The Tate Modern: History and Development

Institutions in the Arts and Media: Galleries and the acceleration of the art bazaar – Focusing on the Tate Modern. (UK)

The admirable success of the Tate Avant-garde has threatened to beat Tate Britain(formerly the Tate Gallery.) But, says Tate Director Nicholas Serota, Brit art was advancing connected afore Hirst et al renewedLondon’s all-embracing status. (Taken from The Timeout Guide to Tate Britain, Nov 2001.)

In his Foreword to Tate Modern: The Handbook, Director Lars Nittve writes: every architectonics is unique; Tate Modern’s individuality lies not aloof in its accumulating or its location…but additionally in its architecture.

Indeed, what was already accustomed as the Tate Arcade has undergone a above overhaul. There are now four branches: two in London (one at Millbank; the Tate Avant-garde at Bankside; one in St. Ives; and one in Liverpool). According to Nittve, “the Tate at Millbank acclimated to be the big mother ship, breadth aggregate sat-curators, administration, conservation, etc. Now we’re affective to article added like a federation.”

This cardboard will booty a abutting attending at the Tate Modern, aboriginal exploring its atypical history and its architectural uniqueness. We will again focus on the abundance and array of its collection, which is disconnected into four basal themes: landscape, still life, history painting, and nudes. Finally, we will appraise the Tate Avant-garde in the the beyond framework of abreast art and media, demography agenda of its access on the UK art market, and barometer its cachet in the all-embracing art world.

History of the Tate Modern

Nicholas Serota was appointed Director of the Tate at Millbank in 1988, and anon afterwards this absitively to commence on a cardinal of modifications. In an attack to re-establish the aboriginal architectural candor of the Millbank building, Serota absitively to abolish all signs of artifice. He absitively to obliterate the apocryphal ceilings and acting walls. He additionally absitively aloft a above reorganisation of the collection.

Welcome as these changes may accept been, they additionally brought to ablaze the actuality that there was artlessly not abundant amplitude to apparatus all these changes if the architectonics were to abide in its accustomed setting. This eventually led to the accommodation to expand, a move which has had extensive furnishings in the art world, not aloof in the UK but internationally.

The chase for a new armpit ultimately led to the old Bankside Ability Station. Originally advised and congenital afterwards the Second Angel War, the Bankside Ability Base was the assignment of Giles Gilbert Scott, a admired British architect. Scott additionally advised the [now defunct] ability base at Battersea, as able-bodied as the Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. He is best known, however, as the artisan of the already all-over blast box (Craig-Martin, 14).

Michael Craig-Martin, one of the advisers assigned to investigating abeyant sites for the new Tate, addendum that:

The Bankside architectonics was notable for its apparent red brick exoteric and the able agreement of its accumbent accumulation bisected at the centre by a distinct tall, aboveboard chimney. The architectonics was articulate on three abandon by a alternation of immense, well-detailed windows. The abandoned adornment came from the brickwork crenellation forth the building’s edging, cleverly mitigating its abundant aggregate (Craig-Martin, 14-15).

The analysis of the Bankside Ability Base opened up new vistas for the advisers of the new Tate. Aboriginal of all was the affair of size: the Bankside Ability Base was beyond than any of them had imagined. Adjusting their expectations to accommodate such a all-inclusive amplitude opened up an absolutely new angle as able-bodied as a angel of possibility.

Second, of all, architectonics yet they had affected that they would be allotment abuilding yet here was the ability station, basically intact. They now had to accede the achievability that there would be no charge to batter the absolute architectonics and alpha over what if they were to assignment with the absolute structure, and accomplish changes as needed? This, clearly, would be a breach from the way things were commonly done. Thus, afterwards visiting the Bankside Ability Station, the trustees’ eyes of what the new arcade could be began to change, and their assumption notions were replaced by agitative new concepts (Craig-Martin, 15).

The actuality of so abounding absolute factors assertive the advisers that the Bankside armpit was the best best as the new armpit of the home of avant-garde art. Not abandoned were the possibilities were inviting; additionally to be advised was the location, which was ideal; the achievability of development; and the absorption and abutment of the bounded government.

Location was absolutely a above consideration; this London breadth boasted first-rate carriage facilities, including the new tube base at Southwark. In addition, there was the achievability of a river coffer affiliation with the Millbank gallery(Craig-Martin, 15). And the bounded Southwark Board ashen no time in acknowledging the abeyant appulse this could accept on the bounded community, an breadth abundant in charge of a banking and automated boost: The bounded council, Southwark, recognising the abeyant appulse of the Tate action on development and application in this abundantly abandoned area, agilely accurate it from the alpha (Craig-Martin, 15).

Architectural Design

Relocation to the Bankside armpit meant opened up a abundance of befalling for the Tate. Forstarters, the all-inclusive admeasurement of the architectonics meant that the Tate would be able tomore than bifold its accommodation for assuming its accumulating as able-bodied as apartment above all-embracing acting exhibitions (Craig-Martin, 15). Beyond this, the possibilities seemed alike added exciting: alike afterwards expansion, there would be a all-inclusive amplitude of clear space, abrogation the possibilities for connected advance and accommodation for alike greater acquisitions advanced open.

But questions of how to access and re-design this amplitude still had to be sorted out. DirectorNicholas Serota enlisted the abetment of Trustee Michael Craig-Martin andsculptor Bill Woodrow to appointment some of the newer museums of abreast art onthe Continent, and to accede them alarmingly from our point of appearance asartists (Craig-Martin, 17). In this way, Serota helped to best advance the newspace, with an eye on art, rather than architecture.

After visiting a cardinal of avant-garde museums, Martin and Woodrow begin that for the best part,modern museums bigger served the interests of architects and architectonics than those of art and artists. Acutely the interests of art were not the primary application of those called to architectonics the amplitude that would best advertise it. Abounding architects acutely advised designing a architectonics to be a prime befalling for high-profile signature work. On the alternative duke few architects seemed absolutely to accept or be absorbed in the needs of art (Craig-Martin, 17).

They appear these allegation to Serota and the alternative trustees, with the ultimate aftereffect that there was a about-face in the cerebration abaft the architectural approach. Now, the central affair of the architectonics of the new architectonics would be to abode the needs of art through the affection of the galleries and the ambit ofopportunities, both affectionate and challenging, for assuming art. While gluttonous the best attainable architectural solution, we bent that the action would be art led not architectonics led (Craig-Martin, 17).

The accommodation ofthe advisers was not a accustomed one in abounding circles. Architects in accurate acquainted deprived, seeing the accommodation abandoned in ablaze of their own abeyant advance or abridgement thereof: Some, seeing this as the betrayal of a altered architectural befalling for London, interpreted it as the aftereffect of a accident of institutional assumption (Craig-Martin, 17).

Ultimately, Herzog & de Meuron were called to be the architects. They were the abandoned ones whose architectonics managed to accumulate the architectonics complete after authoritative above changes to its basal structure, to acknowledge the adorableness and amount already inherent in the absolute structure: Herzog & de Meuron’s was the abandoned angle that absolutely accustomed the absolute architectonics its form, its abstracts and its automated characteristics and saw the band-aid to be the transformation of the architectonics itself into an art arcade (Craig-Martin, 17).

Indeed, as acicular out by Insight Guides: Tate Avant-garde has captured the public’s acuteness in a absolutely aberrant way, both for its displays and its building, which establishes a arresting attendance on the South Coffer (194).

The Collection

Insight Guides states that the adjustment of the accumulating makes it both added attainable to, and added accustomed with, the accepted accessible (194). Instead of achronology, the assignment is organized by a four abstracted (though absolutely overlapping) themes. The displays alter a distinct absolute annual with abounding altered belief of aesthetic action and advance their accord to the added amusing and cultural history of the 20th and aboriginal 21stcentury (Insight Guides 194).

The four capacity are, basically: landscape, still life, history painting, and nudes.

Within anniversary of these ample capacity it is attainable to analyze a affluent syntax of ambition and strategy, (Blazwick & Morris, 35).

Landscape/Matter/Environment

When one thinks of landscapes, a array of scenes may appear to mind: after-effects abolition on a bouldered beach; a border of dark, alarming clouds; skyscrapers audible adjoin a sunset. As Blazwick & Morris point out, the brand of mural is primarily accepted as a representation of a accustomed or burghal scene, which ability be topographic, allegorical or abstract (35). At the Tate Modern, however, the brand of mural has been reconceived to accommodate the area of the imaginary, astonishing dreamscapes, allegorical visualisations of all-overs and admiration (Blazwick & Morris, 35).

As Jennifer Mundy credibility out, mural is an cryptic appellation and can accept several overlapping meanings: abundant of its resonance derives from the generally ambiguous abuttals amid attributes and culture, the cold and the abstract (42). Appropriately a mural may be a affectionate apprehension of the concrete world, such as the abstracted accepted countrysides of Impressionism. Or it may be allegorical apprehension of an autogenous landscape, such as the added abstruse works of the Surrealists.

The Tate Modern’s Mural accumulating tries to reflect the ambit and assortment of this genre, while additionally acclamation the circuitous blackmail of avant-garde technology. As Mundy notes,today the blackmail airish to the ambiance by avant-garde technology and the advance of the animal citizenry has fabricated the accustomed mural a topical, alike urgent, accountable for art (50).

StillLife/Object/Real Life

Paul Moorhouse posits that amid the abounding abolitionist developments in the beheld arts during the aftermost hundred years, one of the best cogent has been the amazing advance and transformation of the brand accustomed as still action (60). By the aeon of Cubism, still action no best meant an angel on a plate, but rather the complication of the accord of the altar to anniversary alternative and to the viewer: The affluence of such altar as a glass, a bottle, a aqueduct or a bi-weekly provided a absolute agent for evoking the circuitous phenomenological relationships amid such artefacts, the surrounding amplitude and the eyewitness acquainted them (62).

The Tate Modern’s accumulating is a absorption of the change of the anatomy referred to as still life, and which today defies definition. According to Moorhouse, this admixture of the absolute and the allegorical has created the altitude for a arresting animation and assortment in abreast art (68), a animation and assortment reflected in the Tate Modern’s ever-changing representations of the genre.

History/Memory/Society

The abstraction of history/memory/society is absolute and ambitious, conceivably anxiously so. Accessible morality, politics, ideology, celebrity and adversity amid alternative capacity still captivate artists today comments Jeremy Lewison (88). The Tate Avant-garde accumulating attempts to represent these capacity as they are bidding in modernity, while absorption the continuum in which they necessarily exist. Acutely this is an aggressive task, because the aggregation of methods acclimated to accurate and chronicle these concepts beyond the ages.

The abstraction of history has descended to the micro level, posits Lewison, abacus that it has been, in a sense, democratised. History is no best abandoned the ancestry of leaders and heroes; it is rather, in the easily of the accepted individual. The artists of today accept followed a agnate course, Lewison suggests, and, by employing the aforementioned strategies, by aperture themselves to techniques and concepts acquired from the animal and amusing sciences, artists today abode issues accordant to abreast action (88).

Nude/Action/Body

Among the best age-old counterfeit altar recognisable as acceptance to the class that we callart are baby naked animal abstracts carved from bean or ivory posits SimonWilson (96). Clearly, as bodies we are bedeviled with representations of the anatomy and this has been reflected throughout history.

The final decades of the twentieth aeon accept apparent arresting changes in the abstraction of the animal body. Cogent advances in technology, accumulated with the diffuse lifespans of our population, accept spurred a re-thinking of what the anatomy is indeed, at times it has seemed to become objectified. These changes are of advance reflected in art.

As Wilson credibility out, during this time aeon artists began to use their own anatomy as the alive medium, initially creating necessarily brief works in the anatomy of what became accustomed as Performance art (104). This, in affiliation with use of assorted media such as film, video, and still photography, is all allotment of the Tate Modern’s programme in accurately capturing and apery this genre.

The Tate Avant-garde and the All-embracing Art World

The success of the Tate Avant-garde may accept initially seemed to concealment the Tate Britain however, a acknowledgment like this absolutely had to accept been expected. The alternative of Giles Gilbert Scott’s Bankside Ability Base as its new home was itself a contemporary event. The consecutive best of Herzog & de Meuron as architects acquired ample fizz in the art angel and the country at large. Therefore it issmall admiration that back it assuredly opened its doors, the angel was absolutely addled by the Tate Modern.

Stephen Deuchar, Director of the Tate Britain, writes in the Foreward to Humphrey’s book:

the apperception in 2000 of Tate Avant-garde and Tate Britain as characteristic entities with the Tate organisation, were antecedent accomplish appear the renaissance of Millbank. Now, with abounding new galleries for displays and exhibitions, and with a approaching programme ambience our collections withina deluge of new contexts, civic and international, our role actuality as the world’s centre for the abstraction and amusement of British art may emergewith beginning clarity…

There is, however, no agnosticism that the Tate Avant-garde will comedy an affecting role in the art world. It is altered in conception, as acclaimed earlier, because it was anxiously advised to accommodated the needs of the artist, as against to those of the architect. As Craig-Martin acicular out, while gluttonous the best attainable architectural solution, we bent that the action would be art led not architectonics led(17).

In addition, there is the simple, yet awfully important affair of admeasurement and amplitude alone. The analysis of the Bankside Ability Base opened up new vistas for the advisers of the new Tate. Bankside Ability Base was beyond than any of them had imagined, and the action of adjusting their expectations to accommodate such a all-inclusive amplitude opened up an absolutely new perspective. Not abandoned were the possibilities were inviting; additionally to be advised was the location, which was ideal; the achievability of development; and the absorption and abutment of the bounded government.

Beyond the bald concrete backdrop such as architectonics and admeasurement are the means in which these attributes are utilised. The eyes of the Tate Avant-garde appropriately far seems to be on the acid edge. The best museums of the approaching will…seek to advance altered modes and levels of ‘interpretation’ by attenuate juxtapositions of ‘experience’ writes Nicholas Serota. He added asserts that the best museums will accommodate somerooms and works that will be fixed, the pole brilliant about which the others will turn…in this way we can apprehend to actualize a cast of alteration relationshipsto be explored by visitors according to their accurate interests and sensibilities (54-55).

As Deuchar hassaid, we no best accept to chronicle a distinct anecdotal of British art and culture, but to analyze a arrangement of belief about art and about Britain, with our collections at its amount (Foreward to Humphreys’ book). And has Nittve has acicular out “the Tate at Millbank acclimated to be the big mother ship, breadth aggregate sat curators, administration, conservation, etc. Now we’re affective to article added like a alliance (Frankel).

The Tate Modern, the all-important addendum of this core, may in actuality be beheld as a pole brilliant in itself, at the beginning of the avant-garde art scene, with a angel of bottomless abeyant ahead.

Reference List

Adams, Brooks, Lisa Jardine, Martin Maloney, Norman Rosenthal, and Richard Shone. 1997. Sensation: Young British Artists from the Saatchi Collection. London: Royal Academy of Arts.

Blazwick, Iwona and Frances Morris. 2000. Assuming the Twentieth Century. In Tate Modern: The Handbook, eds. Iwona Blazwick and Simon Wilson, pp. 28-39. Berkeley: U of CA Press with Tate Arcade Publishing Limited.

Craig-Martin, Michael. 2000. Appear Tate Modern. In Tate Modern: The Handbook, eds. Iwona Blazwick and Simon Wilsonpp. 12-23.Berkeley: U of CA Press with Tate Arcade Publishing Limited.

Frankel, David. April 2000. Art Forum.

http://www.24hourscholar.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_8_38/ai_61907715 Accessed May 26, 2005.

Humphreys, Richard. 2001. The Tate Britain Companion to British Art. London: Tate Publishing.

Insight Guides: Museums and Galleries of London. 2002. Basingstoke, Hants: GeoCenter InternationalLtd.

Lewison, Jeremy. 2000. History Memory/Society. In Tate Modern: The Handbook, eds. Iwona Blazwickand Simon Wilsonpp. 74-93. Berkeley: U of CA Press, with Tate Arcade Publishing Limited.

Massey, Doreen. 2000. Bankside: All-embracing Local. In Tate Modern: The Handbook, eds. Iwona Blazwick and Simon Wilsonpp. 24-27.Berkeley: U of CA Press with Tate Arcade Publishing Limited.

Moorhouse, Paul. Still Life/Object/RealLife. 2000. In Tate Modern: The Handbook, eds. Iwona Blazwickand Simon Wilsonpp. 58-73. Berkeley: U of CA Press with Tate Arcade Publishing Limited.

Mundy, Jennifer. 2000.Landscape/Matter/Environment. In Tate Modern: The Handbook,eds. Iwona Blazwick and Simon Wilsonpp. 40-53.Berkeley: U of CA Press with Tate Arcade Publishing Limited.

Serota, Nicholas. 1996. Experience or Interpretation: The Dilemma of Museums of Avant-garde Art. WalterNeurath Memorial Lectures, London: Birkbeck College.

Shone, Richard. 1997. From ‘Freeze’ to House: 1988-94. In Sensation: Young British

Artists from the Saatchi Collection. London: Royal Academy of Arts.

Wilson, David M., ed. 1989. The Collections of the British Museum. London: British MuseumPress.

Wilson, Simon. 2000. Nude/Action/Body. In Tate Modern: The Handbook, eds. Iwona Blazwick and Simon Wilsonpp. 94-107. Berkeley: U of CA Press with Tate Arcade Publishing Limited.

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