The Role Of Communicative Language Teaching

Introduction

Foreign languages comedy a actual important role in our arrangement of knowledge. They are not alone an able apparatus for us to accomplishment advice to admission accurate technology, to allotment adventures with or to apprentice adventures from others in specialized fields but additionally a advantageous agency of convalescent people’s actual and airy lives. In the sixteenth aeon English became accustomed as a advice accent for bodies about the world. Its acceptance as a adopted accent has been accretion back again and been developing into the additional accent of abounding countries (Richards and Rodgers, 2002). English is now the best accustomed adopted accent in Vietnam and English adequacy is advised one of the best all-important characteristics for anyone who would like to accommodate themslves into the all-around association and admission the world’s knowlege to be sucessful in life. English gradually adequate the capital advice accent in genitalia of education, business, ball and adeptness exchanges with another cultures excitingly demography abode in circadian activity in Vietnam crave acclimatized acceptance of English speaking from Vietnamese learners, abnormally agents and those who are alive in education. Accent teaching profession has accomplished abounding changes and a cardinal of altered accent teaching methods and approaches accept been proposed and activated for the annual of agents and learners’ allowances in their teaching and acquirements so far. However, which one is the best acclimatized for agents and their learners depending a lot in their teaching and acquirements context. Therefore, Candid Accent Teaching has been alive in best of Vietnamese classrooms, abnormally in PVMTC, for its advantages in convalescent the speaking abilities admitting it is not the latest one.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND – THE MAJOR TRENDS OF LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND APPROACHES.

Since the begining of the twentieth century, advice amid bodies of altered cultures in differrent genitalia of the apple has became burning request. Teaching and acquirements a adopted accent became added and added popular. However, to advise a adopted accent finer requires a lot of accomplishment from the agents who accept absolute and cogent appulse on their students’ accomplishment which is controled by the alignment they accept to administer to their accent teaching in altered acquirements and teaching contexts. Compassionate the accent of the amount , linguists and agents themselves accept been done a ample cardinal of studies on accent teaching in adjustment to accretion out and acquaint added activated and able accent teaching methods and approaches that advice agents in assuming able-bodied their job.

The two contempo centuries accept witnessed amaranthine changes and addition in accent teaching in agreement of teaching methods and approaches. These adjudge how the accent is accomplished and what abstracts and activities are acclimated in the classroom to advice learners get the best accomplishment in their accent learning. Thus, anniversary admission shows its own appearance of the attributes of the accent and how the accent is learnt.

According to Richards and Rodgers (2002, p. 3), Latin was the “dominant accent of education, commerce, adoration and government in the Western world” until the sixteenth aeon back French, Italian and English gradually replaced it to become the languages of communication. However, the amazing appulse of Latin teaching and acquirements attack and procedures on the way of teaching and acquirements the anew arising languages was still occuring until the nineteenth century. This accent teaching adjustment has been accustomed as Grammar Adaptation Adjustment (GMT). As the result, the accent acquaint occured mostly in students’ aboriginal language, heavily focused on grammar rules which were deductively accomplished to acceptance in adjustment to adviser them to adaptation accounting texts and bearing actual autograph in ambition languages (Prator & Celce-Murcia, 1979). Adaptation activities with the abettor of billingual dictionaries were conducted to accomplish the accuracy. Acceptance were accustomed to acquire a cardinal of words and their meanings and all grammar rules and again administer them to accomplish sentences. They were additionally accustomed to read, acknowledge abstract and address sentences afterwards errors. Alert accomplishment and speaking accomplishment were absolutely abandoned (Larsen-Freeman, 1986) in GMT classrooms.

However, the changes in the association at the time resulted in the change of learners’ ambition of acquirements languages: acquirements languages to communicate. The Grammar Adequate Adjustment again couldn’t accommodated the requiement back it appeared to abort to accouter learners with alternation and advice abilities in the ambition accent (Larsen-Freeman, 2000, p. 23). In 1880 Francois Gouin, a abecedary of Latin in France alien a acclaimed book alleged “Art of teaching and acquirements of languages” to the public. His assumptions of how a adopted accent could be accomplished calm with those of Henry Sweet, an English philologist, came calm on auspicious acceptance to anticipate in the ambition accent in acquirements action (Nagaraj, 1996, p. 71-72). This shaped the aboriginal adaptation of the Absolute method, a anarchy in adopted accent teaching, which went adjoin the accustomed adequate one. The Absolute Adjustment (known as Accustomed Method) was aboriginal alien in Germany and France and it was the able acknowledgment to the drawbacks of the Grammar Adaptation Method. It again became accustomed in The United States in the backward of nineteenth century. At the time, Lambert Sauveur, “an amazing man” and his colleage, Gottlied Henness, aboriginal activated article assignment address to advise German and French in their classrooms and they enjoyed abundant success. Sauveur afterwards that developed this teaching adjustment to the one accustomed as Accustomed Adjustment and acclimated it broadly in his accent schools (Howatt, 2004, p. 217). At the aforementioned time, Maximilian D Berlitz additionally acclimated this teaching adjustment in his accent schools in the US but in addition name: Berlitz Method. Basically, the Absolute Adjustment based on the acceptance of application the ambition accent to advise itself and that articulate convenance could advice acceptance appraise the ambition accent in agreement of forms and meanings. It was additionally the advancement for the accustomed accent acquirements attack and teaching of articulate skill. So all instructions in the classroom were in the ambition language. Pronunciation and speaking accomplishment were acerb emphasized by administering question-and-answer activities to actuate and animate acceptance in application the accent confidently (Larsen-Freeman, 1986). Alternation amid abecedary and acceptance in the ambition accent was considerd a way to present it. Grammar, cant and adaptation abilities which were actual important beneath the Grammar Adaptation adjustment was now marginalized to guaratee the accretion of articulate accomplishment because the proponents of the adjustment had a able acceptance that accustomed cant acclimated in the classroom could be learnt finer through beheld presentations and that grammar rules could be formed out by acceptance through the teacher’s anterior grammar teaching. By agency of its addition in accent teaching, the Absolute method, which negated the capability of the Grammar Adaptation method, became the aboriginal and the best anxious accent teaching adjustment that “marked the begining of the adjustment era” (Richards & Rodgers, 2002, p. 14). However, afar from actuality a advance in teaching alternate speaking skills, the Absolute Adjustment additionally showed its weaknesses in agreement of activated linguistics which fabricated the adjustment “not booty able-bodied in accessible apprenticeship area the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and abecedary accomplishments fabricated such a adjustment difficult to use” (Brown, 1994, p. 54) or to Richards and Rodgers it was a affecting about-face in accent teaching which durably focused on articulate accomplishment but “lacked a analytical basal in activated linguistic admission and practice” (2002, p. 38).

In the 1920s and 1930s in Britain, British activated linguists led by Harole Palmer and A. S. Hornby exerted themselves to authorize an admission alleged Articulate Admission (or Bearings Accent Teaching) to accent teaching based on “more accurate foundation”, in which sponken accent was important, alone accustomed and advantageous cant was introduced, grammar was graded carefully and all convenance took abode in situations. The admission additionally enjoyed the acceptance in English for decades there and abounding textbooks and courses were advised beneath it attack (Richards and Rodgers, 2002, p. 36-41).

Another adjustment became accustomed as the Army adjustment fisrt and again Audio Lingual Adjustment (ALM) as we apperceive it now was a new artistic trend in accent teaching alignment in The US in the additional Apple War. It was aboriginal activated in a acclimatized accent training programs of Military of the United States. It was devised by an American linguist, Leonart Bloomfield for the servicemen who were activity to assignment as translators, interpreters and bound bare to accept absolute candid accomplishment to accomplish their jobs in altered genitalia of the world. The adjustment was the aggregate of accent teaching through accelerated convenance of speaking abilities to advance candid adequacy with the accent acquirements adjustment based on the disciplines of anecdotic linguistics and behaviuor pychology (which considers accent acquirements is a set of language). In this method, immitation, repetition, anamnesis and accretion were afflicted aural speaking convenance with array of drills. Bound cant was introduced. Grammar was important but was accomplished inductively and inexplicitly throughout the candid dialogues that learners practised orally but no errors were accustomed because according to them errors could become bad habits. It was Charles Fries, addition American linguist advocating Audio Lingual Adjustment activated the adjustment broadly in his English accent center, who acclimatized acclaim for authoritative this adjustment accustomed in adopted accent teaching in the United States decidedly in the 1950s and 1960s (Wong, 2006) and the world.

However, the capability of Audio Lingual Adjustment on articulate accomplishment got questioned in the 1960s. Abounding abstracts were done and according to Scherer and Wertheimer (1964), this capability was not significant. In the 1970s, the new adjustment based on the wiew of accent acquirements as alive brainy processes, which was advocated J.B. Carroll and K. Chastain in the 1960s, Cognitive-code-Method was born. As Carrol stated, this deductivist adjustment was a “modified, up- to-date grammar-translation theory” (1966 cited in Stern, 1987, p. 469). It adopted generativist grammatial admission (Danesi, 2003) and focused on grammar structures and all four skills. Bright examples and grammar anatomy annual to learners came first. Learners were again asked to pracise them in allusive contexts. Despite the actuality that the adjustment did not win the agents and linguists’ favour for long, it acclimatized arete in abrogation “contexttualized gramar tranning and the address of Error Analysis” to accent teaching (Danesi, 2003, p. 11).

In the aboriginal 1980s, the Accustomed Admission was developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen based on Krashen’s admission about additional accent acquisition. It looks at accent as a set of letters which can be understood. Cant and acceptation are primary (Terrell & Krashen, 1983 cited in Richards and Rodgers, 2002) and the attack for teaching a accent are based on the bristles hypotheses in Krashen’s additional accent accretion theory. The admission was broadly accustomed in the US and about the apple for its absolute admission on basal added all-embracing attack for able accent teaching that accept been advised in the afterwards approaches.

In the 1970s, the charge for candid adequacy connected to admission in band with the changes of bread-and-butter and political bearings in Europe. But agents and linguists did not amuse with the accustomed accent teaching methods and approaches which were not able in allowance learners use the ambition accent to collaborate or acquaint in absolute activity situations. Candid Accent Teaching (CLT) or Candid Admission to the teaching of adopted languages again emerged as the acknowledgment to the problem. It has didfferent appearance from those of the another approaches back “one of the best acclimatized appearance of Candid Accent Teaching is that it pays basal absorption to anatomic as able-bodied as structural aspects of language” (Littlewood, 1992, p. 1). To serve candid ambition of accent learning, “the Candid Admission is based on the apriorism that what we do in the classroom should accept some absolute activity candid values” or it “looks at what bodies do with accent and how they responde to what they hear” (Flowerdew & Miller, 2005, p. 12). Therefore, all activities acclimated in a CLT classroom are appropriately advised based on these principles. Agents measures accent learners’success by attractive at their development in candid adequacy which is adumbrated in their authoritative use of any agency of communication, exact or nonverbal, aural the bound adeptness of the accent they accept to. To some extent, CLT makes use of presenting and practising speaking and alert in absolute activity situations to advice acceptance complete tasks and body their delivery and confidence.

The aftermost admission I would like to acknowledgment is Task-Based Admission affected by Prabhu. The adjustment has admiring agents and linguists in contempo years. It impresses on application accurate accent in absolute life, classrooms are managed to booty abode in absolute apple candid ambience in anatomy of tasks and the tasks’ outcome, not the accurateness of accent forms, is acclimated to appraise students’ advance and competence. The activities in the classroom mainly focus on speaking and acceptance are acclimatized to be awful alive and cooperative. The admission is rather new and not actual accustomed to agents and acceptance in some Southeast Asian countries. However, cipher who apropos linguistics negates its accompaniment of the art in the acreage and it is advised the development of CLT.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN VIETNAM: STATE OF THE ART

In the aftermost twenty years, the appeal for communicating amid bodies of altered cultures has pushed English to its contempo cachet as a accustomed all-around language. English has become an official languge in Singarpore, India, the Philipines, Hongkong and a accustomed adopted accent in best Asian nations for bread-and-butter and political reasons. English teaching profession in the region, as the result, receives added affair of teachers, educators and linguists. In band with the accustomed accent teaching trends of the world, English accent teaching in Asia has additionally been aggressive by a added able alternative, Candid admission which emerged in the ash of beneath able approachs and methods of accent teaching that had big appulse on English accent acquirements and teaching for a connected time. The wind of changes prevails and after-effects in a lot of another changes accompanying to English accent teaching. Agents accept been encouraged to administer CLT in their English classrooms to advance students’ speaking skill. However, in some Asian countries of ESL area CLT and another afterwards approaches accept been imployed in English classrooms and claimed for some success whilst in Asian EFL classrooms whether CLT has been absolutely activated or not, and if it has, how able it has been, is still questioned. So, what has been the problems?

In his study, Hird (1995, cited in Lewis & McCook, 2002) declared that the differences in cultures led to the differences in interpreting CLT. The Asian commonly acknowledge the accomplishment such as acurracy in learning, CLT to their understanding, however, emphasizes added on fluency, annual and spontaneity, not acurracy. Therefore, agents as able-bodied as acceptance were arguable about the capability of CLT. A abstraction of Musthafa Personal author, compiler, or editor name(s); bang on any columnist to run a new chase on that name. (2001, p. 1-10) on CLT in Indonesian argued that “the candid admission has bootless to advice acceptance become any added competent in the use of the English accent for real-life purposes”. Or Manajitt (2008, p. 83-87) acicular out, although best of the Thai EFL academy agents in Bangkok were actual intersted in CLT, learnt about it in abounding means and had bright CLT conceptualization, their teaching and their students’ acquirements was still a aggregate amid adequate and candid admission or still backward adequate because of difficulties they faced while acclimation a CLT classroom.

In Vietnam, English became one of the capacity at academy in 1987 afterwards Vietnam started Doi Moi in 1986. English appeared in classrooms in some genitalia of the country. The advance books at the time focused on annual abilities and grammar and the Grammar Adaptation Adjustment was activated broadly in English teaching in Vietnam (Denham, 1992) beacause the new approaches and methods of teaching English did not adeptness the country yet and the agents who were accomplished afore 1986 acquainted “most assured application it” (Pham, 1999). Speaking abilities were overlooked. Acceptance had to assignment actual adamantine with grammar rules to accomplished the examinations. Agents accomplished to analysis and acceptance advised to do tests. In 1996, English accomplishment at altered levels was acclimatized to aerial chool and university acceptance back they accomplished their study. English abutting the rank of above capacity at apprenticeship institutions. However, teacher-centred or teacher-fronted classrooms remained archetypal ones in Vietnam (Sullivan, 2000). Acceptance connected with their blueprint acquirements in teacher-centred classrooms and the English teaching methods of the agents in Vietnam in the backward of 1990s were age-old (Kennett & Knight,1999). The actuality that teaching and acquirements English in Vietnam for over a dacade was blockage the same. Yet the amusing demands for English for advice purposes were accretion because added and added activities in altered fields defective poeple with adequate candid English adequacy actively acclimatized a significient change in accent teaching profession.

In an attack to advance the affection of teaching and acquirements English abnormally the speaking skill, a movement to “transform curriculum, argument books, and teaching methodologies” (Kim, 2001, p.140) was launched. Now, CLT has been arise to be the best best to alter Grammar Adaptation admission in Vietnam. Agents are annually arrive to arise workshops about CLT. The new versions of English argument books for acceptance at accessory and aerial schools accept replaced the old ones. The new argument books, however, accommodate added every day dialogues as the alone affirmation for the change back connected annual texts and grammar exercies which affiance to be the best in archetypal tests that acceptance are activity to booty still predominent these books. As a result, speaking abilities are skipped in class. Agents absorb best of the time on answer grammar rules and advice annual texts to students. Acceptance accept to assignment with annual and grammar alike harder than anytime to survive the exams which mainly comprise connected annual texts and acutely complicated grammar points. So, CLT although is clearly prefered in Vietnam but whether it is absolutely activated in classrooms to enhance students’ communitive adequacy or not is still a big catechism to anyone who has anytime accomplished English in Vietnam. These advance to extensive consequence. At universities and colleges, Candid advance books are additionally called for acceptance like the Lifelines set (Hutchinson, 2001), International Express set (Taylor & Lane, 2007). The advance books awning four macro skills. However, no articulate or alert tests but annual and autograph tests are agitated out during the course. Inconsistencies amid teaching and examinations advance to austere aftereffect like speaking abilities are inorged in such these test-oriented tertiary EFL classrooms, acceptance don’t alike accept oppotunities to use the accent verbally central their classrooms because Vietnamese is acclimated by agents and acceptance best of the time (Bui, 2006). Beneath these conditions, acceptance ache from the abortion in communicating or interacting. In agreement of applying finer new methods to advise English to acceptance to advice them use English communicatively, agents abort to advise their acceptance how to allege or accept but apprehend and address in the ambition language. According to Pham (1999), there are “socio-cultural factors adjoin success in tertiary English accent training programs in Vietnam”. He emphasizes the actuality that not alone acceptance but additionally agents who abridgement adeptness of communicating in the ambition accent get so afraid to be in CLT classrooms area speaking abilities are focused. The new adjustment acclimatized both agents and acceptance absolutely assignment actively in class. However, they got acclimated to acquirements and teaching irenic with Grammar Adaptation Adjustment and they accept to attempt to affected their inherent passiveness, shyness, inferiority and abhorrence to accord with the assignment in the new method. To these agents and students, their English chic put them in a accompaniment of panic. These accept resulted in “the affection of teaching speaking abilities at university in Vietnam” is still “poor”. And the annual of the poor affection speaking teaching in English accent tertiary apprenticeship in Vietnam which “results in a ample cardinal of graduates who accept adversity with communicating English” (Bui, 2006) charge booty into annual the accurate factors such as agents and students’ abstraction and convenance of CLT, teachers’ adeptness and activity for their abominably paid jobs, annual for accent education, abridgement design, actual and appraisal which are the aforementioned in best developing countries (Gorlach, 1995).

PetroVietnam Manpower Traning Academy (PVMTC) belongs to the arrangement of abstruse schools in Vietnam but mainly adjourned by Petrovietnam. For about fifteen years, the Streamlines set was acclimated as the capital advance books and Grammar Adaptation Adjustment was activated in teaching English in our college. But back 2007, we accept replaced the advance books with the Lifelines and International Express set. CLT has hardly accustomed any balmy adequate from the chief agents beause they do not appetite to change the adjustment that they accept acclimated for such a connected time and as for them, they do not accept in the capability of the new adjustment and they alike do not absolutely apperceive what CLT is and how to administer it. However, it has enjoyed the acceptance amid the adolescent agents like me. We accept been beatific to accept training courses on CLT calm with our colleagues from another schools and colleges. We accept excitingly discorvered it and activated or acclimatized it to our classes back we advise bags of both types of acceptance belief English there: approved acceptance and activity students.

Most of the acceptance in PVMTC now are activity acceptance who are contempo graduates or accomplished technicians and engineers from altered genitalia of Vietnam recruited to assignment for projects of Petrovietnam. They are paid to booty a acclimatized accelerated English advance at PVMTC to advance their English skills, abnormally speaking skills, to accomplish their job calm with adopted experts in their acreage at automated accessories or in offices. They are awful motivated because they are accustomed analysis of four abilities and they are accustomed to accomplish at atomic 650 marks on TOIEC back they accomplishment the training course. They already took a adjustment analysis afore accomplishing the advance and their English accomplishment is Pre-intermediate. These are additionally advantages to us to administer CLT in these classrooms. International Express set is called for the advance for its characteristics which abutment agents and acceptance a lot in administering a candid admission classroom. Anterior admission to grammar alive to adviser acceptance to assignment out rules and acceptance which is usually a advancing abortion to abounding approved classes for approved acceptance can be adequate in these classes although both agents and acceptance accept to assignment acutely adamantine back ambidextrous with complicated grammar credibility and casual failures are inevitable. Acceptance are offered oppotunities speak, to altercate to complete all the assignment accustomed by the abecedary or to break the problems arising in the lessons. They are encouraged to use their own experiences, bound accent they accept learnt and acclimatized acquirements strategies to accord with the English accent in accurate situations calm in brace and accumulation assignment activities. They are encouraged to accumulate speaking English with their classmates and agents as abundant as they can afterwards caring abundant about authoritative mistakes back speaking. Accurate abstracts such as video clips or accessories from the internet or newspapers, or any sourses apropos to the capacity of the acquaint can be taken into the classroom to articulation the accent they apprentice in the cousre book and those in absolute life. Although English is acclimated by agents and acceptance best of the time in class, best of the students, abnormally added avant-garde and chief ones, about arise to be acknowledged and get progressed in their acquirements in agreement of application the accent communicatively, calmly and confidently. With attention to applying CLT in teaching English speaking finer in these kinds of classrooms, we proudly affirmation that both the agents and acceptance in PVMTC accept formed increadibly adamantine to accomplish it success.

We, however, acknowledge our beneath acknowledged aftereffect back applying CLT to best of the classes for approved acceptance who are adolescent adults at academy and are actuality accomplished as workers to assignment for PetroVietnam’s subsidiaries. Best of them accept been belief English for at atomic three years at aerial academy but their English accomplishment akin is still abecedarian only. They are acclimatized to canyon an English annual and autograph analysis afterwards finishing 90 hours of acquirements English in the aboriginal semester. Again they are offered a chargeless alternative 200 hour advance of English to get the A akin affidavit as the apprenticeship action of PetroVietnam. The impacts of the altered acquirements ambience on English teaching and acquirements are accessible in this situation. Therefore, as motivated accent teachers, we accept been accomplishing our best to acclimate the best acclimatized teaching methods we accept accustomed to advise our acceptance to get them bigger and to these classrooms, an acclimatized aggregate of Audio Lingual Adjustment and CLT has appeared to be the best appropriate.

To a ample extent, CLT has enjoyed the acceptance in PVMTC for proving itself a added able adjustment in teaching and acquirements English speaking abilities in PVMTC ambience in this stage.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE DIRECTIONS

In conclusion, accent teaching profession has undergone abundant changes. Teaching approaches and methods alignment from Grammar Adaptation to Task-based were built-in in altered stages in teachers, linguists’ active attempts to advance affection of teaching and acquirements languages. The afterwards advancing into the apple does not absolutely exclude of the antecedent ones but it maintains the apotheosis and condemns the drawbacks of them and contributes addition to the acreage ensuring its annual for teaching and acquirements contexts in a accurate period. A cardinal of studies accept been done for centeries on teaching approaches and methods absorption more apropos about speaking abilities and the acceptance of the accent of the the abilities in teaching, acquirements and application the ambition language.

Improving the affection of teaching and acquirements English are the capital chalenges adverse Vietnam educators and government beacause it has been advised allotment of its social, bread-and-butter and political development strategies. The aboriginal footfall as admission to accustomed success has been made. In Vietnam, CLT has aloof absolutely been affected and acclimated in English classrooms to alleviate learners’ English competence. A lot of cold and abstract factors impacting on the capability of this candid adjustment are still absolute in Vietnam apprenticeship system. So CLT will be the best acclimatized one to use in the abutting years in Vietnamese teaching and acquirements ambience afore aggravating to accomplishment the afterwards ones.

PVMTC accept become acquainted of the neccessary of allotment and applying CLT in teaching English to acheive the proposed cold of any English courses to amuse our students’ need, to acclimate them for their approaching jobs by accepting acceptance complex in application English communicatively effectively, And as I mentioned early, we accept enjoyed arresting success but sometimes our teaching ends in falures. In animosity of those, I accept that no teaching methos or approaches are absolute to all types of learners and that depending on article of the courses, as asthusiastic accent agents and if we are artistic abundant in teaching art, we will apperceive how to acclimate the methods we accept accustomed for use in anniversary of our accurate teaching and acquirements contexts and we will be acknowledged in advancing our acceptance with candid competence.

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