjung will alone acclimated to absorb the alien visitors and it is a admired amplitude for the users to babble and rest. This attic was about 0.5 to 1 beat lower than the rumah ibu attic level. Beside the anjung was a blind verandah (serambi gantung) breadth best of the guests will be entertained actuality and it is a one footfall bottomward from the capital abode about 15 centimeters. The openings in the serambi gantung accommodate acceptable angle to alfresco and acceptance accustomed blast entering the abode breadth usually occurred circadian activities. At the serambi gantung breadth can calmly empiric the embellishments like abstraction and barbecue of openings, balustrades and bank panels. Next to serambi gantung was the rumah ibu, which is the amount breadth and it is the bigger breadth and can authentic as multi purpose breadth for best activities were conducted here. The rumah ibu attic akin was the accomplished and cleanliness breadth white the kitchen (dapur) was the everyman akin and bedraggled breadth of the house.

How is the altitude of Malaysia?

The capital characteristics of acceptable Malay colloquial houses are it is able-bodied advised to baby the Malaysia climate. From the Malay houses we can apprehension it is advised with a actual acceptable compassionate for nature. In the acceptable Malay societies, the villagers were anon access best of the assets from the accustomed ambiance for endemic architectonics materials, aliment and medicines. To accept bigger on the influences of bounded acute factors on the Malay houses, charge aboriginal accept the bounded climate, thermal requirements abundance and the altitude of the ambiance that the architectonics will build. Malaysia is amid in axial South-East Asia and has a close weather. Due to the breadth and longitude, it gives Malaysia a balmy boiling close that afflicted by monsoonal climate. The cloudburst altitude actuality comes alert a year, the aboriginal cloudburst division comes during the summer division and the alternative comes during winter season. The differences amid the two cloudburst division are summer division accompany lots of rainfalls and winter cloudburst does not brings rain and is about dry. The anniversary condensate was averaging 80 inches to 100 inches. Furthermore, the altitude actuality gives hot summer and aerial clamminess throughout the year. The temperature actuality holds about 24 Celsius to 34 Celsius, which gives balmy canicule and bogie air-conditioned nights. The anniversary clamminess akin was averaging about 75% or above. The aerial clamminess altitude causes the actual aerial baptize vapour in the air. It can clarify the solar radiation but it additionally accelerated up the rotting, and the advance of algae. The bounded wind alone comes in from northeast and southwest these two directions. Normally apprehension are in low capricious speed, aerial capricious acceleration wind will alone action back rain.

Hence, the bounded acute factors actuality were aerial temperatures, clamminess and solar radiation. Based on the bounded acute factors the architectonics congenital actuality should able to accomplish the thermal comfort. Therefore, rain, floods and able apprehension charge be ascendancy to accomplish thermal abundance in Malaysia Malay houses. For thermal comfort, calefaction will aftermath from the animal activities and metabolic process. The metabolic action will antithesis and advance the anatomy temperature (37celcius). The calefaction will absolution during the metabolism action of about-face of acceptable into energy. The calefaction accident through convection, advice and radiation can be negligible is due to the bounded temperature are about aforementioned as the anatomy temperature. Similarly, the damp is bargain and the anatomy temperature is abbreviating because of the aerial humidity. The saturated air envelope blocks the dehydration from the animal anatomy and it is calmly anatomy abnormally in boiling climate. In the architectonics blast is important because air abounding can removed the saturated air envelope in adjustment to advance evaporation. Similarity, a architectonics after any ventilation, it will access the temperature and clamminess to an afflictive conditions.

The capital sources of anatomy calefaction accepting are the bounded acute factors advice from the architectonics fabric. Absolute solar radiation is the capital sources of anatomy calefaction gaining, appropriately the able architectonics of authoritative the absolute solar radiation entering the architectonics is the best important to accomplish thermal comfort. Besides that, the blazon of abstracts acclimated is one of the aloft sources because the aerial thermal accommodation abstracts will captivated calefaction and emitted to the interiors buildings. Therefore, calefaction accretion from solar radiation charge be minimized and maximized the blast in adjustment to accomplish the animal thermal abundance in the house.

How did the acute factors of Malaysia access the architectonics of the acceptable colloquial Malay house?

Obviously, the acceptable Malay colloquial abode is able-bodied bounded acute ascendancy architectonics and it additionally influences by the bounded acute factors. A bounded architectonics of Malay abode charge accept the afterward factors charge aloft up on stilts (timber), ample aperture on side, use low thermal accommodation architectonics abstracts (wood,timber,rattan,bamboo), authoritative the absolute sun radiation, a continued thatched abrupt gable roof by attap , armpit planning and armpit layout. From the architectonics of acceptable Malay colloquial house, it is a actual acclimatized architectonics to baby the close altitude of Malaysia and it is added acceptable to the Malaysia altitude compared to the avant-garde brick house. The aloft up attic in acceptable Malay abode is maximizing the blast in the abode as able-bodied as preventing the monsoonal rain floods. The aloft attic is hardly apparent in best avant-garde abode and the affection of artlessness in the architectonics is apparent by the voids in its window, blast grills, the accessible aloft up basal and the accessible interiors. There are assorted appearance accouterment able blast in Malay house. The purpose of animated the attic on stilts is to bolt aerial acceleration of apprehension and the interiors with minimum partitions is to aerate the cantankerous blast action in the building. Normally, affection aperture and absolutely adjustable windows or louvers will beleaguer the acceptable Malay house. The carved panels on the top of the windows and lath grilles additionally an important blast device. Abaft the ventilation, the appetite on lath panels controlled the blaze entering the abode and it additionally apery the Islamic scripts. There are two able blast accessories on a simple gable roof. They are the sail-like gable-end (tebar layar) of the roof and the blast joints alleged patah both are actual able blast to absolute air to advertise the roof space. The houses in apple are about abiding and burying the timberline wisely about the abode to acquiesce accustomed breeze through the architectonics and chip accordingly with nature. The Malay abode mostly congenital far afar for approaching addendum to accomplish the needs of occupant. In the acceptable Malay house, there are added voids than accumulation and it is a failing architectonics application accustomed abstracts to baby the bounded climate. The accustomed abstracts ascertain as low thermal accommodation abstracts and it is a actual acceptable in insulating. The continued thatched roof with ample overhands in acceptable Malay abode has bargain the solar radiation and it additionally advised to abate absolute sunlight. The low walls and ample overhangs in Malay house, it accomplish the concealment easier and bargain the solar radiation additionally the blaze from he accessible skies. Besides accouterment acceptable shading, the ample overhangs additionally gives aegis adjoin active rain. The walls and overhangs accept accustomed the windows to be accessible in altered bearings weather. In addition, the alien ambiance of Malay abode mostly covered and black with copse or vegetation. This provides a acknowledgment ambiance and lessened the cogitating of blaze for the abode to set in. Traditionally, best of the Malay houses are aggressive to face East-West for religious affidavit and reduces absolute acknowledgment to calefaction from absolute solar radiation.

How did the acceptable colloquial Malay abode actuality modernization?

Nowadays, best of the acceptable colloquial Malay houses are actuality transforming into avant-garde Malay abode throughout the accession period. The Malay houses were avant-garde due to the accent from burghal redevelopment and sociality changes. The new Malay houses has altered spatial blueprint additionally the acclimated of architectonics abstracts and technique. Based on the case studies, the Malay houses in the kampong bharu were acclimatized the roof, wall, colonnade and window. The alien ambiance has additionally changes is hardly to see aerial and alpine copse alone abbreviate copse are buried there due to the bound amplitude of the compound. The abbreviate and baby copse additionally blocked best of the accustomed airflow passes through the house. Besides the changes of alien environment, the autogenous of Malay houses was acclimatized into added walls to bisect the apartment and spaces. The cantankerous blast and accustomed air movement were bargain due to the accumulation administration walls central the house.

As I mentioned above, the roof is the best cogent affection because the Malay abode were categorized based on their roof types. The Malay abode in the kampong mostly acclimated bumbung panjang compared than the alternative 3 types of roof. This is because the blazon of roof is easier to assemble and cheaper. From the armpit I accept begin some houses absolutely application altered roof for endemic capital and accessory roofs. The best acclaimed aggregate types of roof in kampong are bumbung perak with bumbung panjang and bumbung panjang with bumbung panjang. The continued gable abrupt roof has become gentler for the angled degrees and apropos the tebar layar on the gable ends of the roof were acclimatized the architectonics or bankrupt with bank panels. Traditionally, attap or lath shingles were the capital abstracts of the roof but about now avant-garde architectonics abstracts were generally acclimated than the acceptable materials. Besides the transformation of roof, the walls and the openings additionally acclimatized due to acquaint of new architectonics during the colonization period. The acceptable bank is fabricated by bamboo and the acceptable arrange of wallboard were absolutely modified. The shuttered windows on the bank are one of the cogent appearance to appearance the appropriate of Malay house. The faade of the Malay abode can be afar into 3 parts, the carved lath panels accouterment bigger blast mostly at the top allotment aloft the window, while the window or adjustable louvers consistently congenital at the average and basal parts. There are some Malay abode walls still application the balk lath but in the avant-garde architectonics brick walls are replaced the acceptable bamboo or balk lath bank is due to the aliment and continued abiding problems. There are 3 capital types of windows such as the abbreviate window (tingkap), the alpine window (jendela) and the punched window. The artful lath balustrades abaft the windows are actuality acclimated for assurance purposes. In agent of window pattern, the jendela and tiangkap window accept a key affection to allocate the windows arrangement alleged Jenang pintu. Although, the windows in Malay abode has the acceptable elements but the admeasurement of the window has acclimatized to slimmer and became afterpiece of the gap amid the windows. The western punched bottle window was adopted avant-garde bottle louvers to maximizing the blast while advancement the assurance of the house.

The acceptable stilts are no best in use back pillars are a actual important structural to abutment amount from the house. In general, the brick and able accurate colonnade were generally used, with the accretion of accurate colonnade heights spaces of beneath became added efficient. In the avant-garde colloquial Malay abode alone acclimated accurate pillars and the beneath is usually belted to accomplish the needs of user. The transformation of lath pillars to accurate pillars is due to the accurate pillars is added acceptable for acknowledging the loads.

What are the acute furnishings on the avant-garde colloquial Malay house?

After brought in the avant-garde architectonics abstracts like zinc, cement, brick, ceramics and aluminum louvers window into acceptable Malay abode has acclimatized the acceptable abode forms and ancillary furnishings of the aerial thermal accommodation materials. The aerial thermal accommodation abstracts are not acceptable in bounded altitude archetype like the zinc and asbestos roofs in Malay houses are generated added babble during the rains abatement and gives a actual hot interiors during the day. Besides the acute furnishings the acclimated of avant-garde abstracts additionally causes the abbreviating of acceptable artful abilities and techniques of creating the complicated thatched attap roof. Alternative than acclimated of zinc and asbestos materials, the bricks, adhesive and accurate are bigger abstracts use for creating walls abnormally the wet breadth genitalia and stronger structures for the house. Some of the Malay abode has a bankrupt beneath to actualize the abode to double-storey house. Such change has acclimatized the ablaze and aerial Malay abode into solid attractive building. The affection lath window has been alter by the adjustable bottle louvers window with aluminum frames. The louvers window has acclimatized the acceptable windows into abate and bankrupt the basal allotment of the window. It causes the beneath ability of ventilation. The adamant bar in louver window is for assurance purpose but it absolutely destroyed the affection of artlessness in acceptable Malay house.

Conclusion

Throughout the studies, the acceptable colloquial Malay abode was architectonics to baby the bounded altitude and it is one of the richest apparatus of Malaysia cultural heritage. Besides the adaption of bounded acute factors the houses additionally reflected the Islamic belief. The houses were developed and acclimatized until it satisfies the user. Based on the analysis they are assorted abode anatomy in Malaysia, they alone can be classified based on the roof types. Overall the acceptable Malay abode was acclimatized to the bounded altitude and it is architectonics such as accidental spatial layout, aloft up floor, affection windows and high-insulated roof. The concealment beard and frondescence about the abode additionally helps to air-conditioned bottomward the temperature in the house. The acclimatization of abode adverse to east and west was influences by the religions acumen and it helps bargain the absolute sun ablaze radiation.

In the avant-garde colloquial Malay abode was acclimatized and acclimatized to accomplish the needs of addressee but it still maintained the acceptable roof shapes. The acclimated of avant-garde abstracts was anon afflicted the abode anatomy and brought acute furnishings into the house. Secondly, acquaint of avant-garde abstracts the failing architectonics Malay abode has acclimatized into added solid attractive architectonics and it additionally causes the abbreviating of acceptable skills. Overall, the sustainably in avant-garde colloquial Malay abode was acclimatized and additionally the acceptable abode forms were changed.

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