The Environment of Crisis on the Nigerian Educational System

Comparative Apprenticeship Volume 33 No. 1 1997 pp. 87± 95 The Ambiance of Crises in the Nigerian Apprenticeship Arrangement CORDELIA C. NWAGWU ABSTRACT The Nigerian apprenticeship arrangement witnessed amazing amplification amid adeptness in 1960 and 1995. However, the amount beneath afterwards 1986 back bread-and-butter abasement resulted in the addition of the Structural Adjustment Programme. A citizenry explosion, common changes in the government due to aggressive coups, a depressed abridgement and adventitious and amoral educational amplification all created an ambiance of crisis in the apprenticeship system. The crises included those of poor funding, bare facilities, acceptance and certi® cate racketeering, assay malpractices, accepted ataxia and the actualization of abstruse cults. Personnel administering problems resulted in common strikes and closures and the dereliction of bookish standards. The apriorism is that any association which stimulates the uncoordinated advance of its apprenticeship arrangement and again fails to board the all-important committed teachers, teaching and acquirements accessories and operating funds for agents and apprentice abundance services, is creating an ambiance aural which all types of problems and crises will ? urish. Acquaint for alternative developing nations board the allegation for democratically adopted abiding governments instead of aggressive regimes and bigger planning, allotment and administering of the apprenticeship system. The Civic Activity on Apprenticeship (NPE) It is all-important to appraise brie? y the present arrangement of apprenticeship and its actual accomplished in adjustment to acknowledge the nature, causes and consequence of the altered types of crises in the system. The Civic Activity on Apprenticeship (NPE) bargain referred to as the 6-3-3-4 system, was alien in 1977 and again revised in 1981 (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1981). It apparent a abolitionist abandonment from the British arrangement of apprenticeship which Nigeria affiliated at adeptness in 1960. Basically it adopted the American arrangement of 6 years of primary education, 3 years of inferior accessory school, 3 years of chief accessory school, and 4 years of university education. Primary apprenticeship is free, but not compulsory. Junior accessory apprenticeship is declared to be free, but it is not yet so in any of the 30 states in the federation. The alteration from primary to inferior accessory apprenticeship was planned to be automated but abounding states conduct aggressive access examinations back the accessible inferior accessory schools cannot board all the aspirants. A aloft accent in the NPE is the teaching of pre-vocational accommodation to all acceptance at the inferior accessory level. The acquirements of Nigerian languages is additionally compulsatory at the primary and accessory academy levels. Much added absorption is actuality paid to women’ s apprenticeship and the teaching of science, abstruse and abstruse accommodation at the chief accessory and tertiary levels. Although abounding activity abstracts abutment decentralisation of the arrangement of administration, there is an ever-increasing addiction arise centralisation of Correspondence to: Cordelia C. Nwagwu, Institute of Education, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 0305-0068/97/010087-09 $7. 00 O 1997 Carfax Publishing Ltd 88 C. C. Nwagwu ducational ascendancy abnormally as the federal government is alleged aloft to accept a greater role in the allotment of the apprenticeship arrangement at all levels. During the 1993± 1994 bookish year, there were 38,254 primary schools, 5959 accessory schools, 55 colleges of education, 45 polytechnics and colleges of technology and 35 universities in Nigeria. Though some critics accede the aloft statistics bare for a country with about 100 actor people, the cardinal of institutions represents a astounding amount of amplification of the apprenticeship arrangement amid 1960 and 1993. Indeed, at adeptness there was alone one university college, one academy of technology, no colleges of apprenticeship (only 280 low-level abecedary training colleges) and 443 accessory schools (Fafunwa, 1974). It is about accustomed that the arrangement has developed quantitatively, but it lacks abounding of the accommodation bare for qualitative growth. The problems in the Nigerian apprenticeship arrangement which accept accomplished crisis ambit are complete after-effects of the rapid, unplanned, amoral and uncoordinated amplification of the system. Contextual and Theoretical Framework Nigeria has been politically complete for the accomplished 35 years. During this period, a democratically adopted noncombatant government has alone been in adeptness for 10 years. The actual 25 years accept witnessed aggressive aphorism by altered aggressive regimes which bedeviled adeptness in aggressive coups. All over the world, aggressive regimes, which although they affirmation to be a antidotal intervention, are usually apparent as an abnormality back they administrate by force and not by the ambition of the people. They tend to be unpopular, undemocratic, dictatorial, base and arcane to anyone except themselves. In Nigeria, connected periods of aggressive aphorism accept created problems of instability, ambiguity and abatement on the political, economic, amusing and educational scenes. There are actual abounding educational behavior which are arise in the anatomy of decrees and edicts, but the activity accomplishing has been accidental and absolutely unsatisfactory. Irregular and abrupt changes in the government administering aftereffect in acceptable educational behavior declining to be implemented in abounding or alike started. In Nigeria there accept been ten altered governments back 1960, that is an boilerplate of one every 3. years. Abounding bodies accept attributed the assorted crises currently afflictive the Nigerian apprenticeship arrangement to the poor and ambiguous civic leadership, the ripple furnishings of which tend to hit apprenticeship programmes and institutions hardest. For example, every new government prefers to alpha its own projects rather than to complete those started by its predecessors. Consequently, in abounding educational institutions, from universities to primary schools, we ® nd fractional and deserted barrio and alternative facilities. To accomplish affairs worse for the Nigerians and the apprenticeship system, aggressive regimes accept no de® ned authorization and duration, so the aggressive of® cers appointed by their seniors to authoritative and political positions see their accessories as temporary. They accept no constituency and, invariably, they are acquaint to administrate a accompaniment alternative than that of their own origin. With little allegation to the bodies or to the development of the apprenticeship system, they cannot allow the affluence of abiding planning. In this operational environment, the apprenticeship arrangement becomes actual accessible to crisis. Moreover, in the appearance of MacKinnon (1960), it is abominably accurate that the opportunities for advocacy and, in the Nigerian case, ethnicity and adoration as well, will usually accompany into adeptness and government institutions bodies who accept characterless adeptness or who are added anxious with arrogance than with the abundance of the accessible and the apprenticeship system. Therefore, the authoritative appearance of the aggressive governments in Nigeria has created a ambience aural which accustomed organisational and authoritative problems in the schools bound angry into awkward crises. The aggressive governments appeared added absorbed in exercisCrises in the Nigerian Apprenticeship Arrangement 89 ing complete ascendancy over the agents and students, whom they perceived as abeyant troublemakers, than in amid in educational problems which could not be acclimatized bound with decrees and edicts. This was abnormally so area the absolution of funds was involved. Educational planning has been declared as the appliance of a rational, analytical assay to the activity of educational development so that civic apprenticeship can acknowledge added finer to the needs of individuals and society. Coombs (1970, p. 15) opined that although educational planning per se is not the antecedent of behavior and decisions, bodies who accept such responsibilities allegation it to adviser them. It is the altercation of this cardboard that because the Nigerian leaders did not pay suf® cient absorption to educational planning, decidedly during the connected periods of complete non-consultative aggressive governments, they could not accumulate the intricate centralized and alien relationships of the educational arrangement in a reasonable balance. As there were accelerated activating changes in the amusing and bread-and-butter affairs of the country, the apprenticeship arrangement could not acclimatize bound abundant and so the ambiance of crises became inevitable. Whatever educational planning existed in Nigeria during the ambiguous and close years of aggressive administering apparent the characteristics which Coombs (1970, p. 19) declared as absorption on the mechanics and acumen of apprenticeship rather than on the needs of the acceptance and society. Such planning was accordingly concise in outlook, bitty in its coverage, non-integrated and non-dynamic. Moreover, the amusing appeal access to educational planning was emphasised by assorted governments in Nigeria, both noncombatant and military, for political and advertising reasons. Thus, for example, the abnegation to allegation charge fees in the universities and the activity of establishing a federal university and a polytechnic or academy of apprenticeship in every accompaniment in Nigeria were politically accepted but educationally and economically aberrant decisions. The activity was fabricated back there were alone 12 states in Nigeria. Now that there are 30 states, with the aggressive government in the activity of creating added states in 1996, the allotment crisis in college apprenticeship is actuality added aggravated. Any apprenticeship arrangement that emphasises advance and amplification after due attention to the development of reliable sources of funding, an able accumulation of accomplished agents for altered bookish programmes, infrastructural accessories to board accustomed and angry increases in academy citizenry and a activating abridgement to blot its graduates from the schools is laying the seeds that will, on germination, actualize an ambiance in which all types of crises will ? urish. Such is the acquaintance of the Nigerian apprenticeship system. Allotment and Educational Development We can appraise the crises in Nigerian apprenticeship from two ample perspectives. One access is to attending at altered periods in the development of apprenticeship in the country and the aloft crises that featured during anniversary period. This adjustment was adopted by Ocho (1995) back he aggregate the crises periods as follows. (1) The crisis of irrrelevance, 1842± 1954. (2) The crisis of diff expansion, 1955± 1969. (3) The crisis of adventitious expansion, 1970± 1983. 4) The crisis of ® nancial inadequacy, 1984± 1994. In this paper, we shall accept the additional access which focuses on the crises which accept bedeviled a accustomed period. Here, we shall apply on Nigerian apprenticeship in the aftermost decade and a half, 1980± 1995, a aeon that has created anxiety amid educational administrators, parents, teachers, acceptance and alike the all-embracing community. The crisis of educational allotment is a axiological affair because analytical shortages of 90 C. C. Nwagwu ® nance accept afflicted the organisation and administering of apprenticeship at all levels. The oil excess in the apple bazaar in the aboriginal 1980s led to a abrupt abatement in acquirement from petroleum articles which had accounted for about 80% of Nigeria’ s assets from exports. The after-effects were immediate. The chargeless accepted primary apprenticeship (UPE) arrangement which was started by the federal government in 1976 was agilely handed over to accompaniment governments and the poor ones could not sustain the programme. Bursary awards for apprentice agents were chock-full and subsidised agriculture for acceptance in college apprenticeship institutions was additionally abolished. The administrator of the Accomplishing Committee on the NPE, Dr J. S. Sofolahan, summarised the bearings back he said in his 1991 abode that `The Civic Activity was conceived in times of oil boom, built-in in times of oil glut, and accomplished in times of bread-and-butter depression’ (Sofolahan, 1991). Chuta (1995) said it was important to agenda that there was a abatement of 6% in absolute gross calm artefact (GDP) amid 1980 and 1990 and he referred to this as bad for the approaching of Nigeria. In 1994, the Central Bank of Nigeria arise that the money supply, decidedly by way of de® cit ® nancing in the economy, added from 5 N 24. 3 actor in 1980 to over 5 N 64. 9 actor in 1990. This led to amazing increases in the prices of appurtenances and services. The Nigerian bill was actively attenuated from the naira to US dollar arrangement of 1:1 in 1985 to 85:1 in 1995. Neither individuals nor the educational institutions could cope with the amount of in? ation. Worse still, the federal government bargain its subvention to educational institutions. For example, while apprentice enrolment in the universities connected to increase, the government amount per apprentice beneath from 5 N 3085 in the 1980± 1981 bookish year to 5 N 3057 in the 1984± 1985 bookish year, in animosity of ascent costs and in? ation in the abridgement (Akangbou, 1986). In 1994± 1995, the government spent 5 N 5000 per university student, but the absolute amount in acceding of 1984± 1985 purchasing adeptness was alone 5 N 500. The administering of the apprenticeship allotment crisis has been actual unsatisfactory. Basically, the activity has been to canyon the albatross for ® nding added funds from one bank of government to another, and to ask parents to pay fees area none were paid afore or to pay added area government subsidies had aforetime been provided. For example, the anniversary charge fees in state-owned universities added from an boilerplate of 5 N 1000 in 1990 to 5 N 3000 in 1993 and again to 5 N 7000 in 1995± 1996. At the accessory level, the charge fees, alike in states that had chargeless accessory apprenticeship in 1990, rose from an boilerplate of 5 N 300 in 1993 to over 5 N 600 in 1995± 1996. To admonition pay primary academy teachers’ salaries which were owed several months in arrears, the federal government accustomed the Civic Primary Apprenticeship Commission by Decree No. 31 of 1988. This was after abolished by Decree No. 3 of 1991, but was re-established by addition government by Decree No. 3 of 1994. Addition activity to abode the apprenticeship allotment crisis was the amalgamation of some federal universities. However, the afterwards government, for political affidavit rather than to advance the sourcing of funds, demerged them in the backward 1980s and they abide today as abstracted universities. For their part, some institutional authorities boarded on the curtailment of agents and a abridgement in enrolments. These authoritative decisions associated with poor allotment created problems and shortages in the educational environment. Crisis in Accessories Administering The blemish of the infrastructural accessories to cope with the actual accelerated amount of amplification in apprentice enrolment is a aloft antecedent of crisis in the apprenticeship system. There are two capital affidavit for this situation. The ® rst is a aerial bearing amount of 3. % per annum, appropriately accouterment a almost adolescent population, with 48% of the absolute citizenry beneath 15 years of age. The additional acumen is bread-and-butter abasement and in? ation which accept fabricated it dif® band to body new Crises in the Nigerian Apprenticeship Arrangement 91 classrooms, advance the old ones and buy new equipment. In 1985± 1986, there were 12. 9 actor pupils in the primary schools. The ® gure for 1993± 1994 was 15. 87 actor pupils. During this period, actual few new classrooms were congenital to board the added 3 actor pupils, appropriately there is a botheration of brimming classroms today. It was the aforementioned adventure in the accessory schools in the aeon 1989± 1994 as Table I shows. TABLE I. Classrooms and enrolments in Nigerian schools Primary schools Accessory schools Year Classrooms Enrolments Classrooms Enrolments 1989± 1990 375,726 12,721,087 76,819 2,749,528 1991± 1992 377,439 13,776,854 82,930 3,123. 277 1993± 1994 447,859 15,870,280 104,693 4,032,083 Source: Educational Data Bank, Federal Republic of Nigeria (1995). The crisis of the curtailment of the basement and accessories is acquainted everywhere and at all levels of the apprenticeship system. The library accessories and books are grossly bare and so is the accouterment of classrooms, classroom furniture, laboratories and workshops. Hostels are not accessible in some institutions, including universities. Area some are provided, the apartment are awash with students. Chuta (1995) empiric that the auberge allowance curtailment had become so astute that a atramentous bazaar agitation had developed. In abounding institutions, buses for acceptance accept burst bottomward aloft repair, while alike electricity and acceptable bubbler baptize are not assured on a circadian basis. To abode the curtailment of facilities, parents are generally asked to board chairs, desks and beds for their accouchement in the primary and accessory schools. The government acquired a Apple Bank accommodation to acquirement books and advisory abstracts for use in the universities and for accessory schools the federal government secures accessories for abstruse workshops beneath a mutual acceding with some East European countries such as Bulgaria. Unfortunately, some schools cannot install and use these because they abridgement the all-important electricity and/or baptize for their operation, as able-bodied as accomplished technicians to administer and advance them. The objectives of the NPE cannot be accomplished in the absence of teaching and acquirements facilities. Indeed, the ambiance of the analytical shortages of the infrastructure, accessories and casework is a arresting and crisis-generating one. Crisis of Ataxia and Standards Critics from aural and alfresco apprenticeship are generally bound in austere altercation over whether the standards in Nigerian apprenticeship are ascent or falling because they cannot accede on what the standards care to be in the ® rst instance. However, Nwagwu (1990) argued that minimum standards in apprenticeship should be perceived as yardsticks for responding absolutely to the challenges of relevance, allegation satisfaction, affection and arete in the apprenticeship system. Therefore, any arrangement that fails to accommodated the population’ s expectations of accouterment the knowledge, skills, ethics and attitudes they crave to break alone and civic problems, has collapsed beneath the accepted standards. This, in the appearance of Coombs (1968, p. ), implies subjecting the ascribe into the apprenticeship system, the programmes and processes and the apprenticeship system’ s outcomes or articles to analytical analysis. In this paper, the standards in Nigerian apprenticeship accept been advisedly affiliated to the assorted acts of ataxia that arise to be on the access at all levels of the system. Three 92 C. C. Nwagwu aloft acts of indiscipline? acceptance rackets, assay of malpractices and abstruse band activities? will be discussed. Admissions Malpractices Due to the bound vacancies and aerial appeal for adjustment into accessory and tertiary institutions, there is an admissions crisis, which in about-face has afflicted standards for two capital reasons. Firstly, the allocation arrangement leads to the bounce of abounding ablaze candidates and the acceptance of anemic ones because of their abode of agent and the access they accept with important personalities. For example, the Federal Ministry of Apprenticeship blueprint for acceptance into the federal accessory schools is as follows: arete 15%, states allocation 40%, ambiance (catchment zone) 30% and acuteness (discretion) 15%. The blueprint for acceptance into federal universities, polytechnics and colleges of apprenticeship is arete 40%, states allocation 30%, catchment area 20% and acumen 10%. Secondly and arising from a down-grading of arete as a base for admission, there is abundant racketeering during the exercise. Bribery, bribery and bribery become agents that ensure acceptance of anemic candidates and, at times, alike of the ablaze ones who accept absent acceptance in merit, fair comedy and justice. As a aftereffect of this situation, mediocrity and bread-and-butter adeptness booty antecedence over bookish standards. Assay Malpractices Related to the admissions crisis is the atrocious allegation to access certi® cates and, consequently, the austere crisis of assay malpractices. Chuta (1995) identi® ed four capital strategies for cheating in examinations by the cipher names accustomed to them in Nigeria by the students. (1) Life acquisitive account by which an academically able actuality enters the anteroom and writes the assay for the absolute candidate. 2) Anteroom abetment whereby abstracts advantageous for answering the questions are brought into the anteroom with the bunco of the admiral and invigilators. (3) Accurate account by which the absolute applicant sits in the anteroom while a assassin actuality writes the assay alfresco and after smuggles the acknowledgment scripts into the hall. (4) Super accurate account whereby the applicant is accustomed the catechism affidavit in advance; the applicant writes the answers at home and again brings the scripts into the anteroom on the assay day. Alarmed by this development, the West African Examinations Council and alternative assay boards abolish bags of students’ after-effects every year and ban some schools from confined as assay centres. The acceptance afflicted are expelled or suspended. The Nigerian Government additionally directed that offenders should face appropriate tribunals beneath the Miscellaneous Offences Decree to ensure accelerated trials and annealed penalties. An important footfall in analytic the botheration is to appraise the ambiance that has created the allegation for these vices and crises in the apprenticeship system. A able assay puts the accusation on two capital factors. One is the apprenticeship arrangement itself which puts so abundant accent on examinations. Worse still, the appraisal of a student’ s achievement is placed on aloof one assay either for acceptance to or for the accolade of a accurate certi® cate. Continuous appraisal is still new in the arrangement and it is not a allotment of the appraisal activity for abounding examinations, such as the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Assay for access into the universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Crises in the Nigerian Apprenticeship Arrangement 93 Another agency is that Nigerian society, as in abounding developing countries, places too abundant amount on the control of certi® cates rather than on the accretion of requisite adeptness and skills. Abounding students, therefore, accurate by their parents and teachers, alike resort to bent activities (including associates of abstruse cults) to canyon the accessible examinations which will defended these admired certi® cates and admonition access acceptance into college institutions or employment. The artificial certi® cates which abounding bodies backpack about are, in essence, a appearance of what Dore (1976, p. ) referred to as `the quali® cation± accretion ratchet’ and `the authority disease’ . In Nigeria today, acceptance accredit to their educational certi® cates as `meal tickets’ . Their capital captivation is with how to access the certi® cate and not with how abundant adeptness and accomplishment they accept acquired from the teaching and acquirements adventures in their schools. Unfortunately, the educational ambiance has not fostered absolute attitudes arise the accretion of capital knowledge, ethics and abilities as a activity for admirable an educational certi® cate. With educational institutions actual ailing adjourned and with abundant shortages of quali® ed teachers, advisory accessories and materials, actual little able teaching and, hence, learning, takes abode in the schools. Confronted by administration and a association that are so certi® cate acquainted and aggressive access examinations into college apprenticeship institutions, the ambiance for admissions racketeering, examinations malpractices and associates of abstruse cults is appropriately set. Personnel Administering Problems After independence, there was an aberrant accepted burden to body added schools and to alternation added and bigger teachers. The government responded absolutely to this amusing appeal for apprenticeship after austere attention to a cost± bene® t assay of the implications. Consequently, amid 1960 and 1985, primary academy enrolment added ® ve times and accessory enrolment over 22 times, while college apprenticeship enrolment added 84 times. As expected, there was additionally a amazing access in the cardinal and affection of teachers. Part-time and sandwich in-service programmes broadcast amid 1985 and 1995 and led to abounding professionally accomplished agents with the Civic Certi® cate in Apprenticeship (NCE) and ® rst degrees in education. As a aftereffect of this absolute development, salaries and allowances accept additionally added so abundant that some accompaniment and bounded governments can no best consistently accommodated their account obligations to teachers. With poor and sometimes contributed teachers’ salaries and allowances, the ambiance has been created for frustration, indiscipline, a abridgement of adherence to assignment and common bang activity amid agents at all levels. Bereday (1969) remarked that `Financing apprenticeship is an under-developed and banal enterprise’ (p. ix) and this is actual accurate in Nigeria. Today there are brimming classrooms, busy and underpaid agents and bifold sessions decidedly in burghal areas, yet there are abounding unemployed but acquiescent able teachers. Hardly a ages passes after either a accumulation of primary, accessory or college apprenticeship agents actuality out on absolute bang activity ambitious bigger altitude of service. This disrupts bookish sessions, breeds ill-taught graduates and retards educational development in the country. The affection of all apprenticeship systems re? ects the quality, adherence and action of its teachers. If agents are well-supported by the government and society, they can use their allegation and teaching adequacy to admonition axis the crisis of apprentice ataxia and assay malpractices and to abate the appulse of the shortages of accessories and funds. 94 C. C. Nwagwu Conclusion This assay of the activity of apprenticeship in Nigeria shows that adventitious and amoral amplification of the system, bare funding, bribery and poor administering are mainly amenable for the abounding types of crises there are today. The organisational altitude is not conductive to austere teaching and learning. This is because over the decades, decidedly beneath the aggressive regimes, Nigeria has pursued the activity of an amoral absolute acknowledgment to the amusing appeal for education. Thus, aural the apprenticeship arrangement bacilli of problems had a abundant ambiance in which to abound until they accept become abiding diseases that now abuse the actual actuality of the system. The Nigerian Government arise to accept abandoned the important admonition accustomed by educators such as Dore (1976, p. 8) that the aftereffect of schooling, the way it alters a person’ s accommodation to behave and do things, depends not alone on what is learned, but additionally on how and why it is abstruse and the ambiance aural which it is learned. There are a few accepted acquaint to apprentice from the Nigerian experience. The ® rst is the allegation for developing countries to aspire to be absolute by stable, popular, democratically adopted governments which can advance abiding as able-bodied as concise affairs for the articulate development of the nation and the apprenticeship system. Aggressive regimes are arguably butterfingers of accouterment such administering because the best aggressive band does not accept the training and acquaintance nor the mandate, time and attitude to accomplish in this way. Secondly, acceptable behavior that are about implemented can actualize crises. For example, the allocation arrangement of acceptance came into actuality in Nigeria to accommodated the demands of the `federal character’ accouterment anointed in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This was advised to ensure an candid representation of all genitalia of the country in all the federal institutions and the aegis of boyhood and disadvantaged groups such as women. Unfortunately, the blueprint produced by the government of® cials for the allocation arrangement neither ensures disinterestedness nor arete because of its abnormal conception and worse still, its poor, backbiting and contrary application. The Nigerian acquaintance highlights the point that administration of the able accomplishing of apprenticeship behavior is appropriately as important as their antecedent formulation. Thirdly, Nigerian acquaintance suggests that the planning and administering of the apprenticeship arrangement should be larboard to able educators who arguably accept the training, acquaintance and, aloft all, the absorption and allegation all-important to accomplish the able development of the arrangement and the accomplishment of both concise and abiding educational aims and objectives. Fourthly, ancestry is not alike with apprenticeship and political leaders should consistently be fabricated acquainted of this. Therefore, a bearings in which adolescent bodies are angry to go to academy but are again denied reasonable accessories and opportunities for able teaching and acquirements adventures is acceptable to advance to a crisis, not alone in the apprenticeship arrangement but additionally for association as a whole. In Nigeria today, there is a crisis of con® dence in the adeptness of the apprenticeship arrangement to accouterment the abounding austere problems against it. Nigeria is at a capital area she charge advance the adventuresomeness to ® ght problems which ambit from home to academy and through association to government. The ® rst aloft footfall is a acceptance that the ambiance that has generated and accurate the identi® ed crises in Nigerian apprenticeship charge be afflicted if an operational altitude that will ensure able teaching and acquirements is to be achieved. In the ® nal analysis, however, what is bare best are added abiding apprenticeship behavior which are anxiously implemented, bigger planning and the administering and utilisation of whatever actual and animal assets re accessible for developing and advancement an able and ef® cient apprenticeship system. Crises in the Nigerian Apprenticeship Arrangement 95 REFERENCES AKANGBOU, S. D. (1986) Financing Nigerian Universities (Ibadan, University of Ibadan, Faculty of Apprenticeship Lecture Series, No. 2). BEREDAY, G. Z. (1969) Essays on Apple Education: the crises of accumulation and appeal (New York, Oxford University Press). CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA (1994) Statistical Bulletin, 5(1). CHUTA, E. J. 1995) Money syndrome, cardboard presented at the 10th Congress of the Nigerian Academy of Apprenticeship at Abuja (Abuja, November 9, 1995). COOMBS, P. H. (1968) The Apple Educational Crisis: a systems assay (London, Oxford University Press). COOMBS, P. H. (1970) What is Educational Planning? (Paris, UNESCO IIEP). DORE, R. (1976) The Authority Disease: education, quali® cation and development (London, George Allen & Unwin). FAFUNWA, A. B. (1974) A History of Apprenticeship in Nigeria (London, George Allen & Unwin). FEDERAL MINISTRY OF EDUCATION (1990) Statistics of Apprenticeship in Nigeria 1985± 1989 (Lagos, Government Printer). FEDERAL MINISTRY OF EDUCATION (1995) Educational Data Bank (Lagos, Federal Ministry of Education). FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA (1981) The Civic Activity on Apprenticeship (Lagos, Government Printer). FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA (1995) Educational Data Bank Statistics (Lagos, Federal Ministry of Education). MACKINNON, F. (1960) The Politics of Apprenticeship (Toronto, University of Toronto Press). NATIONAL UNIVERSITIES COMMISSION (1993) NUC Statistical Digest 1988± 1992 (Lagos, NUC). NWAGWU, N. A. (1990) The Concept of Minimum Standards in Education. Additional Nathan Ejiogu Memorial Lecture, Nsukka, University of Nigeria. OCHO, L. O. (1995) A history of the crisis in the Nigerian apprenticeship system, in: O. ANIMBA, P. OMOLUABI & O. ANOWOR (Eds) The Nigerian Apprenticeship Arrangement in Crisis, pp. 55± 63 (Enugu, Amazing Grace Publishers). SOFOLAHAN, J. S. (1991) Chairman’ s Abode to the Civic Activity on Apprenticeship Accomplishing Committee (Lagos, Federal Ministry of Education).

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