The First Modern War
Samuel Santiuste Ms. Engelken US History I Honors May 13, 2011 The Aboriginal Avant-garde War While account history, we about see that wars were about fought with soldiers in close- adjustment formations with a blaster that would be accursed in accord on command. Everything afflicted afterwards the American Civil War, a action to actuate the fate of disciplinarian in the Union, erupted. Today abounding historians accede the Civil War as the aboriginal avant-garde war because it depended on: abundant industry, fast advice and transportation.
But this time all of these new technologies were acclimated to its abounding potential. As a aftereffect new weapon technology was accumulation produced which inflicted abundant losses on both the Union and the Confederate abandon and resulted in bigger battlefield medicine. Years afore the Civil War, soldiers would commonly backpack muskets that had a blaze ambit of about 250 yards. But although this weapon had an amazing range, the blaster abandoned captivated and accursed one ammo at a time and it hit accidental targets.
The accurateness of the blaster was from about 80 yards and this acquired abounding of the battles to be fought at a abutting range. Then, in 1848 the French administrator alleged Claude-Etienne Minie took the architecture of a ammo that broadcast aloft accursed and “simplified and bigger on beforehand designs--including those developed by Britain's Captain John Norton (1818) and William Greener (1836)” to accomplish the ammo that bears its name: the Minie brawl (Minie Ball). This new ammo accumulated with the burglarize fabricated a agitating duo because the ambit of the weapon was from 200-250 yards with a agitating accuracy.
To appearance the bullet’s ability alone, during the Crimean War of 1853-56 “the ammo so bigger the capability of infantry troops that 150 soldiers application the Minie brawl could according the battlefront ability of added than 500 with a acceptable blaster and ammunition” (Minie Ball). Aback this weapon was alien to the Civil War, the old archetypal of warfare became anachronistic appropriate abroad because the infantry forth with the army could not allegation adjoin the adversary as they acclimated to.
Other weapons that came into activity in the Civil War were not as baleful as the Minie brawl but had a big appulse on surviving. Despite the actuality that the Minie brawl was accessible to load, soldiers still had to abeyance in the average of the activity to reload their guns, and this fabricated them accessible targets. By 1863, there was a new weapon that apparent this botheration alleged repeating burglarize because it could accursed added than one ammo afore the defective of a reload. The best acclaimed blazon was the Spencer carbine.
But like abounding alternative technology, this weapon was abandoned accessible to the Northerners. Abounding Southerners anticipation that this weapon was arbitrary and one Union soldier already wrote: “they say we are not fair, that we accept accoutrements that we amount up on Sunday and shoot all the draft of the week” (Civil War Technology). At the end of the war, the statistics showed that the Minie brawl accumulated with the burglarize did the best accident because “with added than 200,000 soldiers dead and added than 400,000 wounded, 90 percent of these causalities were acquired by these weapons” (Minie Ball).
On the aforementioned year that the Civil War started, Admiral Lincoln ordered a barricade on the Confederates to stop their affection barter and breach the confederacy. So to adverse advance the Union, abounding advances in argosy warfare were blooming which led to the congenital of the H. L. Hunley, which was the aboriginal anytime able abysmal developed by the Confederates. This Confederate abysmal was created to abort the Union barricade board ships with the use of torpedoes that were absorbed forth a continued steak that exploded aloft acquaintance or by a timer.
But afore the abysmal was accessible to attack, it sank three times and on the fourth approved “it was beatific out to advance the U. S. S. Housatonic, and detonated its torpedo, biconcave the Housatonic and thereby acceptable the aboriginal abysmal to anytime bore an adversary vessel” (Dutch). Despite the best efforts the abysmal sank with the blast. Another absurd apparatus that afflicted the attributes of warfare in the seas was aback the active argosy came into action. This time both abandon had their own adaptation of the active which was powered by a beef engine: Union had the U. S. S. Adviser and the Confederates the C.
S. S. Virginia or Merrimack. Already afresh the Confederates approved to abort the Union ships application an active “built aloft the broiled charcoal of a burnt board warship, clad absolutely in adamant plating bottomward to the waterline and bristling with cannons” (White). This warship aloof went beeline for the barricade in Virginia, and although it was hit by explosives and alternative abundant arms the accident was minimal. And this is aloof a abrupt appearance of what ability the action would accept been like by Professor J Rickard with the Virginia: On 8 March 1862 she aflame out of Norfolk to advance the Union blockading fleet.
Her ten accoutrements were against to 219 Union accoutrements on bristles ships, but the Union ships didn’t angle a chance. Aboriginal to go was the U. S. S. Cumberland (24 guns), rammed and sunk. The abandoned austere accident inflicted to the Virginia was that her ram bankrupt off and remained ashore in the Cumberland. All of this meant that the Union bare reinforcement, so they beatific the Adviser to save the day. These ships battled for “several hours as their shells and attempt bounced off anniversary other's blubbery armor plating” and the bout ability accept concluded in a tie as there were no annal cogent who won (White).
As the iron-clad approved their power, the old board ships became obsolete. Alike admitting there was alluring technology actuality acclimated in the Civil War, the abandoned two “weapons” that Admiral Lincoln that acclimated the best were the alternation and the telegraph. Although the railroads were still a new abstraction because they were not acclimated abundant for aggressive purposes, they were still acclimated to advance the adversary and furnish troops. The Union endemic about 21,000 afar of railroad advance while the Confederates abandoned endemic about 9,000 miles.
Since the alpha of the war both abandon acclimated trains to carriage armament and soldiers to the advanced curve faster than anytime before. Because the trains played a actual important role in the war, the adversary acclimated “rail twisters and accessories to draft up railroad bridges and alternative basement and alike some troops specialized in antibacterial railroad accessories as their sole-role in the war” (AE Aeragon) . Best of the time trains were acclimated for transportation, but on appropriate occasions they were acclimated as rams.
Sometimes troops would accelerate trains at abounding acceleration to “damage an adversary alternation or railroad facilities, or to advance troops and alike to abort bridges” (Koenig). This accomplished Confederates soldiers aback they saw a alternation on bonfire aiming beeline for them. Now, the telegraph was amid forth the railroad advance and this meant that the North had the high duke because they accept the best railroad miles. The telegraph helped Admiral Lincoln from the White House “to adviser battlefield reports, advance real-time action affairs and bear orders to his men” (Civil War Technology).
This about-face out to be a abundant advantage for the North because they still appropriate the technology and industry to backpack out advice tasks. And by 1862 the U. S. Aggressive Telegraph Corps “trained 1,200 operators, strung 4,000 afar telegraph wire and had beatific added than 1,000,000 letters aback and for” (Koenig). This abandoned can acquaint that during this war that the admiral was absolutely complex added than in accomplished wars. Throughout the absolute Civil War, diseases were killing added bodies than weapons because bodies had little ability about the bashful killers alleged germs.
Since the alpha of the Civil War in the bounce of 1861 “medically, the United States was woefully able and scientists, meanwhile, had yet to appear up with the approach that bacilli account diseases” (Sohn). This meant that doctors did not apperceive that they should consistently ablution their instruments afore operating and the hospital hygiene was actual poor which led to ache breakouts. But problems led to abounding medical advances such as the agreement to amusement the injuries.
This arrangement was created by Jonathan Letterman, a Union surgeon, who “created a able arrangement of affliction that began with triage abutting to the antecedent of abuse and was followed by accelerated busline to a alternation of clinics, hospitals and specialists” (Sohn). This medical agreement is still capital today. While there medical advancements, abounding improvements on neurology came about. Physicians began “the abstraction of apparition limbs, the acumen of a missing arm or leg as present and painful” (White). The American physician S. Weir Mitchell apparent abnormality such as the carapace shock and posttraumatic accent syndrome.
One of the means that physicians noticed these problems were aback soldiers would benumb or started to agitate berserk and abounding anticipation it was because that actuality was a coward. So Mitchell and his colleague, Jacob da Costa, “came into a cessation which was that the soldiers were adversity from brainy problems, accent and affection diseases” (White). To amusement these problems, they said it was all-important the abatement and draft from the antecedent causing the stress. The Civil War, an accident that could accept or could accept not actuality avoided, shaped the approaching of the absolute world. The war had a abundant appulse on annihilation that ranged from weapons to medicine.
It additionally leaded to the conception of new technology such as the blast and the advance on the medical field. Although the war brought abounding innovations to the United Sates, it is still the bloodiest one in the American history because bodies from the aforementioned nation were actuality dead and it is agnate to what the British Novelists Agatha Christie said about war: One is larboard with the abhorrent activity now that war settles nothing; that to win a war is as adverse as to lose one. Works Cited “Civil War Technology. ” 2011. The History Channel website. Apr. 27 2011, 11:04 <http://www. history. com/topics/civil-war-technology>.
Dutch, Steven. "The Aboriginal Avant-garde War and the Last Ancient War. " University of Wisconsin - Green Bay. N. p. , 02 Jun 2010. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://www. uwgb. edu/dutchs/westtech/x1stmodw. htm>. Koenig, Alan R. "Railroad's Critical Role in the Civil War. " America's Civil War 1996: n. pag. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://www. historynet. com/railroads-critical-role-in-the-civil-war. htm>. “Minie Ball. ” 2011. The History Channel website. Apr. 27 2011, 11:03 <http://www. history. com/topics/minie-ball>. Rickard, J (1 May 2006), American Civil War: The Barricade and the War at Sea, <http://www. historyofwar. rg/articles/wars_american_civil_war09_waratsea. html>. Sohn, Emily. "How the Civil War Afflicted Avant-garde Medicine. " Analysis News. N. p. , 08 Apr. 2011. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://news. discovery. com/history/civil-war-modern-medicine-110331. html>. Stevens, Anthony. Roots of War and Terror. New York: Cromwell Press Ltd, 2044. 212. eBook. "The US Civil War, the Aboriginal Avant-garde War. " AE Aeragon. N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 Apr 2011. <http://www. aeragon. com/03/index. html>. White, David. "Born in the USA: A New Apple of War. " History Today 60. 6 (2010): 12. Points of Appearance Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 27 Apr. 2011.
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