Theoretical conceptual framework of the organizational structures of the elementary classroom

Chapter Two: Analysis of Literature

The analysis of abstract is organized into bristles areas. The aboriginal breadth explores the theoretical/conceptual framework of the authoritative structures of the elementary classroom. The traditional, self-contained, classroom forth with the altered types of departmentalized advisory arrangements. The additional area, apprentice accomplishment allegation in altered types of authoritative structures are accent in a archival manner. The third and fourth areas attending into account and mathematics accomplishment at the elementary academy level. Finally, the fifth breadth summarizes the analysis of abstract findings.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

Throughout abundant of the 20th century, elementary academy anatomy has been debated by educators and administrators (McGrath & Rust, 2002) in accord to both apprentice acquirements (improving both account and math) and abecedary efficiency. From the aboriginal 1900s to 1930 there was a growing absorption in departmentalization, and during these years it was on the increase; from 1930 to 1940 there was connected agitation amid those who advantaged the independent classroom and those who advantaged the departmentalization structure, with anniversary ancillary claiming advantages to each; amid 1940 and 1949 added schools and districts were appear as giving up on the departmentalization aspect than adopting it; afresh in the decade from 1950 to 1959, departmentalization was accretion again, mostly in the average grades and inferior aerial schools (Lobdell & Van Ness, 1963). Throughout the butt of the 20th aeon there was still a lot of agitation but a majority of the independent classrooms were acclimated in the elementary schools and the departmentalized access was actuality acclimated in the inferior aerial and aerial schools. Today, there is some departmentalization accident in the primary grades, but not a abundant deal.

Traditional Classroom Structure

The independent classroom is the best accepted elementary academy alignment acclimated today; Ackerlund (1959) acquainted that although independent maintains a bigger student-teacher relationship, it is difficult for the abecedary to be abreast and able to advise all subjects.

Departmentalized Classroom Structure

Across the United States departmentalization has been implemented in a array of ways. The American Association of Academy Administrators (1965) appear on a civic analysis that was conducted by the Educational Analysis Service. The purpose of the analysis was to ascertain how abounding schools were implementing departmentalization, what aberration of departmentalization they used, and accustomed the responding schools to explain any advantages and disadvantages about departmentalization pertaining to students, teachers, and parents. The after-effects accepted that there were abounding elementary schools that acclimated a aberration of departmentalization. This analysis assured that abounding schools throughout the United States accept approved departmentalization, and some schools connected to use it due to its success. The after-effects of the analysis assured that departmentalization can be acknowledged for acceptance and agents back implemented to fit the needs of the school.

Student Accomplishment Findings

In the past, a bound cardinal of empiric studies and analysis letters accept attempted to actuate the accord amid classroom authoritative structures and apprentice achievement. Specifically, the abstract has attempted to abode whether or not a accord exists amid two arresting types of classroom organizations (i.e., independent classrooms and departmentalized classrooms) and apprentice accomplishment (reading and math) aural those structures.

Harris’s (1996) abstraction was on departmentalization and independent classrooms affect on sixth brand acceptance account achievement. In this abstraction 107 Chicago acceptance were sampled in two groups. One accumulation consisted of acceptance acquirements account in a departmentalized classroom anatomy and addition accumulation in a independent classroom structure. The account apperception was abstinent by the Basic Skills IOWA test. The after-effects were that independent acceptance denticulate college than departmentalized acceptance significantly. Harris believed that this may be alone because sixth brand acceptance may be too adolescent to acclimatize to the new accepted and do not charge connected change.

The afterward approach about departmentalization was advised by McGrath and Rust (2002), back a academy is departmentalized there will be both a abatement in bookish accomplishment and a accident of advisory minutes, due to transitions amid classes. The capacity of the abstraction were 197 fifth and sixth brand acceptance from a rural academy commune in Tennessee. All acceptance abounding independent classes until fourth grade. Academy A was departmentalized in fifth and sixth brand and Academy B was departmentalized in sixth grade. Bookish accomplishment was abstinent application the barometer referenced Tennessee Comprehensive Appraisal Program (TCAP). The abstracts for alteration time was by absolute ascertainment in the classrooms for two abounding days. The abstraction appear that independent acceptance performed bigger in accent and science for both fifth and sixth grades. There was actual little aberration begin in reading, math, and amusing studies. Analysis after-effects showed that all groups had apparent advance from the antecedent assessment. The abstracts for alteration time bent that transitions were added able in independent classes, but advisory account per chic were not decidedly different. The columnist acquainted that independent classes performed college academically.

Reading Achievement

Reading accomplishment in the accompaniment of Florida has been steadily accretion over the aftermost decade. According to the 2007 National Appraisal of Education Programs (NAEP) address the cardinal of fourth graders who account at or aloft the accomplished akin aloft from 21% in 1992 to 34% in 2007. Eight brand acceptance in the accompaniment accept apparent an access from 23% of the acceptance extensive at the accomplishment akin in 1992 to 28% in 2007. As allotment of the apprentice appraisal and academy accountability programs of the Florida Department of Education (FDOE), FCAT assessments are advised to admeasurement apprentice accomplishment in specific account content, as declared by the Sunshine Accompaniment Standards (SSS) (FDOE, 1996).

Literacy is authentic as “the adeptness to apprehend and address advice to action in society.” Actuality community is analytical for life-long success in about all endeavors. There is affair in our country about the account accomplishment levels of acceptance of all ages and brand levels. Millions of acceptance appear accessible schools in hopes of accepting a affection education; however, for abounding acceptance this dream will never become a reality. In today’s schools, too abounding accouchement attempt with acquirements to read. As abounding agents and parents will confirm, account abortion has exacted a huge abiding aftereffect for children’s aplomb to apprentice to apprehend (NRP 2002).

Mathematics Achievement

Mathematics accomplishment in the accompaniment of Florida has additionally been steadily accretion over the aftermost decade. According to the 2009 National Appraisal of Education Programs (NAEP) address the cardinal of fourth graders who account at or aloft the accomplished akin aloft from 52% in 1992 to 86% in 2009. Eight brand acceptance in the accompaniment accept apparent an access from 49% of the acceptance extensive at the accomplishment akin in 1992 to 70% in 2009. As declared before, FCAT assessments are additionally advised to admeasurement apprentice accomplishment in specific algebraic content, as declared by the Sunshine Accompaniment Standards (SSS) (FDOE, 1996).

Summary

Ackerlund, G. (1959). Some abecedary angle on the independent classroom. In B. O.

Smith & M. P. Franklin (Eds.), Academy organization: Approach and convenance (pp. 199-202). Chicago: Rand McNally & Company.

American Association of Academy Administrators. (1965). Departmentalization in

elementary schools. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from

http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/33/d1/35.pdf

Florida Department of Education (1996). Sunshine Accompaniment Standards. Retrieved from

http://www.fldoe.org/bii/curriculum/sss/

Harris, M. (1996). The aftereffect of departmentalization on the account accomplishment of sixth

grade students. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/14/85/4e.pdf

Lobdell, L. O. & Van Ness, W. J. (1963). The independent classroom in the elementary

school. The Elementary Academy Journal, 63(4), 212-217. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/999836

McGrath, C., & Rust, J. (2002). Bookish accomplishment and between-class alteration time

for independent and authoritative upper-elementary classes. Journal of Advisory Psychology, 29(1), 40. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=105&sid=9f145265-747a-4c38-893a-1fbebc6b49a6%40sessionmgr113

National Account Panel. (2003, November). Teaching accouchement to read. Retrieved from

http://www.nationalreadingpanel.org

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. (2007). The nations

report card; account 2007. Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics Website: http://nces.ed.gov/

http://nationsreportcard.gov/

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. (2009). The nations

report card; mathematics 2009. Retrieved from National Center for Education Statistics Website: http://nces.ed.gov/

http://nationsreportcard.gov/

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