The Fifteenth Amendment

The Fifteenth Alteration (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and accompaniment governments from abstinent a aborigine the appropriate to vote-based on that citizen's "race, color, or antecedent action of servitude". It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and aftermost of the Reconstruction Amendments. In the final years of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction Era that followed, Congress again debated the rights of the millions of atramentous above slaves. By 1869, amendments had been anesthetized to abate bullwork and accommodate citizenship and according aegis beneath the laws, but the attenuated acclamation of Ulysses S. Grant to the admiral in 1868 assertive a majority of Republicans that attention the authorization of atramentous voters was important for the party's future. After abnegation added across-the-board versions of a capitalism amendment, Congress proposed a accommodation alteration banning authorization restrictions on the base of race, color, or antecedent bondage on February 26, 1869. The alteration survived a difficult acceptance action and was adopted on March 30, 1870.United States Supreme Court decisions in the backward nineteenth aeon interpreted the alteration narrowly, and by 1910, best atramentous voters in the South faced obstacles such as poll taxes and articulacy tests, from which white voters were exempted by grandfathering clauses. A arrangement of whites-only primaries and agitated reprisals by groups such as the Ku Klux Klan additionally suppressed atramentous participation.In the twentieth century, the Court interpreted the alteration added broadly, arresting bottomward grandfathering clauses in Guinn v. United States (1915) and dismantling the white primary arrangement in the "Texas primary cases" (1927–1953). Along with after measures such as the Twenty-fourth Amendment, which forbade poll taxes in federal elections, and Harper v. Virginia Accompaniment Board of Elections (1966), which forbade poll taxes in accompaniment elections, these decisions decidedly added atramentous accord in the American political system.

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