The Properties of Chemical Reactions

Properties of Actinic Reactions Ms. Whitty, Science 10 Fiona Adams, November 1st, 2012 Introduction Actinic reactions are a allotment of our circadian lives, from acerbic metal to authoritative aliment to leaves alteration colour in the fall. A chemical reaction is the action that occurs back two or added substances amalgamate to aftermath a actinic change. Back a actinic acknowledgment takes place, the change is adumbrated by one or added qualitative properties. The colour or odor could change, gas could be produced, a accelerate – a solid actuality in a band-aid - could be formed, or activity could be captivated or released. The substances initially complex in a actinic acknowledgment are alleged reactants. Back actinic reactions occur, the end aftereffect is alleged a product. Articles usually accept altered backdrop than reactants; bonds amid atoms will be afflicted during the reaction, about-face the atoms’ adjustment in altered compounds. A admixture is a actinic actuality that consists of two or added altered chemically affirmed elements. In this experiment, several altered compounds are actuality formed with – potassium iodide, advance (II) nitrate, acerb acerbic and sodium bicarbonate. The purpose of this agreement is to actuate whether or not a acknowledgment has taken abode appliance qualitative and quantitative analysis. Procedure Allotment 1 - Qualitative observations of both potassium iodide and advance (II) nitrate were recorded in a table. Then, the accessories and chemicals bare were aggregate – potassium iodide and advance (II) nitrate, a accelerating cylinder, Erlenmeyer flask, baby assay tube, elastic stopper, and baby scale. Appliance the accelerating cylinder, 10 mL of potassium iodide band-aid was abstinent and caked into the Erlenmeyer flask. Next, the advance (II) nitrate band-aid was caked into the baby assay tube until it was about bisected full. The assay tube was placed central the Erlenmeyer flask, and closed with a elastic admiration – the solutions were not mixed. The accumulation of flask, admiration and capacity were bent by actuality placed and advised on a baby scale. The accumulation bent was afresh recorded in addition table. The Erlenmeyer alembic was angled so the ahead abstracted solutions were accustomed to mix, and the new admixture was afresh advised and recorded in the additional table. Changes in actualization from the aboriginal solutions were recorded in the aboriginal table. Lastly, extra abstracts were disposed of. Allotment 2 – Qualitative observations of both acerb acerbic and sodium bicarbonate were recorded in a third table. Accessories and chemicals were aggregate – acerb acerbic and sodium bicarbonate, a baby scale, two artificial “weigh boats”, scoopula, and accelerating cylinder. The aboriginal counterbalance baiter was placed on the calibration and the calibration was “zeroed”. One beat of sodium bicarbonate was caked into the counterbalance baiter with the scoopula, and the after-effects were recorded in a fourth table. Next, the additional counterbalance baiter was placed on the calibration and zeroed. Appliance the accelerating cylinder, 15 mL of acerb acerbic was abstinent and caked into the counterbalance baiter on the scale. The accumulation of the acerb acerbic was recorded in the fourth table. The sodium bicarbonate, abstinent previously, was caked into the counterbalance baiter of acerb acid, and qualitative observations of that were recorded in the third table. Back the acknowledgment was complete, the accumulation of the articles apparent on the calibration was recorded in the fourth table. Lastly, extra abstracts were disposed of. Results Qualitative Observations Allotment 1 – Before the acknowledgment took place, both the potassium iodide and advance (II) nitrate had agnate characteristics – they were both in a aqueous state, as able-bodied as actuality bright and colorless. After the reaction, the qualitative observations of the new actuality showed several differences. It was chicken in color, and a chapped accelerate had formed. The actuality remained in a aqueous state. (Table 2) Quantitative Observations from Allotment 1 - Accumulation of Reactants and Accoutrement (g)| 140. 26| Accumulation of Articles and Accoutrement (g)| 140. 26| Qualitative Observations Allotment 2 – Before the acknowledgment took place, the acerb acerbic and sodium bicarbonate anniversary had altered qualitative characteristics. The acerb acerbic was clear, achromatic and in a aqueous state. The sodium bicarbonate, however, was a white powder, in a solid state. The acknowledgment acquired the new actuality to balloon and foam, bearing a gas. (Table 4) Quantitative Observations from Allotment 2 - Accumulation of Sodium Bicarbonate (g)| 1. 01| Accumulation of Acerb Acerbic (g)| 14. 29| Accumulation of Articles (g)| 14. 88| Assay Allotment 1: The actinic acknowledgment that took abode was apparent by several qualitative observations. The colour of the two aboriginal substances was clear, and back accumulated the colour afflicted to chicken – a change of colour is bright affirmation of a actinic reaction. The chat blueprint for this acknowledgment would be - potassium iodide + advance (II) nitrate Potassium nitrate and advance (II) iodide. In the anatomy of a counterbalanced equation, this acknowledgment would be - 2KI + Pb(NO3)2 2KNO3 + PbI2. Belief both the reactants and the artefact showed that the accumulation of the reactants, with the apparatus, was 140. 26 grams. The accumulation of the product, with the apparatus, was additionally 140. 6 grams – the artefact of this acknowledgment had the aforementioned accumulation as the reactants. These after-effects were expected, based on the Law of Conservation of Mass. The Law of Conservation of Accumulation is neither created nor destroyed in a actinic reaction. The appliance of the Law of Conservation of Accumulation agency that the accumulation of articles in a actinic acknowledgment will according the accumulation of the reactants, and this is constant with the after-effects of the aboriginal experiment. Allotment 2 Several qualitative observations bent that a actinic acknowledgment took abode – the artefact bubbled, and a gas was produced. The actinic blueprint for this acknowledgment is CH3COOH + NaHCO3 NaCH3COO + H2O + CO2. Put into a chat equation, the blueprint would be acerb acerbic + sodium bicarbonate Sodium acetate + baptize + carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide actuality a gas. Because a gas is present on the artefact ancillary of the blueprint but not on the agitator side, the gas has been produced, which is affirmation of a actinic reaction. Belief the reactants and articles showed that the accumulated accumulation of the reactants was 15. 30 grams. The accumulated accumulation of the articles was 14. 8 grams, belief hardly beneath than the reactants. This aftereffect was expected, because it is constant with the Law of Conservation of Mass. Although the artefact advised on the calibration showed a hardly lower mass, this was because the carbon dioxide was a gas, and was not accounted for on the scale. To accomplish bigger after-effects and accretion an authentic altitude of the products’ accumulated mass, it would be all-important to abduction the gas and counterbalance it as well. Allotment 3: Extension For the actinic acknowledgment AgNO3 + NaCl NaNO3 + AgCl, the absolute atomic accumulation of the reactants would be 228. grams – argent nitrate (AgNO3) would accept a accumulation of 169. 9 grams, and sodium chloride (NaCl) would accept a accumulation of 58. 5 grams. Based on the abstracts performed in the lab, and the Law of Conservation of Mass, it is accepted that the accumulation of the articles would be 228. 4 grams as well. This anticipation can be accepted by award the atomic accumulation of the reactions articles - accumulate the accumulation cardinal of anniversary atom by the cardinal of said atom, and add the amounts to actuate the absolute accumulation of sodium nitrate and argent chloride, the products. Conclusion Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, it was bent that reactions took abode in anniversary allocation of the lab – the aboriginal amid potassium iodide and advance (II) nitrate; the additional amid sodium bicarbonate and acerb acid. In anniversary section, the reactions were apparent by several qualitative observations. Back potassium iodide and advance (II) nitrate were combined, a change of colour occurred in the agitator and a accelerate was formed. This is affirmation of a actinic change. Back acerb acerbic and sodium bicarbonate were combined, a gas was produced; additionally affirmation of a actinic reaction. In the experiments, the Law of Conservation of Accumulation was discovered. The quantitative affirmation in anniversary area accepted this law. In the aboriginal experiment, the accumulation of the articles was according to the accumulation of the reaction, advertence that amount was not created or destroyed in the reaction. The after-effects of the additional acknowledgment showed a abatement in the accumulation of the artefact – however, this was alone because the gas formed in the acknowledgment could not be weighed. Appliance Much of the affluence of our accepted affairs is due to the availability of beginning air, authentic baptize and admission to assets – all of which are about absolutely taken from the environment. When deposit fuels like atramentous and oil are mined and utilize, the aftereffect is a huge abrogating appulse on the abounding aspects of the environment, and as a absolute consequence, our lifestyles. Atramentous and oil accept to be extracted from abysmal beneath the earth, transported, and burned. At anniversary date of this process, greenhouse gases - i. e. , carbon dioxide – are produced. Burning is abnormally bad for the environment; back burned, deposit fuels like atramentous and oil absolution accumulation amounts of carbon, which afresh combines with oxygen to anatomy carbon dioxide. References University of Washington. Chemical Reactions – an Introduction. http://depts. washington. edu/chemcrs/bulkdisk/chem110A_aut01/notes_Week_5. pdf (accessed Oct. 30, 2012). Science Daily. Science Reference – Actinic Compound. http://www. sciencedaily. com/articles/c/chemical_compound. htm (accessed Oct. 30, 2012). American University. Oil Production and Environmental Damage. http://www1. american. edu/ted/projects/tedcross/xoilpr15. htm (accessed Oct. 30, 2012). Chem Professor. Reactants and Products. http://www. chemprofessor. com/outline7b. htm (accessed Oct. 30, 2012).

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