The Civil War and Appalachia

Eric Lane English 1020 Tim Parker 11/9/12 The Civilian War and Appalachian Cartography Did Appalachian cartography accept an aftereffect on the civilian war? Every above war in history has two things in common: a champ and a loser. There are abounding factors of war that adjudge the champ and the loser, some activity unnoticed. The cartography of a war has an impacting affect on the war and is sometimes overlooked, generally arch to one side's atrophy (Falls 5). Appalachia has a clashing geography, for it ranges from breakable down, plain-like areas, to mountains areas of up to about 7000 anxiety (“The Appalachians”). The Civilian War had abounding battles amid in Appalachia, an breadth accession from southern genitalia of New York, all the way bottomward to arctic Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi(“The Appalachians”). Appalachian cartography was home to abounding battlefields of the Civilian War, but could this cartography absolutely accept had an all-embracing impact? Throughout history, abounding abundant wars accept been acknowledged on assorted types of breadth about the world. Halvard Bugaug and Scott Gates abutment this and accept fabricated a affirmation in the article, “The Cartography of Civilian War”, that belted factors comedy a analytical role in free how a war is fought and who will prevail. The two best important factors they accord are breadth and climate. In the article, Bugaug and Gates both advertence the book History of Warfare, accounting by John Keegan, to accord examples of how these factors aftereffect wars. Keegan gives abounding samples of antecedent generals who accept abandoned these factors and advance to their adverse downfall. One frequently accepted archetype accustomed is the French army advance by Napoleon. Napoleon advance his appallingly ample army into Russia, not demography into annual Russia's angrily algid weather. Although they fought, and won, battles amid in Russia, the algid acclimate began to booty its assessment on Napoleon's army, causing them to be abundantly weakened. This attenuated accompaniment of his army, in turn, advance to the French actuality defeated and accident the war(Bugaug 418). However, the cartography does not consistently accept a abrogating effect. Keegan additionally gives samples of 'gifted' generals who took these factors into account, acceptance them to use these factors to their advantage(Bugaug 419). Cyril Falls, assistant of Aggressive History at the University of Oxford, acknowledges this as able-bodied in her account Cartography and War Strategy. The account discusses how apple cartography should be a accountable of abstraction for a administrator and how this cartography should appearance their war strategies. Mapping out and compassionate the breadth of a battlefield afore the action begins is acute to accomplish aggressive success(Falls 5). A accepted compassionate of the battlefield gives opportunities to change and acclimatize aggressive strategies and tactics, which could accord an army the bend bare to be arrive (Falls 6). Falls again adds that application the accessible accustomed assets amid in the cartography of an breadth has its allowances as well. These assets can be broadcast accordingly, bartering the army and possibly acceptance them to amplitude their campaign(Falls 9). Alex J. La Rocque, biographer of the account “The Role of Cartography in Aggressive planning has a agnate viewpoint. La Rocque acknowledges that the actuality of this accord amid cartography and aggressive science is not new. He says that ecology factors, such as relief, altitude and weather, vegetation, arising characteristics, and cultural appearance can account aggressive tactic and cardinal problems. These elements of the ambiance accept played important roles in all wars from those in which the bean bang was the arch weapon bottomward to the present time(La Rocque 70). La Rocque states that the capital aberration amid the claim of cartography in appropriate planning and cardinal planning is agnate to the aforementioned aberration that exists amid mapping areal categories on all-embracing maps and mapping areal categories on baby calibration maps. The mapper's claim in presenting advice on maps at altered scales is bent by his objective. Appalachia has abounding altered belted altitude that accomplish it acceptable to accept an aftereffect on the civilian war. The appalachian breadth has abounding abundance ranges and plain-like areas. The absolute arrangement is about 2000 afar continued and 300 afar advanced and ranges from arctic Mississippi all the way to southern New York(“The Appalachians”). These mountains are accepted as a “barrier” active east to west as it forms a alternation of alternating ridglines and valleys aggressive in action to any alley active east-west. The Appalachian Plateau is the westernmost allotment of appalachia and is belted by a abrupt abruptness on the east alleged the Allegheny Front(“Appalachia and the Ozarks”). This advanced is the best cogent barrier to western movement in the country of the Rocky Mountains(“Appalachia and the Ozarks”). The cartography of this arena has been created abundantly through beef abrasion of the accumbent beds of the autogenous lowland. The afterward map will appearance the appalachian region. Abounding encounters of the civilian war were amid in this region, as apparent in the map Civilian War Battlefield map following. Comparison of the two maps shows that abounding battles were amid in appalachia and its geography, giving it abeyant to accept an aftereffect on the war. Wilma A. Dunaway, in his archive, “ Slavery and Emancipation in the Abundance South: Sources, Evidence and Methods”, provides examples of how the Union(the North) and the Confederates(the South) strategically acclimated the Appalachian area. Dunaway states that the aerial areas of West Virginia accustomed for guerrilla warfare attacks. Both armies grew fatigued from traveling up and bottomward the mountains, abrogation them accessible for attack(Dunaway). In addition, both armies targeted assorted sites aural the arena as cardinal control credibility because they were amid on above rivers, were railroad junctures, or were the sites of important assets such as the civic burglarize works, saltworks, mineral springs, or mines(Dunaway). Farms and livestock were additionally destroyed and/or pillaged to additionally be somewhat benign to the armies(“Appalachia”). One specific action amid in Appalachia is the Action of Gettysburg. The action was amid in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and lasted for a absolute of 3 days. After the aboriginal day the Amalgamated army was outnumbering the Abutment and looked as if a achievement was inevitable. The Union, afterwards a hasty accident on the aboriginal day, was devastated that they had absent about bisected of their troops and aloof up to Cemetery Hill and Gulp's Hill. There they able as abundant as accessible with the little time they had for an advancing Amalgamated attack. Barricades and assorted alternative fortifications were congenital on the college grounds, giving Abutment troops the advantage that was cardinal in the battle. The Amalgamated soldiers now had to action the blow of the abominable action now traveling uphill. The video from the History Channel, “The Action of Gettysburg”, showed images of abounding soldiers disturbing to action the action at this disadvantage. They had agitation seeing distances up the hills and were alike accepted to accept had affable blaze on themselves cerebration that it was the enemy. Afterwards the additional day of action the abutment was still shorthanded and outnumbered, although they fought off the amalgamated push. The Amalgamated General, Robert E. Lee, fabricated the accommodation to advance a ample force to advance the Abutment line. Abutment artillery, who had an acute ambit advantage, had what was alleged “target practice” on the amalgamated troops, abundantly abrasion the force. By the time they were in ambit of the Abutment line, Amalgamated troops had been broken afar to the point that retreat was the alone option, giving the Abutment the achievement of the Action of Gettysburg. The action was the bloodiest anytime fought on american soil. The Action of Gettysburg rallied the North and is what angry the course of the Civilian War. They had the aplomb that they could defeat the aflutter accepted Robert E. Lee. The cartography of appalachia provided the North with the bend that they bare to booty the action which, in turn, shaped the aftereffect of the Civilian War. Wars are an important allotment of history that accept shaped the way we alive today. War has abounding factors that adjudge the champ and the loser, and cartography is one that should not be forgotten. Geography has acquired aided abounding armies to victory, and taken abounding armies to defeat. Appalachian cartography varies abundant over its ample spam and accepted to be a above factor. The Action of Gettysburg was a cardinal action that the North won, due to the ample hills that they acclimated to their advantage. Should that belted advantage be taken away, allowance are that the South, outnumbering the North, would accept won that action and afflicted history. This leads to the question, did Appalachian cartography accept an affect on the Civilian War?

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