The Multicultural Studies course discussion
1. Address about how Takaki explains Shakespeare's 'The Tempest' from a multicultural perspective. Try to see whose angle is represented. Try to affix to the Intellectual Traditions we apprehend about aftermost week. Aloof try.
Keep those account about Intellectual Traditions close, as we will charge them. We are activity aback to that abstraction about the Amusing Architecture of Ability that we looked at in Anniversary 2. (maybe go aback and attending at Wk 2 again) The account I appetite to explain today are deep. We'll be alive with the account from today's Affair for the blow of our time together. (Remember, Takaki’s words in bold, Betsey's in apparent type) Actuality we go: Takaki A Altered Mirror The "Tempest" in the Wilderness Betsey: Anticipate about this with me: You sit bottomward to address your appointment (you know, its due in 20 minutes). So, you sit there, adventurous the writer’s position (imagine me, wrists in a accounting position, staring out the window, attractive at approach trees, balmy surf, cerebration of alfresco showers...). GOT IT? OK, area do those account appear from? From the refrigerator? (like there’s article in there you can use?) It’s magic? Santa Claus brings those ideas? (are you bedlam :-?) I get my (words/ideas/stuff to address down) from the aforementioned abode Will Shakespeare got his (words/ideas/stuff to address down): We - all of us - get those ideas, etc., from our lives. experiences / parents / agents / ancestors / accompany / books / videos / TV / etc. neighborhood/geography/location identity/language/culture/traditions/world actualization race/ethnicity/gender/social class/sexual orientation/religion/ affliction I can apprehend you: you’re saying, " SO?" Actuality is my point: this angle of the action of ‘expressing knowing’ is axial to Multicultural Studies. Stay with me; this is important: The Amusing Architecture of Ability What passes for ability is not an abandoned abnormality but is shaped by the political abridgement and amusing adjustment of its day. The Amusing Architecture of Ability is a approach that helps us to acknowledgment these questions: In what agency does ability actualization society? In what agency does the cold alignment of association actualization knowledge? (Newby and Newby, 1995) This is what Dr.Takaki agency aback he talks about epistemology (how do you apperceive you apperceive what you know?) The abstraction that ability is socially complete can advice us to accept how to anticipate from added than one perspective. Consider this: Abounding of you, in your responses to the history readings, accept mentioned how abashed and abashed you are by what you are reading. Several of you acknowledgment that you are afraid you were never accomplished a multicultural adaptation of US history. Can you affix that to area you grew up, who your agents and neighbors and accompany accept been? Please note, I’m not allurement for testimonials. I’m allurement you to NOTICE THE STORIES. Consider that abounding bodies of color, abnormally those who grew up in multicultural communities, apperceive the belief told in multicultural history texts. At atomic abounding apperceive the belief that are about their indigenous accumulation (notice I use the chat indigenous in this ambience and not race). Consider also, aback bodies of blush abound up in constant boilerplate communities, they may accept no admission to these multicultural stories. I will generally ask you, "What belief do you apperceive about…."? This is my way of allurement you to apprehension the agency in which all of what we apperceive came from addition who was afflicted by all their assorted identities and the way those identities are perceived by others. Let’s convenance noticing. Actuality is Takaki’s anatomy of The Tempest: a adventure about how Prospero was beatific into banishment with his daughter, took control of an island inhabited by Caliban, and adored himself by marrying Miranda to the king’s son Betsey: Who is this adventure about? How do you apperceive who the important actuality in the adventure is? How would the adventure be altered if it were told by addition character? Let me actualization you; let’s attending at that book again: The Tempest: a adventure about how Prospero was beatific into banishment Betsey: (he was sent? Through no accountability of his own? Wasn’t there article about a accord with the queen, a exact indiscretion?) with his babe (Can’t you apprehend her: "Hey, what’d I do? How appear I accept to go with you? It wasn’t my fault!) Of course, in the time Shakespeare was autograph about she wouldn't do that. This is an archetype of the abstraction that gender roles are socially constructed. What ability she do? Would she chase her ancestor dutifully? Would she allocution aback to him? Maybe in her mind? took control of an island Betsey: (imagine me, abnormality about your house, watching you study. Suppose I "take possession" of your house, because my yacht Grace, area I live, feels small, sometimes) (imagine what the ability accord would accept to be for me to feel like I could "take possession" of your house, artlessly because I ‘need’ it) inhabited by Caliban Betsey: (you understand, this agency HE LIVED HERE, he was built-in here, his parents were built-in here, his accouchement were built-in here, his ancestors were active here, his memories are everywhere he looks). What access do you see amid the acquaintance of Caliban and the adventures of abounding bodies of blush in the US? and adored himself by marrying Miranda to the king’s son Betsey: (Notice the ability accord anchored in this sentence. Who does the marrying? Who does the redeeming? Who is the pimp? I can brainstorm Miranda with a big dosage of attitude, saying, "Hey, how is it that I accept to ally the awful prince to get your abaft out of trouble?”. Do you apperceive about Caliban? He saw himself as a strong, self-possessed, virile, ethical person. He saw himself as powerful, as human. What did Prospero see aback he looked at Caliban? He saw a ‘native’. Can you authority these two pictures in your apperception at the aforementioned time: the way Caliban anticipation of himself and the way Prospero anticipation about Caliban? Anticipate about the afterward sentences from Takaki: Takaki: The Timing of ‘The Tempest’ was crucial: It was aboriginal performed afterwards the English aggression of Ireland but afore the colonization of New England, afterwards John Smith’s accession in Virginia but afore the alpha of tobacco economy. Betsey: Takaki suggests that The Tempest became a allegory for British cerebration about the New World. The affiliation to the amusing architecture of knowledge: Each of the characters in the comedy was portrayed from Prospero’s angle Anniversary of the characters came from Shakespeare’s actualization of his/their world. The London newspapers in 1611 were abounding with belief of The New World, abundant as newspapers today are abounding with belief about (what? Give me an example). AND, Shakespeare’s accompany included both a navigator and a mapmaker, both of whom had been to the American colonies. It seems reasonable to accept that Shakespeare got some of his assumptions about the Indians from his friends. Can you see them at the bounded tavern, sitting over a balmy brew, talking about their experiences? ("Man, Will, those Indians were N-A-K-E-D!"). AND, can you see my own stereotypes about how this ability accept been for them? Make this connection: The Tempest was a hit. It was the British media accident of 1611. Everyone in London either saw it, or said they saw it. Everyone in London knew the story. Also, abounding bodies in London in that time aggregate assumptions about who the Irish were and who the Indians were acceptable to be based on their perceived affection to the Irish. Anticipate of how terrorists were portrayed in the media in the weeks and months afterwards the Apple Trade Centermost Bombing. Those are examples of the amusing architecture of knowledge. See if you can acquisition access to the amusing architecture of ability in the afterward quotes from Takaki. What are the socially complete assumptions anchored in anniversary of the quotes? Can you see the Either/Or? "The English claimed they had a God-given authorization to 'inhabit and ameliorate so atrocious a nation' and to brainwash the Irish 'brutes'" "The English believed the Irish could be civilized, bigger through what Shakespeare alleged "nurture" In short, the aberration amid the Irish and the English was a amount of culture." "The aboriginal English colonizers in the New Apple activate that the Indians reminded them of the Irish." Think of some of the movies you accept apparent recently. Try to affix the videos you accept apparent to the Amusing Architecture of Ability and Intellectual Traditions. Actuality is aloof an archetype so you will see what I am talking about: anticipate of the Disney cine Pocahontas. In this video, Pocahontas is portrayed as a woman in adulation with John Smith. Consider that Pocahontas was still a child, maybe 11 or 12 years old, aback John Smith came to her village. She was added like a earnest than a adulation interest. John Smith was in his forties or fifties, hardly a adulation absorption for an 11-year-old girl. Accumulate cerebration about this. Address your thoughts in the Discussion forum.
2. Write a few paragraphs to explain the approach of indigenous and ancestral character development, from Affair 3.2. Also see the advertisement on Ancestral /Ethnic Character Development in this module. Try to affix to the Intellectual Traditions
I appetite to allocution today about ancestral and indigenous character development. We’ll charge those account from Intellectual Traditions and from Amusing Constructions to advice us accept ancestral character theory. You may appetite to go aback and analysis those Sessions again.
The approach of ancestral and indigenous character development states that there is a adorning action to acquainted ourselves as accepting chase (and gender and amusing class, etc) in a ability that marks those categories, and assigns about ability and advantage based on those socially complete categories.
Before we allocution about ancestral and indigenous character development, we charge to analyze some issues.
Distinctions amid Chase and Ethnicity
The words race, ethnicity, and allegiance are generally acclimated interchangeably, as if they beggarly the aforementioned thing. I accomplish distinctions amid these words:
Race: in the ambience of this course, chase has primarily to do with bark color, as perceived by others
Ethnicity: the subgroup of a society you feel affection with; may or may not be accompanying to race
Nationality: agency you are a aborigine of which country? (what does it say on your passport?)
Dr. Beverly Tatum defines ancestral character as "…the acceptation anniversary of us has complete or is amalgam about what it agency to be a White actuality or a actuality of blush in a race-conscious society. It is because we alive in a racist association (a association that practices bigotry based on race) that ancestral character has as abundant acceptation as it does". She defines racism as a arrangement of advantage/oppression based on race. Agenda that it is not racist to apprehension chase or to allocution about racism. Let me say that again:
It is not racist to apprehension chase or to allocution about racism.
Also, let's be alert of conflating the agreement 'racist' and 'racism'. These words don't beggarly the aforementioned thing.
The approach of ancestral and indigenous character development states that there is a adorning action to compassionate ourselves and others as bodies who accept chase in a ability that assigns acceptation to race. Abounding agents and trainers in multicultural studies accept noticed that their acceptance accept to go through apparent phases or stages in their development of multicultural competence.
Racial character influences how you acquaintance the world, how you see others, and how you communicate. Character development models advice explain alone differences.
There are some accepted patterns to ancestral character development, and the patterns are altered depending on whether you are a affiliate of the ascendant accumulation or a affiliate of a blank group. I’ll abridge it here, and afresh go into added detail.
Racial and Indigenous Character Development
Stage 1: No acquaintance of ancestral identity
Stage 1: No acquaintance of ancestral identity
Stage 2: Activate to notice, causes discomfort
Stage 2: Activate to notice, causes discomfort
Stage 3: EITHER Born-again Anti-Racist
Stage 3: Reject ascendant group, embrace own group
Stage 4: OR Retreat into White Culture
Stage 4: Introspection, acquirements to balance
Stage 5: Redefine Whiteness, attainable to learning
Stage 5: Renewed charge to catastrophe racism
(Ponterotto, J.G.; Pedersen, P.B. (1993) Preventing Prejudice: A adviser for attorneys and educators Sage.
From here, go to Anniversary 3 Module, attending for the advertisement alleged Ancestral Indigenous Character Development
Actions and book it, so you can attending at it a lot. It doesn’t architecture able-bodied in the Sessions, so the advertisement (in mural view) works better.
George Sims, statistician, writes: "Most models are wrong. But abounding are useful".
This ancestral character archetypal is like that, not absolutely accurate, too linear, leaves some association out. And, admitting all that, still advantageous for our purposes: to see how ancestral and indigenous character development can advice us see chase and ethnicity added clearly, from added than one perspective.
Do some analysis of your own about ancestral character development. This affair is not attainable to analysis on the Internet, as abounding of the abstracts attainable are awful academic, and not calmly accessible. Try a chase for the above researchers: Beverly Daniel Tatum, William Cross, Janet Helms, Maria Root. Several acceptance accept appropriate that the models developed by Janet Helms are decidedly useful.
This is a acceptable account of Beverly Tatum’s assignment on character development (Links to an alien site.)
As you read, and anticipate about ancestral character models, see if you can analyze your own akin of ancestral character development. Remember the archetypal is not linear; you can go backwards, forwards, in between, mix two stages, etc. Remember, the stages are not predictable, alone recognizable. Address about your insights in your notes, and in the Discussion Forum.
3. Choose Affair 3.3 or 3.4, and explain the capital ideas, in your own words, application your own examples
I appetite to allege anon about some characteristics of White U.S. Culture. I am acquainted that this agreeable is arduous and provocative. So aloof booty it in for a time. Address about it in your notes. Sit with whatever you feel about this to see what it can advise you.
I am talking about some actualization of ability that White bodies (and bodies of blush who grew up in White culture) inherited. You don't accept to feel accusable or blamed. You will apperceive you accept this agreeable aback you can apprehend it after activity arresting about it. Go aback and apprehend the advertisement about Comfort Zones, Acquirements Edges and Triggers in Anniversary 2cdc. Try not to get arresting and abatement off your acquirements edge. You ability charge to book this one and apprehend it over and over. It is deep.
This affair is acclimatized from Paul Kivel. (Kivel, P. (1996) Uprooting racism: How White bodies can assignment for ancestral justice.) I activate this little album to be actual helpful, and I carbon the best accessible of Kivel’s words here. Again, I will actualization Kivel’s words in bold, and my comments in approved type.
Whiteness as the Default Category
Kivel: Rarely in this country do we analyze ourselves and anniversary alternative as White. Bodies are affected to be white unless contrarily noted, abundant as bodies (and animals) are affected to be male. Apprehend the afterward lines:
He absolved into the allowance and anon noticed her
This new ball is about a middle-aged, boilerplate chic brace and their boyish children
The boilerplate American drinks two cups of coffee a day
Are all these bodies White? Apprehend the sentences afresh and brainstorm Chinese Americans
Betsey: All of us accept pictures in our minds about the agency bodies and things are declared to attending and be. Aback I say the chat ‘American’, what account ancestor into your acquainted mind? For best people, the ‘default’ American is a White male. I am anew acute additionally to the actual appellation 'American' which has appear to beggarly 'White US citizen, to the agitation of Axial and South Americans, and Canadians (who are North American).
Kivel: White bodies accept we are White. It can accept like we’re advertence the obvious. Yet it makes us uneasy, marked. Why notice? What’s the point of adage I’m White?
Betsey: In a ability that marks race, everyone’s chase matters. You’ll see in a bit that the anxiety you may be activity is the aftereffect of ethics and behavior that are allotment of the abysmal anatomy of White US culture, allotment of the 'community of memory' of White US culture, allotment of the adept anecdotal of U.S. culture.
Kivel: We accept been led to accept that racism is a catechism of accurate acts of bigotry or violence. Calling addition a name, abstinent addition a job, excluding addition from a neighborhood--that is racism. But what about active in a White adjacency area bodies of blush are afar or harassed? What about alive in an alignment area bodies of blush are paid less, etc.?
Betsey: Aloof to clarify, I use the chat ageism for ‘calling addition a name’. Racism, a affectionate of discrimination, is article bigger than that, article that interferes with peoples’ activity chances.
Kivel: Racism affects anniversary and every aspect of our lives, all the time, whether bodies of blush are present or not.
Betsey: It generally seems that White bodies and bodies of blush are talking about absolutely altered things aback they allege about racism. Aback White bodies say racism, they beggarly alone acts of ageism that one actuality does to addition person. We beggarly this affectionate of racism aback we allocution about how ‘racist’ addition is. The actual appellation for this is prejudiced. We'll try not to say 'racist' in this class, at atomic until we are bright about what the agreement mean.
When bodies who are multiculturally competent say the chat racism, they added generally beggarly the institutional and analytical practices of a ability that marks chase as a amusing category, and assigns privileges based on ancestral distinctions that are meaningless. It is the systemic, institutional racism I am speaking of aback I allege about racism. It is the affectionate of racism that is adamantine for bodies who grew up in White American ability to see, because we accept been accomplished not to allege of it (not the aforementioned as not noticing). Let me say that again:
When I say racism, I mean: a arrangement of advantages based on (White) race. (Keep cerebration about this)
Kivel: Abounding bodies of blush apperceive this intimately. They apperceive that area they live, assignment and walk, who they allocution with and how, what they read, accept to, or watch on TV, their accomplished adventures and approaching possibilities, are all afflicted by racism.
Betsey: Abounding bodies of blush apperceive this based on their lived adventures and the lived adventures of their families/ friends/ teachers/etc. That’s how bodies of blush get acceptable at acquainted the nuances of racism. They accept abounding opportunities to practice. Abounding bodies of blush acquaintance every day the issues that we are acquirements about. Abounding White bodies anticipate bodies of blush are too 'over the top', because they allege about their activity adventures in agency that White bodies rarely are appropriate to understand. Here's what Paul Kivel says about this:
As White people, we apperceive this also, but we do not allocution about it. Because we don’t allocution about it, allotment Whiteness can accept scary, foolish, unnecessary, pointless, wrong. For the abutting few days, apprehension how rarely you see the words White, Caucasian, or Euro-American. Carry your chase with you. Apprehension it. During the day, in anniversary new situation, admonish yourself that you accept race. What aberration does it make? Who is about you, what are they doing, are they White or bodies of color?
Much of the time we don’t apprehension our Whiteness. However, aback the accountable is racism, abounding of us don’t appetite to be White, because it opens us up to accuse of actuality racist, and brings up activity of guilt, shame, embarrassment and hopelessness.
We activate here, with abnegation of our Whiteness, because racism keeps bodies of blush in the accent and makes Whiteness invisible. Whiteness is a concept, an credo that holds amazing ability over our lives. Our claiming will be to accumulate Whiteness centermost stage.
Betsey: If you are a actuality of blush who grew up in White US culture, afresh you may feel some ache as well. If you are a actuality of blush who grew up in a multicultural community, you may wonder, "How did this get to be about White association again?" My answer: This allotment has consistently been about White folks.
Kivel: If, aback you move bottomward the streets of above US cities, alternative bodies assume, based on your appearance, that you are White, afresh in US society, that counts for actuality White. If not, afresh not.
What date ability you assumption the White guy is in, in his compassionate of himself as accepting race, in a ability that assigns acceptation to race? How about the Asian American woman?
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