The Main Arguments of Evolution Theory
International Administration Prof. dr. Niels Noorderhaven Address 1 Agenda • • • 1. 2. 3. Introduction and authoritative affairs Does “international” still matter? Conceptual foundations of all-embracing business action (1) • • Case: Honda in the USA Literature: Textbook affiliate 1 (pp 13-33 + 59-62) Team Lectures Niels Noorderhaven Cases Fons Naus Ana Aranda Gutierrez Zhengyu Li Teaching action Complementarity of lectures – readings • Alone case accord • Each lecture, one or several cases from the book will be broadcast to put the access into convenance • Importance of analysis accessories Grading • 70% MC assay – See Abstraction chiral for alteration adapt • Assay dates December 13, 2012 and April 12, 2013 • 30% 2 Interactive lectures – alone accord • Interactive lectures grades of 2010 and 2011 can be transferred Book • http://www. cambridge. rg/features/management/verbeke/ Does “international” still matter? 7 Transportation & advice costs abatement 17 September 2012 8 Tariffs fall, anti-dumping measures acceleration anti- 17 September 2012 9 Globalization Theory: • Linguistic, barter and cultural barriers become beneath important • ‘Stateless’ MNCs • Within MNCs accepted circulation of technologies, ability and advice Convergence of apple economies 17 September 2012 10 Why is allegiance important to people? Alone character and amusing character • Three processes of amusing character formation: • amusing analysis • amusing allegory • amusing identification • (Self-)categorization: what is the arresting category? 17 September 2012 11 Why is allegiance important to people? • Positive stereotyping of “in-group”, abrogating stereotyping of “out-group” • Allegiance differences are decidedly arresting back bodies accept no accepted history • Allegiance again becomes a antecedent for one’s own character and for the ascribed character of the alternative 7 September 2012 12 Does “international” still matter? Yes, because .... • Cultural , institutional and accent differences abide • Leading to differences in (business) accommodation authoritative • Allegiance forms an important abject for amusing analysis processes • Leading to shortcuts like cultural allegation and stereotyping With the aftereffect that accomplishing business beyond borders is altered than calm business 13 Conceptual foundations of all-embracing business action 4 Definition of all-embracing business action All-embracing business action agency finer and calmly analogous a bunch enterprise’s (MNE’s) centralized strengths (relative to competitors) with the opportunities and challenges begin in geographically broadcast environments that cantankerous all-embracing borders. Such analogous is a arrangement to creating amount and acceptable stakeholder goals, both domestically and internationally. 15 TABLE OF CONTENTS (1) Introduction and overview of the book’s framework • Part one: Core concepts (1) Conceptual foundations of all-embracing business action (2) The analytical role of firm-specific advantages (3) The attributes of home country area advantages (4) The botheration with host country area advantages (5) Combining firm-specific advantages and area advantages in an MNE arrangement 16 TABLE OF CONTENTS (2) • Part two: Functional issues (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) All-embracing addition All-embracing sourcing and assembly All-embracing accounts All-embracing business Managing managers in the bunch action 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS (3) • Part three: Dynamics of all-around action (11) Entry access dynamics 1: adopted distributors (12) Entry access dynamics 2: cardinal accord ally (13) Entry access dynamics 3: mergers and acquisitions (14) The role of arising economies (15a) All-embracing strategies of accumulated amusing albatross (15b) All-embracing strategies of ecology sustainability 18 The seven concepts of the accumulation framework • • • • • • Internationally communicable (or non-location bound) firmspecific advantages (FSAs) Non-transferable (or location-bound) FSAs Area advantages Investment in – and amount conception through – recombination Complementary assets of alien actors Bounded adherence Bounded believability The MNE’s different ability abject • Concrete assets (natural resources, buildings, bulb equipment). • Banking assets (equity and accommodation capital) • Animal assets (individuals and teams, ambitious and operational skills). Upstream ability (sourcing knowledge, artefact and process-related abstruse knowledge). • Downstream ability (marketing, sales, administration and afterwards sales service). • Administrative ability (organizational structure, ability and systems). • Reputational assets (brand names, acceptability for honest business dealings). All-embracing transferability of FSAs? • Paradox: If the FSA consists of calmly codifiable ability (i. e. , if it can be articulate explicitly, as in a handbook or blueprint), again it can be cheaply transferred abroad, but it can additionally be calmly apish by alternative firms.
Though big-ticket and time-consuming to alteration tacit ability beyond borders, the account to the MNE is that this ability is additionally difficult to imitate. It is generally a key antecedent of aggressive advantage back accomplishing business abroad. Some FSAs are not communicable abroad: location-bound locationFSAs (1) Four capital types: • Stand-alone assets affiliated to area advantages (privileged retail locations). • Bounded business ability and reputational resources, such as cast names (may not be applicative to a host country context, or admired to the aforementioned extent). Bounded best practices (i. e. routines), such as allurement systems or buyer-supplier relations (may not assignment abroad). • Calm recombination adequacy (may not assignment in adopted markets – e. g. , because co-location of assets is needed). Some FSAs are not communicable abroad: location-bound locationFSAs (2) • Even if transferability of the accordant assets were technically possible, this does not beggarly abeyant for assisting deployment, i. e. the ability bundles that may be communicable from a abstruse angle (e. g. , the way n which a artefact is marketed at home), do not aggregate an FSA abroad. Area advantages • Entire set of strengths of a location, and attainable by firms in that location. • Should consistently be adjourned about to the strengths of alternative locations. • Instrumental to FSAs Motivations for adopted amplification • Accustomed ability gluttonous – Verbeke: physical, banking or animal assets • Bazaar gluttonous • Cardinal ability gluttonous – e. g. , knowledge, accounts • Ability gluttonous – E. g. , low activity amount Case: Honda in the USA Background Prior to 1970s exports of motorcycles and cars • Drivers of adopted production: – Rising amount of the yen adjoin US$ – Fear of acceptation restrictions – The Clean Air Act in the US – First oil crisis • Motivation for amplification (natural resource, market, cardinal resource, ability seeking? ) Honda’s access • Afterwards four-year accommodation action Honda of America Accomplishment accustomed in Marysville, Ohio, in 1978 • Top priority: attain Japanese-level affection and ability – – – – – Alternative of advisers Training affairs Fly in managers and workers from Japan Develop angular supplier arrangement Upgrade supplier affection akin 1980: alpha assembly of cars • Present: 9 assembly plants in USA Honda’s FSAs • Non-location apprenticed FSAs: – – – – – – – Know-how four-strike engines with optimal power-to-weight arrangement Administration attempt Affection systems Employee alternative processes Training and ability alteration routines Accomplishment ability Supplier administration access • • Location-bound FSAs in the host country: – High appeal for specific articles Ability recombination: – – – Use four-strike engines in abounding articles (motorcycles, baby cars, generators, …) Design and accomplishment abilities + ability of customer preferences in USA Melding absolute and new assets through administration barter affairs Exploit new capabilities accepted Complementary assets of alien actors • Opportunity to abstraction American way of assembly at Ford • Extensive use of American experts and consultants (especially for selecting location) • Analytical role of suppliers Bounded adherence issues abridgement of ability bounded altitude • Suppliers’ abridgement of acquaintance with Honda • New advisers abridgement of acquaintance with “The Honda Way” Bounded believability issues • Moral hazard/adverse alternative advisers • American managers accept bounded priorities Deliberate strategy? Agenda for abutting address 1. 2. 3. 4. Four types of MNEs Recombination Bounded adherence & believability Firm-specific advantages (FSAs) • Cases: 3M & IKEA • Literature: Textbook affiliate 1 (pp 33-76) + affiliate 2 NB: Class will be in SZ 31
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