The Strategy for Food Waste in Hk

Catalogue 1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 1. 1 The analogue of aliment decay ............................................................................................................ 1 1. 2 The sources/generators of aliment waste.............................................................................................. 3 1. 2. 1 The sources of aliment decay in Hong Kong .................................................................................... 1. 2. 2 The sources of aliment decay in oversea countries/regions.............................................................. 6 1. 3 The bearings in Hong Kong and oversea countries............................................................................. 7 1. 3. 1 The bearings in Hong Kong........................................................................................................ 7 1. 3. 2 Aliment decay bearings in oversea countries and regions .............................................................. 0 2 Finding ................................................................................................................................................ 13 2. 1 Case abstraction of HK .......................................................................................................................... 13 2. 1. 1 Abuse approaches for aliment decay in Hong Kong ............................................................. 14 2. 1. 2 Reuse/recycling approached of aliment decay in Hong Kong .......................................................... 7 2. 1. 3 Case of abuse and recycling of aliment decay in schools...................................................... 24 2. 1. 4 Conclusion of strategies in HK .................................................................................................. 27 2. 2 Abuse and strategies in oversea countries ............................................................................. 27 2. 2. 1 New Zealand........................................................................................................................... 27 2. 2. Korea ..................................................................................................................................... 28 2. 2. 3 Taiwan ................................................................................................................................... 32 2. 2. 4 Case of The East Bay Borough Utility District........................................................................... 34 3 Critical Comparison.............................................................................................................................. 7 3. 1 Comparisons ................................................................................................................................. 37 3. 1. 1 Recycle/Reuse ability ......................................................................................................... 37 3. 1. 2 Altered campaigns and laws in approaches to aliment wastes in altered countries ..................... 39 3. 1. 3 Technologies activated in aliment waste.......................................................................................... 41 3. 1. Barriers in aliment decay recycle/reuse in Hong Kong.................................................................... 45 3. 2 Recommendations ......................................................................................................................... 47 4 Conclusion........................................................................................................................................... 50 References ............................................................................................................................................. 1 1 Introduction 1. 1 The analogue of aliment decay According to the action of Aliment and Agronomics Alignment of the United Nations (FAO, 2012), all-around aliment assembly will access 70% by 2050 on the purpose of affair the demands of the growing apple citizenry beneath accepted assembly and consumption. However, there are added than one third of the aliment produced today actuality ashen or lost. Aliment ashen or aliment accident may account a ambit of issues not alone on the ambiance but additionally on association and economy. Therefore, both developed countries and developing countries address to abstain and abate aliment waste. In general, aliment decay or aliment accident refers to the aliment that is alone or absent uneaten. It occurs on all accomplish in the aliment alternation (Figure 1). In developed countries, best aliment decay occurs at the afire stage, while in developing or low-income countries, aliment is ashen during production. Altered countries or regions accept their own definitions of aliment waste, apropos to aliment decay sources, the bearings of countries, their citizenry and so on. 1 Fig. 1. The accomplish breadth aliment decay occurs (Heta-Kaisa Koivupuro, 2011) ? United Nations Aliment decay is aliment accident which occurs at the retail and final afire stages because of the behavior of throwing abroad of aliment by the retailers and consumers ( Gustavsson, J. , 2010). The accident includes biomass which is originally meant for beastly afire but eventually acclimated for some alternative purpose, such as ammunition or beastly feed. Meanwhile, aliment decay in United Nations alone consists of abridgement in comestible aliment accumulation during the production, postharvest and processing stages instead of the inedible parts. Hong Kong The analogue of aliment decay in Hong Kong still can not be unified, but aliment decay can be disconnected into two kinds at least. They are basal aliment and balance adapted food. The aboriginal affectionate of aliment decay may be calmly dealt with compared with the added kind, because it usually includes the balance raw aliment such as bake-apple peel, atom and eggshell, while the balance adapted aliment may mix up with oil, tissue and toothpick which affect the analysis methods for aliment waste. ? Australia 2 In Australia, aliment decay agency an exceptionable raw or adapted aliment alone during or afterwards aliment alertness that is no best fit for afire or adorable (Nathalie Jean-Baptiste, 2009). It includes baby adapted food, balance adapted food, vegetables and fruits peelings, beverage, abominable raw aliment and meat scraps. ? European Union In European Union, aliment decay is authentic as any aliment substance, raw or cooked, which is discarded, or advised or appropriate to be discarded. ? United States In United States, the aliment decay is authentic by the United States Ecology Prottection Agency. The analogue is extra aliment and aliment alertness wastes from residences and bartering establishments such as grocery stores, restaurants, and aftermath stands, institutional cafeterias and kitchens, and automated sources like agent lunchrooms ( United States Ecology Protection Agency, 2006). Although the definitions of aliment decay alter in altered countries and regions, the adverse impacts that aliment decay acquired are so austere that added absorption should be paid and mo re accomplishments should be taken to abstain and amusement it. . 2 The sources/generators of aliment decay Developed and developing countries absolutely decay about the aforementioned aggregate of aliment (670 and 630 actor tonnes, respectively). The aberration is at what akin in the aliment accumulation alternation the decay occurs. In developed countries, the able aggregate of decay is at the retail and customer level; in developing countries it occurs mostly at the post-harvest and processing akin due to limitations in transit, accumulator and processing. Therefore, HK, as one of the best developed areas in the world, its aliment decay mainly comes from the retail and final afire stages. 3 In adjustment to abate or abstain aliment decay effectively, the best way is to apprentice about the sources or generators of aliment waste. Because if we try best to abstain aliment decay or aliment accident from its sources, the alternative processes for abbreviation decay or accident during the afterward stages can be avoided, so that we can save money and resources. The sources of aliment decay of altered countries and regions are illustrated below. . 2. 1 The sources of aliment decay in Hong Kong The sources of aliment wase in Hong Kong can be disconnected into two parts, aloft antecedent and alternative sources. Table 1 shows the altered sources and their apparatus and characteristics. The aloft antecedent is calm or residential. According to the accomplishment of Friends of The Earth, calm aliment decay accounts for 70% of all aliment decay produced in Hong Kong, with an aggregate of 2,300 tonnes per day (Friends of The Earth, 2009). The affidavit for calm aliment decay are various. For example, aliment is bargain or some bodies may authority the abstraction that back agreeable others to dinner, they accept to adjustment added than abundant so that they would not lose face. Table 1. 1 Sources of aliment decay in HK Aggregate of decay Antecedent Aloft Apparatus Characteristic (tons/day) Baby adapted aliment Supermarkets and Cooler aliment Undes irable raw aliment Baby adapted aliment Balance adapted aliment Including accidental and Residential/Domestic Vegetables & fruits peelings assertive Cooler Undes irable raw aliment 4 Best are Accidental 90 2,300 Meat debris Balance adapted aliment Vegetables & fruits peelings Restaurants and Cooler hotels Undes irable raw aliment Meat debris Vegetables & fruits peelings Cooler Aliment industry Undes irable raw aliment Meat debris Balance adapted aliment Cooler Schools Vegetables & fruits peelings Meat debris Accidental are comestible or comestible afore spoilage/damage) Assertive are inedible aliment actual like vegetable peels, bones, etc. assertive Including accidental and 41 assertive Including accidental and 900 assertive Including accidental and 964 The aloft antecedent is calm or residential. According to the accomplishment of Friends of The Earth, calm aliment decay accounts for 70% of all aliment decay produced in Hong Kong, with an aggregate of 2,300 tonnes per day (Friends of The Earth, 2009). The affidavit for calm aliment decay are various. For example, aliment is bargain or some bodies may authority the abstraction that back agreeable others to dinner, they accept to adjustment added than abundant so that they would not lose face. The alternative sources are supermarkets and stores, aliment industry and schools. The aliment industry consists of aliment chains, Chinese restaurants, hotels, bakeries, supermarkets, markets, aliment producers and so on. The industry produces 900 tonnes of aliment decay per day (Friends of The Earth, 2009). And schools accomplish 15,000 tonnes of aliment decay per year. Meanwhile, aliment decay in Hong Kong can be afar into two kinds at source, they are 5 non-recyclable affectionate which includes glasses, tinfoil, adhere film, carton boxes, artificial bottles, aluminum cans and tin cans, and recyclable kind, including meat, bones, bread, rice and noodles, vegetable, bake-apple and egg shells (Figure 2). Fig. 1. 2 Breach of aliment decay at antecedent (EPD, 2011) 1. 2. 2 The sources of aliment decay in oversea countries/regions In Australia, the aliment decay mainly comes from domiciliary or residential with an aggregate of about 3 actor tonnes per year. About 20% of aliment will b e befuddled abroad afterwards its acquirement in Australia In European Union, aliment decay are from households, supermarkets, restaurants and the aliment accumulation chain. Over 50% of comestible and advantageous aliment in EU is ashen anniversary year and the aggregate is 89 actor tonnes per year. 6 Fig. 1. 3 Sources of aliment decay fir cereals, by arena (Agree, 2011) Unlike the developed countries, aliment decay in developing countries is generated at lower levels. Figure 3 added articular the antecedent akin of aliment waste. From it, we can see that in the developed countries like Europe and North America, about 60% of the aliment decay in atom atom articles occurs at afire stage. Conversely, in the developing regions, like South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, added than 60% of aliment decay 1. 3 The bearings in Hong Kong and oversea countries 1. 3. 1 The bearings in Hong Kong According to the accomplishment of EPD, in Hong Kong, about 3,584 tonnes aliment decay are produced everyday, accounting for a third of all solid decay in Hong Kong. One third of them originates from 7 bartering and industry (C&I) sector, and the actual comes from households. So households aftermath above aggregate of aliment decay in Hong Kong. The aggregate of aliment decay from C&I sectors has increases added than bifold in the aftermost decade, from 400 tonnes in 2002 to 1,056 tonnes in 2011 (Figure 4). Also, we can see from Fig. 2 that bazaar actuate 29 tonnes comestible aliment everyday. Fig. 1. 4 Basal aliment decay bearings in HK (EPD, 2012) Aggregate 5 futher illustrates a austere affair in Hong Kong. About 3,200 tonnes of aliment are beatific to landfill every day, which equals to the accommodation of 126 bifold buses, and the aggregate for accord with aliment decay is added than 2 actor per day. What‘s more, if the aggregate continues to increase, the landfills in Hong Kong could ability accommodation in 2013. Therefore, the bearings of aliment decay in Hong Kong is not annoyed and the endless of Hong Kong‘s landfill are too heavy. Every being in Hong Kong should apprehend this bisect bearings and try best to abbreviate aliment decay in circadian life. 8 Fig. 1. The bearings of aliment decay in Hong Kong (Hong Kong Stories, 2011) Accepted trend of aliment decay in Hong Kong is illustrated in Aggregate 6. In Aggregate 6, Line 1 represented bartering and automated aliment waste, Line 2 represented calm aliment decay and Line 3 represented borough solid waste. From the aggregate below, we can accomplish that in Hong Kong, the aggregate of calm aliment decay has been bargain in the able 10 years, while the bartering and automated aliment decay has kept action up decidedly and accounted for 30% of borough solid decay in 2009, which is 20% added than that in 1999. The ascent aggregate is absolutely a austere botheration and added absorption should be paid in adjustment to abate aliment decay and the accent of landfill. 1 2 3 Fig. 1. 6 Aggregate of borough solid decay in Hong Kong (FoE, 2010) 9 The affidavit why the aggregate of aliment decay is appealing ample and why it becomes a astringent affair are listed below: ? Abounding diners accept added aliment on the bowl than they can eat. According to Greeners Action‘s survey: alone 13 percent of responders can accomplishment aggregate in their plates and about 87 percent of them consistently larboard some aliment behind, 44 percent of these respondents say that they about larboard over 30 percent or more. Especially, at buffets and all- you-can-eat sushi or hot pot restaurants, assemblage can be tempted to accumulation too abundant on their plates. ? Disposing is cheaper than appliance or re- using. For example, the unsold vegetable and bake-apple will be dumped accustomed alike some of them are still beginning in the abutting day, because the labour aggregate of acrimonious is college than the account of selling. 1. 3. 2 Aliment decay bearings in oversea countries and regions ? All-around Fig. 1. 7 All-around aliment decay (PWC, 2012) 10 In Global, aloof like the allotment of aliment decay in Hong Kong, one third of the aliment is ashen or discarded. Aliment decay in automated countries is as aerial as in developing countries, but in developing countries added than 40% of the aliment losses action at column autumn and processing levels, while in automated countries, added than 40% of the aliment losses action at retail and customer levels.. Aggregate 8 shows that the per capita aliment accident in Europe and North-America is 280-300 kg/year. In sub-Saharan Africa and South/Southeast Asia it is 120-170 kg/year. The absolute per capita assembly of comestible genitalia of aliment for beastly afire is, in Europe and North-America, about 900 kg/year and, in sub-Saharan Africa and South/Southeast Asia, 460 kg/year (Jenny Gustavsson, 2011). Fig. 1. 8 Aliment decay in altered regions (Jenny Gustavsson, 2011) ? Korea Korea has a actual abbreviate history (less than 10 years) for aliment decay recycling by its own way. In Korea, the allotment of aliment decay which is alone calm is over 80%. Although the analysis techniques are avant-garde and over 80% of calm aliment decay is accustomed to feedstuff and compost, the appeal of the articles is low in the able association and the artefact bearings is difficult. Nowadays , Korea has reconsidered its recycling adjustment to assemble a new and acceptable structure. ? Taiwan 11 The aliment decay recycling technology in Taiwan is additionally about complete with an eight-year history. Now Taiwan recycles an aggregate of aliment decay agnate to the aggregate of decay candy circadian in two 900-tonne incineration plants. The aliment decay which accounts for 75% of absolute aliment decay calm is adapted into pig augment and 24% aliment decay is composted. The blow 1% is advised for alternative uses. ? U. S. In the U. S. , added than 34 actor tonnes of aliment decay was generated in 2010 (U. S. Ecology Protection Agency, 2012). Aliment makes up the bigger allotment of decay action into borough landfills and combusted for action accretion in the U. S. (Fig. 9). Fig. 1. 9 Aliment decay in the U. S. (U. S. Ecology Protection Agency, 2012) ? Australia In Australia, the aggregate of aliment decay alone per year is about 3 actor tonnes and 95% of compostable items are aliment decay (Australia Institute, 2005). The aliment decay assembly added by 0. 5kg/w in 2007 compared to that in 2004 (3. 7kg/w). Sydney, the burghal with the larest citizenry in 12 Australia, generates a aerial agreeable of aliment decay in their accepted bins with abutting to 50%. Another abstraction is begin to assay the aggregate of aliment decay in Australia. Australia wastes added than $5. 2 billion in aliment a year (Penny Pryor, 2011). This is absolutely a lot of money and it suggests that the bearings of aliment decay in Australia is additionally serious. The abstraction concludes that t he bigger and best acknowledged motivator to abbreviation aliment decay in Australia is extenuative money. Fig. 1. 10 Aggregate of aliment decay in Australia (Penny Pryor, 2011) ? Europe Excluding agronomical aliment decay and angle discards, about 90 actor tonnes of aliment is ashen annually or 180 kg per capita per year in Europe. It has been projected that if no action is taken, the aggregate of aliment decay in Europe will ability 126 milling tonnes by 2020. 2 Finding 2. 1 Case abstraction of HK 13 2. 1. Abuse approaches for aliment decay in Hong Kong There are abounding approaches are proposed for the abuse of Aliment decay in Hong Kong. But best of them are proposed by autonomous organization. And a accepted guideline for abridgement and administration of aliment decay for aliment account institutions are proposed by Greener Action: Fig 2. 1 The guideline for aliment decay abridgement and administration from Greener Action And alternative approaches or organizations for abridgement of aliment decay include: Aliment Coffer Agriculture Hong Kong is the alone aliment coffer in Hong Kong committed to redistributing surplus aliment to bodies in need. By accouterment a arch amid the aliment industry and the athirst of Hong Kong, they accommodate a band-aid that accompanying cuts aliment decay and feeds those best in need. Fig 2. 2 The mission of Agriculture Hong Kong from the website of Augment Hong Kong 14 Aliment Angel Besides, Aliment Angel is a aliment accomplishment and abettor diplomacy which advice to abate the bearing of aliment decay in Hong Kong. They affix aliment producers and accommodating organizations in bounded communities to ensure able aliment accouterment to the underprivileged. Aliment Recycling Sche me Aliment Recycling Adjustment is a pilot aliment accumulating diplomacy operated by CTU Apprenticeship Foundation Ltd. The adjustment is aim to aggregate and action unsold beginning aliment from bazaar and accomplish adorable vegetarian cafeteria which offers to unemployed trainees in training centre at lower price. It can save over 30,000 kg of ashen aliment yearly. Foodlink Foundation Bound is a registered non-profit alignment which is aim to action ache and abjection by aspersing aliment wastage. The alignment collects surplus and donated aliment from assorted hotels and F&B outlets and delivers it to shelters and to the needy, thereby breeding a acceptable food-recycling system. The Foodlink operation is as follows: Fig 2. 3 The Foodlink operation from Foodlink The autonomous organizations additionally launched several activities to enhance accessible acquaintance of abridgement of aliment waste, like the ? Save Aliment Day on Wednesday? proposed by Greeners Action and ? Adjustment Beneath Decay Less? proposed by Friends of the Earth. 15 Fig 2. 4 The affiche of Save Aliment Day on Wednesday from Save Greeners Action Fig 2. 5 The photo from the website of Friends of the Apple Implementation: These accomplishments are accessible to abate the bearing of aliment waste, but there is no assertive aggregate of the abridgement aggregate of aliment decay by these actions, and afterwards the advice of government, the accomplishment is limited. 16 2. . 2 Reuse/recycling approached of aliment decay in Hong Kong Kowloon Bay Pilot Composting Bulb To accumulate acquaintance and advice on accumulating of antecedent afar aliment decay and the appliance of biological technology to recycle aliment decay in Hong Kong, the Ecology Protection Department developed the Pilot Composting Bulb (KBPCP) at the Kowloon Bay Decay Recycling Centre (KBWRC) in mid-2008. Implementation: The absolute analysis accommodation of the KBPCP is 500 tonnes of aliment decay feedstock per year and about 100 tonnes of admixture artefact will be produced. Fig 2. 6 Analysis Action of KBPCP from website of EPD Food Decay Recycling Partnership Adjustment EPD launched the ? ‘Food Decay Recycling Partnership Scheme‘‘ calm with bartering & automated (C&I) sectors in 2009 to advance acceptable aliment decay administration convenance and to accretion acquaintance on aliment decay antecedent breach and recycling. Implementation: During the operation of the ? Aliment Decay Recycling Partnership Scheme‘, 17 participants practised aliment decay antecedent breach and placed the afar aliment decay in the appointed accumulating bins provided by EPD at the assigned accumulating credibility for collectio n by EPD to the KBPCP for recycling. EPD was amenable for charwoman the accumulating bins. At present, the participants of the adjustment already access to 70. Fig 2. 7 Affiche of Aliment Decay Recycling Partnership Adjustment from website of EPD Amoebic Decay Analysis Accessories The Ecology Protection Department (EPD) has absitively to advance the Amoebic Decay Analysis Accessories (OWTF) which will be developed in two phase. The OWTF will accept biological technologies – composting and anaerobic assimilation to balance the amoebic decay and about-face it into admixture and biogas for recovery. The biogas produced in anniversary appearance of the OWTF could be acclimated as renewable energy. A armpit chase to locate acceptable sites for the OWTF was completed. The proposed sites for the aboriginal appearance and added appearance of the OWTF are amid at Siu Ho Wan of North Lantau and Shaling at North District respectively. 18 Fig 2. 8 Artist's Impression of the Amoebic Decay Analysis Accessories from website of EPD Implementation: The absolute circadian analysis accommodation of OWTF is 400-500 tonnes of amoebic decay per day, and about 28 actor kWh of surplus electricity can be supplied to the ability filigree per year. The aboriginal appearance of the OWTF may be able in 2 or 3 years, it can amusement 200 tonnes of amoebic decay (mostly aliment waste) per day. 19 Fig 2. 9 The action of anaerobic assimilation from website of EPD Electrical Composter Some of the assortment in bartering & automated sectors are now alone in situ by electrical composter proposed by EPD. Aliment decay is putted into a automated digester - through beverage and alternative processes to about-face best of it into baptize and carbon dioxide aural one day. And the balance will be beatific to landfill. Implementation: The composter can abate the aggregate of aliment decay beatific to landfill in some extent, but there is not assertive abstracts for the abridgement aggregate as the composter can be purchased from clandestine producer. 20 Fig 2. 10 The electrical composter—Gomixer from Hong Kong chocking on aliment decay Aliment Decay Recycling Projects in Apartment Estates Ambiance and Conservation Fund (ECF) has allocated $50 actor as subsidy and has launched a allotment project, ? Aliment Decay Recycling Projects in Apartment Estates? , to animate the afar accumulating and recycling of aliment decay from households in July 2011. Implementation: 11 estates were accustomed allotment abutment in the aboriginal appearance with a absolute allocation of about $9 million. The accommodating estates accept accustomed subsidies to undertake on-site analysis of antecedent afar aliment decay and to animate households to abate aliment waste. And it is estimated that about 45 added estates could be covered in the added phase. Besides, EPD has additionally commissioned the Hong Kong Productivity Council (HKPC) to accomplish a help-desk account for the abeyant apartment acreage applicants and those accommodating aliment decay separation, accumulating and recycling Government departments. The casework include: ? acceptable in identification of a acceptable armpit for installing the aliment decay analysis ability aural the apartment acreage above-mentioned to academic application; ? accouterment able and abstruse advices to abeyant applicants or accommodating government departments during planning and, accomplishing stages; and ? administering appraisal of performance, adequacy and outcomes. 21 Fig 2. 11 The affiche of Aliment Decay Recycling Projects in Apartment Estates from website of help-desk account for aliment decay recycling action in apartment estate Food decay recycling technology-Bokashi Greeners Action alien the aliment decay recycling technology-Bokashi from New Zealand in 2010, this technology can advice bodies actuate their aliment decay at home. Implementation: Added than 170 households has bought this aliment decay recycling system, and some pilot projects accept been launched in schools and residential breadth in these two years. 22 Fig 2. 12 The affiche of Bokashi from website of Greeners Action Alone recycling aggregation Blooming Abstraction is a recycling aggregation in Yeun Long which collects acclimated academy cafeteria boxes and separates and recycles both the aliment decay and artificial container. Generally, they can recycle about 800 bags of academy cafeteria boxes every day, which can abate the aliment decay in some extent. Fig 2. 13 The branch from we bsite of Blooming Abstraction Kowloon Biotechnology Ltd is a recycling aggregation appliance the aliment decay to aftermath feedstuff. It can recycle about 50 bags every day to aftermath altered affectionate of feedstuff. Hong Kong Amoebic Decay Recycling Center is a aggregation which can action a alternation of recycling account for amoebic waste. They use the avant-garde technology combing the adventures from bounded able and oversea countries to accommodate a advice in recycling of aliment decay in Hong Kong. 23 Fig 2. 4 The branch from website of HKOWRC 2. 1. 3 Case of abuse and recycling of aliment decay in schools 2. 1. 3. 1 The bearings of aliment decay in schools Solid decay is disconnected into some 60 categories at present, of which the ? dining articles fabricated of plastic/poly- foam? covers basically all types of disposable aliment and alcohol containers and cutlery. In 2007, the aggregate of such decay we disposed of amounted to about 199 tonnes per day. Disposable aliment containers are usually fabricated of non-degradable abstracts that will breach in apple consistently and adulterate the environment, which increases the adversity of recycling of aliment waste. . 1. 3. 2 The cold of Blooming Cafeteria adjustment To abate the bearing of aliment decay and assure our environment, schools can advice by cartoon up and adopting a acceptable blooming cafeteria action based on the assumption of ? Reduc ing Abuse and Aspersing Wastage?. 2. 1. 3. 3 Analysis of meal adjustment in schools Meal arrange in schools can be mainly disconnected into two types by the containers they used: reusable or disposable containers. Reusable containers beggarly those are able-bodied and abiding abundant for again abrasion and reuse. Meals served in reusable containers may be portioned either on-site or off-site, namely, Central/On-Site Portioning and Off-site Portioning. Central/On-Site Portioning Adapted aliment is delivered by cafeteria suppliers to schools in bulk, and again re- acrimonious and portioned in-situ for administration to students. 24 Fig 2. 15 Central/On-Site Portioning from Blooming Cafeteria Guideline Off-Site Portioning Adapted aliment is able and portioned at the kitchens of cafeteria suppliers and delivered to schools in cafeteria boxes according to the aggregate ordered. Fig 2. 16 Off-Site Portioning from Blooming Cafeteria Guideline . 1. 3. 4 Proposal for central/on-site portioning in schools The central/on-site portioning is bigger than off-site portioning in abounding aspects. Therefore, schools are proposed to activated central/on-site portioning in adjustment to abate abuse and abbreviate wastage. The allowances of central/on-site portioning in schools include: 25 ? All dining articles acclimated including trays, dishes, bowls, chopsticks, knives and forks, etc. are washable and reusable. Basically, no disposable containers and cutlery are used, which increases the abeyant of recycling of aliment waste. The aggregate of aliment portioned can be flexibly adapted on appeal by students, which can abate the abeyant of bearing of larboard over by student. And the aggregate of cafeteria supplied can be adapted according to the extra generated, which abate the aliment decay and diffusion considerably. According to agents and students, bistro at canteens is abundant added blithesome and agitative than in classrooms, accouterment a altered amusing action for students. ? ? Fig 2. 17 Photo from Blooming Cafeteria Guideline 2. 1. 3. 5 Implementation—an archetype of academy of central/on-site portioning St. Edward‘s Catholic Primary Academy is a acknowledged archetype applying central/on-site portioning. The academy spent about a year for the adjustment of central/on-site portioning; the alertness works accommodate the alternative of able abode for central/on-site portioning and the cafeteria supplier, and advice with the student‘s parents. Afterwards the appliance of central/on-site portioning, the aggregate of aliment decay has been bargain and best of them can be recycled. Besides, the aliment decay breach and accumulating processes enhance the ecology acquaintance of students, and the 26 isposable lunchbox is not acclimated for cafeteria anymore. Fig 2. 18 The bearings of central/on-site portioning in St. Edward’s Catholic Primary Academy from Blooming Cafeteria Guideline 2. 1. 4 Conclusion of strategies in HK The EPD has proposed several schemes for the reclaim or recycling of aliment decay in contempo years, including strategies of accumulating and recycling facilities. Therefore, we may anticipation that the accretion aggregate of aliment decay will be about-face into advantageous artefact or renewable action by able separation. But for the action of abuse of aliment waste, best of them are proposed by autonomous alignment afterwards the authoritative help. 2. 2 Abuse and strategies in oversea countries 2. 2. 1 New Zealand The government supports and subsidizes households to reuse/recycle the aliment decay on-site. Non-edible aliment decay is consistently composted either through a accumulating service, with home composting or with a bastard farm. A analysis of households in 2007showed that 79% boutique in a way to anticipate aliment wastage, 63% backpack out home composting and 10% accept a bastard farm. And one 27 f the agency to anticipate aliment diffusion for supermarkets and grocery aliment is altruistic the aliment to the autonomous organizations, like Aliment not Bombs which uses their alone aliment to augment bodies at blur nights and markets. Kai to Admixture is a aliment decay accumulating adjustment for restaurants and businesses. The adjustment collects aliment decay from restaurants and takes it to the Living Apple bulb at the Southern Landfill, breadth the actual is alloyed with blooming decay and acclimated to aftermath compost. It was initially a balloon adjustment with government allotment but is now a user pays adjustment involving 50 businesses. Up until the end of 2006, the Council had calm 456 tonnes of aliment waste. Fig 2. 19 Kai to Admixture accumulating barter 2. 2. 2 Korea Korea government has banned absolute landfill of the aliment wastes in 2005 and has paid abundant accomplishment to body up the accumulating adjustment and reuse/recycling accessories for aliment waste: a. The reuse/recycling methods of aliment waste: Afar accumulating adjustment of aliment wastes at source: 28 b. Dry Feedstuff Production: c. Wet Feedstuff Production: 29 d. Compost: e. Anaerobic Assimilation Facility: 30 Besides, Afar auctioning of aliment decay is now accurately mandatory. The decay collectors can debris to aggregate the aliment debris or accomplished the dumper if the debris was not afar well. Through this absolute aliment wastes abridgement plan and banking abutment for installing aliment wastes recycling facility, the recycling aggregate of aliment decay is already up to 94% in 2005, from 45. 1% in 2002. And in Seoul, the accession aggregate of aliment decay is up to 100% in 2008. For the abridgement of aliment waste, Seoul is about to alpha a balloon run of ample automated receptacles that counterbalance the aggregate of aliment debris deposited into them by anniversary domiciliary and accuse accordingly. Fig 2. 20 “Pay-by-volume” apple-pie Q adjustment for aliment decay 31 And the auctioning of decay baptize generated by the processing of extra aliment into the sea will be banned from 2013, according to the Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime affairs. The Ministry of Ambiance started to focus on the biogas bulb which can about-face the decay baptize into apple-pie ammunition in contempo years. 2. 2. 3 Taiwan Since the budgetary year 2001, the EPA has been subsidizing the bounded town, canton and burghal governments to authorize their kitchen decay accumulating and recycling programs. In 2007, the kitchen decay recycling diplomacy has been congenital into EPA's "2007-2012 Accessible Development Program-General Decay Resource Recycling Advance Program", in adjustment to accomplish able analysis of all calm kitchen decay and to accompaniment the ? Zero Waste? policy. The schemes for reclaim or recycling of aliment decay include: [1] Apprenticeship and Advance of Kitchen Decay Recycling Diplomacy Advance "Green Bistro Habits – Kitchen Decay Abridgement Campaign"; Train kitchen decay recycling apprenticeship berry instructors, and conduct on-the-job training for accomplishing organization's amenable personnel; ? ? ? Work with schools, communities and ecology groups to conduct education, promotion, affirmation and training activities; ? Adapt promotional brochures and handbooks to advise association how to conduct kitchen decay sorting, accumulating and reuse; ? ? Advance kitchen decay recycling on the radio, cable TV and account media; Authorize kitchen decay recycling webpages on central, canton and burghal governments' websites. [2] Authorize Kitchen Decay Accumulating and Busline Adjustment ? Implement kitchen decay accumulating and busline from households, schools, aggressive bases and correctional facilities; 32 ? Modifications or purchases of debris trucks for use in kitchen decay recycling, and purchases of kitchen decay recycling buckets; ? ? Design accumulating zones, routes, busline modes, and advance accumulating goals; Authorize acting accumulator sites for calm kitchen waste, acquirement alteration mac hinery and charwoman equipment; ? Adapt affirmation of a better-performing bounded government program, advance accumulating adjustment and man-power input. [3] Authorize modes of kitchen decay reclaim ? Reclaim of kitchen decay as pig augment afterwards aerial temperature sterilization, or use as amoebic fertilizer afterwards composting; Inspect pig farms acceptable to use recycled kitchen decay as augment to ensure able augment sterilization and pig immunization; ? Authorize bounded kitchen decay reclaim factories/sites, such as aerial temperature sterilization facilities, composting sites, anaerobic digesters etc. ; ? ? Transport kitchen decay to admixture and admixture manufacturers to aftermath amoebic fertilizers; Enhance the affection and technologies of the admixture produced by bounded governments‘ composting plants; ? Accommodate allurement abetment and subsidies to clandestine breadth to animate enactment of kitchen decay recycling and reclaim facilities. 4] Advance markets for recycled kitchen decay articles ? ? ? Authorize abiding affection and abundance abstracts for recycled kitchen waste; Advance and appraise assurance analysis and tests for kitchen decay recycling and reclaim products; Advance and appraise alternative achievable kitchen decay reclaim options, such as axis into feedstuff or accept anaerobic fermentation; ? Assignment with Council of Agronomics and alternative bounded governments' agronomics competent authorities or associations to accordingly advance kitchen decay reclaim means. 33 Fig 2. 21 Admixture Bulb in Taiwan Besides, in adjustment to abide the kitchen decay recycling efforts and abetment the bounded governments in establishing adapted kitchen decay reclaim system, the afterward kitchen decay circadian accumulating and reclaim goals accept been set amid 2007 and 2012: Table 2. 1 kitchen decay circadian accumulating and reclaim goals Implementation: At present, all 319 bounded boondocks and belt governments civic are implementing the kitchen decay recycling program. Through the accumulated efforts of EPA and bounded governments, the recycling aggregate of aliment decay is up to 36% in 2008 and 1977 tonnes of kitchen decay in Taiwan is recycled every day in 2009. Of the methods acclimated to amusement aliment waste, about 75% undergoes beef analysis to accomplish pig feed, while 24% enters composting systems and 1% undergoes alternative processes, like incineration. 2. 2. 4 Case of The East Bay Borough Utility District 34 The East Bay Borough Utility District (EBMUD) of the San Francisco Bay Breadth has done a abundant job in converting aliment decay to methane gas and afterwards to energy. The East Bay Borough Utility District‘s aliment decay action activity turns consequence of aliment decay to action through absolutely accustomed process. The eco affable adjustment helps bodies catechumen their aliment decay to methane gas. EMBUD advance the accustomed action like the Muckbuster to about-face the raw aliment decay to apple-pie energy. Muckbuster is an anaerobic digester from a blooming close alleged the SeaB and turns bare aliment items into apple-pie energy. The alembic like adjustment has the adequacy to recycle bisected a ton of aliment decay to accomplish the aggregate of action appropriate to run 150 computers. Muckbuster is outfitted with avant-garde technologies to access methane from aliment decay through a biological process. The methane is afterwards flowed through a calefaction and ability adjustment to aftermath electricity. Fig 2. 22 Muckbuster Anaerobic Digester from Ecofriend Besides, the East Bay Borough Utility District (EBMUD) collects and carries the attic decay into its plants to aftermath energy. Every year in the U. S. , afterwards the Halloween, abundance of pumpkins will move to the landfalls. This aliment decay is additionally recycled in EBMUD. The bacilli breakdown of the attic decay forth with alternative aliment decay will aftermath methane gases, which can be acclimated to aftermath energy. 35 Fig 2. 23 Attic Ability from Ecofriend The EBMUD was accustomed in 2007 with a admission of $50,000 by the EPA to animate it advance new methods for digesting aliment decay to aftermath methane gas. The ability produced by the EBMUD is acclimated to run the bounded decay baptize analysis plant. Fig 2. 24 EBMUD’s archetype of axis decay into action from Ecofriend 36 3 Critical Allegory 3. 1 Comparisons Mountains of aliment decay are a growing botheration in abounding flush countries. In Hong Kong, breadth bodies adulation to eat out, extra aliment takes up abundant of the bound amplitude in burghal landfills. So the judgement for Hong Kong recycle/reuse efficiency, technologies activated and strategies or behavior conducted with across countries is actual significant. 3. 1. Recycle/Reuse ability In fact, the abstracts of aliment wastes bearing per being per year in altered countries are different. In New Zealand, about 258,886 tonnes of aliment decay goes to landfill anniversary year. That works out to be 64kg per being per year. And that's aloof in New Zealand. At the meanwhile, it‘s about 70kg per being per year of aliment decay in UK. And the US gets a cardinal of about 82kg per being per year dumped into the landfill. In addition, there are several abstracts about aliment decay by altered country apparent in Aggregate 3. 1. Aggregate 3. Aliment decay in altered countries (kg/cap/year) In application of the citizenry in HK, we can account the aliment wastes per being per year. According to the Census and Statistics Department in HK, the citizenry of HK is 7,136,300 by 37 Mid-2012. By the analysis of EPD website, there is about 3,584 tonnes aliment decay produced in Hong Kong every day. And 3200 tonnes of aliment amid it is beatific to landfill anniversary day. So 3584tonnes ? 1000kg /tonnes 7136300 3584tonnes ? 1000kg /tonnes 7136300 3200tonnes ? 1000kg /tonnes 7136300 3200tonnes ? 1000kg /tonnes 7136300 ? 365 = 197kg being /year, = 0. 0kg being /day of aliment decay bearing and ? 365 = 164kg being /year , = 0. 45kg being /day of aliment decay dumped into landfill would be the results. From the allegory of the abstracts above, we can accomplish that HK is one of the bigger bearing areas of aliment decay in the apple and that the best important and able way is abbreviation the aliment decay bearing rather than recycling and reusing approaches which are additionally indispensable. We accept that the residuals are absolutely recycled or reused in a acceptable way. The recycle/reuse ability would be like that: 3584 ? 200 ? 100% = 11% 3584 That is to say the recycle/reuse ability of aliment decay in HK is 11% at most. Table 3. 1 Aliment decay recycling ante in developed Asian nations. Country Korea (2005) Japan (2007) Taiwan (2008) Singapore (2008) Anniversary Aliment Decay Generated (ton) Circadian Aliment Decay Generated 4,755,220 20,000,000 1,899,379 568,000 13,028 54,795 5,190 1,556 38 (ton/d) Anniversary Aliment decay recycled (ton) Circadian Aliment decay recycled (ton/d) Aliment decay recycling rate, % Citizenry (million) Circadian Aliment Decay Generated per capita(kg/d/ca) Circadian Aliment Decay Recycled per capita(kg/d/ca) 0. 6 0. 09 0. 08 0. 04 0. 27 0. 43 0. 23 0. 31 48 127 23 5 94 20 36 12 12,246 10,956 1,889 186 4,469,907 4,000,000 691374 68000 Whereas, Table 3. 1 about illustrates the aliment decay recycling ante in developed Asian nations. With the ascertainment of this aggregate and the affected recycle/reuse ability in Hong Kong, we can get the abstraction that the aggregate of strategies implemented and the technologies activated processes bigger in a country order: HK, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan, and Korea. 3. 1. Altered campaigns and laws in approaches to aliment wastes in altered countries 39 3. 1. 2. 1 Korea 1994: Alpha composting affirmation projects in 12 cities. 1995: Korean government accustomed the ? Board for the Administration of Aliment Waste‘ 1996: Kyonggi Province declares ? War adjoin aliment waste? 1999: Aliment decay accumulating in Suwon Burghal (Kyonggi Province) 2002: Authorize a autonomous acceding for aliment decay abridgement ( in affiliation with FIFA apple cup) 2005: Absolute land- bushing of aliment decay has been banned 2006: 2,520 bags of livestock and aliment decay per day was dumped into the ocean 3. 1. 2. 2 Japan 2001: Aliment decay recycling law 2004: Bounded aliment decay composting in Sendai 2006: Recycling of Amoebic Decay in Aya Boondocks – accomplished 20%, food-related business has to abide an anniversary address to address how the aliment decay is advised 2007: Revised of Aliment decay recycling law Co. 2007: 7-11 ancestor aggregation + Agri Gaia Adjustment about-face aliment decay into beastly feedstock 3. 1. 2. Taiwan 2001: EPA starts aliment decay recycling in government departments 2003: Taipei starts aliment decay recycling action 2006: Able Taiwan (309 towns and townships) agitated out aliment decay accumulating and recycling 2007: 2007-2012 Accessible Development Program-General Decay Resource Recycling Advance Diplomacy 3. 1. 2. 4 Singapore 2003: Aliment from the Heart started the Aliment administration Programme 2007: IUT + NEA + Veolia aggregate aliment decay from markets 3. 1. 2. 5 Hong Kong 40 2009: Aliment Decay Recycling Partnership Adjustment 2011: Aliment Decay Recycling Projects in Apartment Estates From the campaigns and laws mentioned above, we can deduce that Korea, Japan and Taiwan alpha to recycle or reclaim the aliment decay in 1995, 2001, 2001 respectively. They alpha to recycle and reclaim the aliment wastes abundant beforehand than that in Hong Kong although there is a amazing aggregate of aliment decay breeding every day. Aloof in 2005, Absolute land-filling of aliment decay was already banned, however, up to now, there is still a ample aggregate of aliment decay beatific to the landfill for dumping. Actually, a few years ago, the access in admixture was already conducted in Korea, Japan and Taiwan. Whereas, Hong Kong uses this technology aloof in contempo years. . 1. 3 Technologies activated in aliment decay Nowadays best of calm aliment decay has been recycled to admixture and beastly feedstuff. A actual baby allotment is acclimated in anaerobic digestion. Table 3. 2. Altered technologies acclimated in altered nations Country Feedstock Composting Anaerobic assimilation Others Korea(2005) Japan(2007) Taiwan(2007) Singapore(2008) 54. 4% 50. 0% 77. 6% 75. 5% 29. 7% 45. 0% 21. 8% 2. 4% 1. 4% 5. 0% N. A. 22. 0% 14. 4% N. A. 0. 6% 0. 1% Aforementioned bearings appears in Korea, Japan and Taiwan that they recycle aliment decay to augment the livestock at aboriginal footfall and to admixture secondly. But the technologies activated in Singapore may be a little altered that the aliment decay is delivered to augment livestock and again delivered to the anaerobic lagoon. The three altered technologies in recycling or reusing the aliment decay are advised by the afterward illustrations. 41 3. 1. 3. 1 Aliment decay composting Composting is one agency of abbreviation the problems associated with landfills, incinerators, and alternative aliment decay auctioning methods. There are as abounding altered agency to admixture as there are bodies who compost! There are four basal accommodation bare to compost: Oxygen, Water, Carbon ("Brown actual such as copse chips, amber leaves, or disconnected newspaper), and Nitrogen ("Green" wet decay such as grass clippings, or bake-apple and vegetable debris from your kitchen). If you accept these ingredients, you can admixture at your home, office, or school. Aggregate 3. 2 shows how aliment decay flows in a composting way. Aggregate 3. 2 Aliment decay flowchart in composting way from http://www. wastereduction. unc. edu/CampusRecycling/FoodWasteComposting. aspx For aliment wastes compost, there are some allowances and deficiencies in it. Allowances of Admixture 42 ? ? Enriches soil, allowance absorb damp and abolish bulb diseases and pests. Reduces the charge for actinic fertilizers. Encourages the assembly of benign bacilli and fungi that breach bottomward amoebic bulk to actualize humus, a affluent nutrient-filled material. ? ? Reduces methane emissions from landfills and lowers your carbon footprint. Admixture is a bankable artefact Besides the analogy above, households, businesses and institutions may save money by composting items such as aliment debris while sending beneath decay to landfills and incinerators. In addition, you can alike get the aftereffect from diplomacy compost. Deficiency of Compost: If aliment decay is not congenital into the clay it loses nitrogen to the atmosphere and may absorb beneath nitrogen than the compost. Composting requires a time charge to appropriately administer the windrows to aftermath affection compost. Specialized backbone turners may be required, but they can appear at with a aerial aggregate tag. The composting armpit and accumulator for accomplished artefact can use a ample breadth of land. Money and time may be spent advertising, packaging, and managing the business. 3. 1. 3. 2 Augment animals The agriculture of aliment decay or debris to barbarian and alternative livestock animals is a accepted convenance throughout the apple and is about concentrated about burghal centers. Aliment bowl decay (formerly referred to as garbage) may be fed to alternative livestock species, but has best about been acclimated as a antecedent of augment for swine. Aerial auctioning costs and fees animate the agriculture of food/plate waste. The advantages in applying this admeasurement are listed below: a) It can annihilate a ample aggregate of aliment waste. 43 b) It can save the agriculture aggregate by replacing the fodder. c) Elevate the ante of appliance assets . 1. 3. 3 Anaerobic assimilation If 50 percent of the aliment decay generated anniversary year in the U. S. was anaerobically digested, abundant electricity would be generated to ability 2. 5 actor homes for a year. With the casual of Halloween, millions of pounds of pumpkins accept angry from seasona l decorations to debris destined for admixture abundance or landfills. The adventure is a little altered in Oakland, California. Thanks to the beat assignment of the East Bay Borough Utility District (EBMUD), alone pumpkins and alternative aliment decay are acclimated as a antecedent of renewable electricity. How is that possible? First, decay haulers accumulate post-consumer aliment decay and bear it to EBMUD‘s anaerobic digesters. Inside these behemothic tanks, bacilli breach bottomward the aliment decay and absolution methane gas as a byproduct. EBMUD captures this gas and uses it to accomplish electricity in onsite generators. A ton of aliment decay provides about 367 m3 of gas, and digesting 100 bags of aliment wastes bristles canicule a anniversary can accomplish abundant electricity to ability 1,000 homes. Once the aliment decay has been digested, the actual debris accomplish an accomplished accustomed fertilizer, so they can be acclimated to get abutting year‘s attic crop started. Figure 2. 9 shows how it works. Aggregate 3. 4. shows how the aliment decay is recycled or reused in a anaerobic digested way. Firstly, the aliment decay from industrial, bartering and schools will be collected. And again it will be beatific into Centralized Anaerobic Digestion. Afterwards the anaerobic assimilation for aliment waste, it will be adapted into two admired products, renewable ener gy and fertilizer, which is acclimated to accumulation electric ability and alongside abate the GHGs from atramentous afire in the thermal ability bulb and alter clay respectively. 44 Aggregate 3. 4 Aliment decay flowchart in anaerobic assimilation way. The claim for anaerobic assimilation are listed below: a) Generated biogas can be recycled and utilized. It can be acclimated anon as a ammunition or for biogas ability generation. b) c) Assimilation residues (ie, balance sludge) can be acclimated as primary amoebic fertilizer raw materials. The concentrated carrion dewatering clarify can be acclimated as bulb fertilizer or aquaculture utilization. d) e) f) The odor is accessible to ascendancy and adamantine to escape. Compared with the admixture product, organics can be added absolutely and appropriately composted. The analysis aftereffect is abiding and acceptable for engineering applications. 3. . 4 Barrie rs in aliment decay recycle/reuse in Hong Kong There is a ample accommodation of aliment decay bearing in Hong Kong as aloft mentioned. Alone a assertive baby allotment is disposed in a Blooming way and the alternative allotment is about dumped into the landfill. This will not alone accept an adverse aftereffect on our ambiance but additionally account the assets waste. Why 45 does the bearings in HK act like this? Aboriginal of all, the aggregate of aliment decay bearing in HK is above and above while EPD is alone apperception in the technologies of aliment decay recycle/reuse rather than abbreviation aliment wastes from the sources. The abridgement of apprenticeship in aliment wastes may be the added reason. Hong Kong is a multi-cultural burghal with abundant restaurants. However, the accessible lacks the abstraction of extenuative food. In neighbouring countries like Korea and Taiwan, the boilerplate aliment decay aggregate per being is 20-30% less. Thirdly, the cardinal of able behavior in Hong Kong alien to the aliment decay administer ment is lower than some alternative countries. A action in Taiwan alleged ? 2007-2012 Accessible Development Program-General Decay Resource Recycling Advance Program? was conducted to accomplish able analysis of all calm aliment decay and to accompaniment the ? Zero Waste? policy. In Guangzhou, ? Interests bind system? (????? ) was alien that association who were demography an alive allotment in the debris classification, organizers and sanitation workers would access a assertive aggregate of money according to the allowances of recycled resources. So it absolutely makes a affiliation amid households and debris allocation and encourages bodies to be added motivated in absorption our environment. Fourthly, the contempo aciculate access of exceptional and hire are boring the development o f recycled aliment wastes. In 2001, EPD promotes a programme alleged Ambiance and Conservation Fund ? Community Decay Accretion Projects? which is admiring by lots of communities to participate. However, the aciculate aggregate in advancement the projects about after-effects in the end of the affairs lifetime. Fifthly, the technologies in recycling and reusing the aliment wastes are not developed actual able-bodied and abounding programmes are aloof on the way. In Japan, TM Corporation invented ERS (Environmental Recycling System) that is a High-Speed Composting (Fermentation & Drying) Adjustment which can catechumen a accumulation of amoebic bulk or decay into value-added articles such as fertilizer or beastly augment aural 2-24 hours. While in Hong Kong, it usually takes bisected a ages in converting the aliment wastes 46 to composts. In Sweden, 35% of the recycled aliment is adherent to be brewed with methane to accomplish electric power. Aftermost but not least, the majority approaches in recycling the aliment decay in Hong Kong is composting. The government additionally encourages the genitalia to catechumen the aliment wastes to composts. However, the composts offered by the genitalia were adamantine to be begin the markets. Abounding bodies who absent their basic in admixture advance anytime are not assured with this technology. In addition, Aliment decay is consistently alloyed with accepted decay in the kitchen e. g. plastics, knife, cans etc and aliment decay barrels is usually too abundant to move. And for best of the hotels and restaurants, added accumulator amplitude is bare for aliment waste. 3. 2 Recommendations The botheration of aliment decay is not alone about abstruse issues such as decay treatment; above that, cultural capacity like the abstraction of afire and beastly accord with attributes are complex too. Moreover, the band-aid to it should not be belted to alone action; government action and alike cultural change should additionally comedy a cogent role. From two frameworks in abbreviation aliment decay in UK and US as references, the suggestions for the solutions abundant beneath are in a aforementioned adjustment which are apparent in Aggregate 3. 5 and 3. 6. 47 Aggregate 3. 5 The aliment decay pyramid from http://www. companyshop. ltd. uk/corporate-social-responsibility/disposal-route. aspx Aggregate 3. The aliment decay pyramid from US. http://www. epa. gov/foodrecovery/ The government or the organizations faced with aliment decay should accomplish some accessible account advertisements about the impacts on the environment, actualize a website to brainwash accessible in aliment decay abridgement and alike can adapt some activities to enhance the people‘s apperception of the aliment decay ability and craving in alternative countries. In addition, the association should set up a actual abstraction for the aliment consumption. 48 An alignment alleged Aliment Angel in Hong Kong is alive accomplished in abbreviation the aliment decay from source. It collects aliment from all segments of aliment industry which is usually deserted due to some reasons. Then they adapt advantageous comestible meal boxes in their own able kitchen and assuredly bear the meal boxes to individuals and families in need. The government should animate and accolade the organizations like Aliment Angel who can abate the aliment decay from sources. The government should accomplish several able behavior on the aliment waste. Adjustment of rewards and penalties to the alms organizations and bartering companies associated with the aliment decay should be set up. And added programme on abbreviation the aliment decay from sources should be agitated out and encouraged to be conducted. In addition, new and aerial ability technologies should be fabricated an accomplishment to develop. Furthermore, due to the aerial aggregate including exceptional and the hire for aliment decay recycling, EPD should accord a duke like access the aggregate of subsidy to the board to advice them to about-face the corner. About speaking, in application with the nowadays bearings in HK, the adventures from Korea and Japan can be a acceptable archetype to apprentice with. We deduce that the aliment decay recycled in Hong Kong should chase in this order: 1) Augment animals; 2)Used to compost; 3)Deliver to the anaerobic lagoon. The acumen for the aboriginal one is that the animals can accept a acceptable assimilation with it and alone accomplish admixture rather than leachate or decay residuals. The acumen for the added one is that able admixture may agreeable the bazaar and additionally abate a assertive aggregate of aliment decay to be dumped into landfill. The aftermost acumen is that afterwards the anaerobic assimilation it‘ll accomplish electric ability which can be acclimated by association and can additionally abate the carbon dioxide from atramentous afire in Tsing Yi Ability Station. In addition, new and aerial ability technologies should be fabricated an accomplishment to develop. To access best cost-efficiency and the everyman appulse on the environment, the aggregate of 3 capital technologies in nowadays should be conducted as well. To accomplish the technologies run cautiously and 49 smoothly, aliment decay allocation should additionally be in abysmal consideration. At the meanwhile, bodies who are accustomed by EPD may accept the appropriate to admission back they analysis the allocation of the aliment waste. In the future, we may transform aliment decay into laundry detergent, artificial ingredients, and a host of accustomed products, in a analysis that may affluence burden on the city's billowing landfills. According to the analysis fabricated by an ecology scientist at Burghal University of Hong Kong, aliment decay can be adapted into bioenergy that can be acclimated to accomplish calefaction and electricity, and at the aforementioned time abate the aggregate of aliment decay destined for landfills by at atomic 50%. 4 Conclusion While our neighbor—Koran and Taiwan fabricated an abundant accomplishment in the aliment decay problem, Hong Kong aloof started to focus on this affectionate of botheration because of the full- amount of landfills by 2018. The accumulating and recycling strategies activated in contempo years may abate the aggregate of aliment decay beatific to landfill. But as Hong Kong is one of the bigger bearing areas of aliment decay in the world, it is still ambiguous whether the recycling aggregate of aliment decay can bolt up with the present accretion aggregate of aliment waste. Therefore, the government should pay added absorption on the abuse of aliment decay and the cooperation with actionable alignment to abate the bearing of aliment decay in the future. With both the strategies of abuse and reuse/recycling, the aliment decay prob lems can be apparent finer in Hong Kong.

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