Test Bank Ch1

Test Bank—Chapter One (Data Representation) Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the afterward Boolean operations produces the achievement 1 for the atomic cardinal of ascribe patterns? 2. Which of the afterward best describes the NOR operation? 3. Which of the afterward bit patterns cannot be bidding in hexadecimal notation? 4. Which of the afterward is the bifold representation of 4 5/8? A. 100. 11 B. 10. 11 C. 110. 101 D. 100. 101 ANSWER: D 5. Which of the afterward bit patterns represents the amount 5 in two’s accompaniment notation? A. 00011010 B. 11111011 C. 00000101 D. 11111011 ANSWER: C 6. Which of the afterward bit patterns represents the amount -5 in two’s accompaniment notation? A. 00011010 B. 11111011 C. 00000101 D. 11111011 ANSWER: D 7. In which of the afterward accession problems (using two’s accompaniment notation) does an overflow absurdity occur? A. 0011 B. 0100 C. 1100 + 1010 + 0100 + 1100 ANSWER: B 8. Which of the afterward representations in two’s accompaniment characters represents the better value? A. 00000010 B. 11111111 C. 00000001 D. 11111110 ANSWER: A 9. Which of the afterward bit patterns (represented in hexadecimal notation) represents a abrogating cardinal in two’s accompaniment notation? A. 7F B. 55 C. A6 D. 08 ANSWER: C 10. What amount is represented by the bit arrangement 01011100 aback interpreted application floating-point architecture in which the best cogent bit is the assurance bit, the abutting three $.25 represent the backer acreage in balance notation, and the aftermost four $.25 represent the mantissa? A. -1 1/2 B. 1 1/2 C. -3/8 D. 3/8 ANSWER: B 11. Which of the afterward ethics cannot be stored accurately application a floating-point architecture in which the best cogent bit is the assurance bit, the abutting three $.25 represent the backer acreage in balance notation, and the aftermost four $.25 represent the mantissa? A. 2 1/2 B. 3/16 C. 7 D. 6 1/4 ANSWER: D 12. Which of the afterward bit-patterns represents the aboriginal amount application the floating-point architecture in which the best cogent bit is the assurance bit, the abutting three $.25 represent the backer acreage in balance notation, and the aftermost four $.25 represent the mantissa? A. 01001000 B. 1011000 C. 00101000 D. 01111000 ANSWER: C 13. Which of the afterward abstracts accumulator systems provides the best able accidental admission to alone abstracts items? A. Capital memory B. Alluring disk C. Optical C D. and DVDs ANSWER: A 14. Which of the afterward accumulator systems is best ill-fitted for autumn and retrieving continued strings of abstracts that are candy in their after order? A. Capital memory B. Alluring disk C. Optical C D and DVDs ANSWER: C 15. Which of the afterward accumulation accumulator arrangement does not crave concrete motion? A. Alluring tape B. Alluring disk C. DVDs D. Flash drives ANSWER: D 16. Assuming that anniversary of the afterward bit patterns originally had alike parity, which one contains an error? A. 10110100 B. 11000011 C. 00011000 D. 10001001 ANSWER: D 17. How abounding errors per arrangement could be adapted aback application an error-correcting cipher in which any two cipher patterns alter by a Hamming ambit of 8? A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D. 6 ANSWER: A 18. Which of the afterward is a accessible LZW compression of the bulletin “xyz xyz xyz”? A. 1234 B. 1234545 C. 232 D. 12 ANSWER: B 19. How abounding altered symbols can be encoded application Unicode? A. 256 B. 4,096 C. 65,536 D. 1,046,476 ANSWER: C 20. Which of the afterward systems is atomic able aback encoding numeric values? A. Two’s accompaniment notation B. Balance notation C. ASCII D. Floating-point notation ANSWER: C 21. Which of the afterward is a agency of encoding music? A. ASCII B. MIDI C. JPEG D. GIF ANSWER: B Fill-in-the-blank/Short-answer Questions 1. A computer’s capital anamnesis consists of abundant anamnesis cells, anniversary of which contains ________ bits. Anniversary anamnesis corpuscle is articular by a numeric amount alleged the cell’s _________. ANSWER: eight, address 2. Represent the bit arrangement 1011010010011111 in hexadecimal notation. ________ ANSWER: B49F 3. A7DF is the hexadecimal representation for what bit pattern? ____________ ANSWER: 1010 0111 1101 1111 4. How abounding altered bit patterns can be formed if anniversary charge abide of absolutely 6 bits? ____________ ANSWER: 64 5. Translate anniversary of the afterward bifold representations into its agnate abject ten representation. A. 1100__________ B. 10. 011__________ C. 0. 01 __________ D. 10001__________ ANSWER: A. 12 B. 2 3/8 C. 1/4 D. 17 6. Rewrite anniversary of the afterward ethics (represented in abject ten notation) in bifold notation. A. 7__________ B. 23__________ C. 2 1/4 __________ D. 5/8__________ ANSWER: A. 111 B. 10111 C. 10. 01 D. 0. 101 7. If the patterns 101. 11 and 1. 011 represent ethics in bifold notation, what is the bifold representation of their sum? ____________ ANSWER: 111. 001 8. Application a two’s accompaniment characters arrangement in which anniversary amount is represented by a arrangement of six bits, represent the amount 3. ____________ ANSWER: 000011 9. Application a two’s accompaniment characters arrangement in which anniversary amount is represented by a arrangement of six bits, represent the amount -3. ____________ ANSWER: 111101 10. What is the better absolute accumulation that can be represented in a two’s accompaniment arrangement in which anniversary amount is represented by eight bits? ____________ ANSWER: 127 (represented by 01111111) 11. In a two’s accompaniment system, what amount is represented by the arrangement 11111111111111001? _________ ANSWER: -7 12. Aback application two’s accompaniment notation, what bit arrangement represents the antithesis of 01101010? ____________ ANSWER: 10010110 13. What amount is represented by anniversary of the afterward patterns in balance notation? A. 10000 ____ B. 0110 ____ C. 1011 ____ ANSWER: A. 0, B. -2, C. 14. Application an 8-bit floating-point architecture in which the best cogent bit is the assurance bit, the abutting three $.25 represent the backer acreage in balance notation, and the aftermost four $.25 represent the mantissa, address the bit arrangement that represents the amount 1 3/4. (Use normalized form. ) ____________ ANSWER: 01011110 15. What is the better amount that can be represented in a floating-point arrangement in which anniversary amount is encoded by a byte whose best cogent bit is the assurance bit, the abutting three $.25 represent the backer acreage in balance notation, and the aftermost four $.25 represent the mantissa? ___________ ANSWER: 7 1/2 (represented as 01111111) 16. Which of the afterward accession problems cannot be apparent accurately aback application a floating-point arrangement in which anniversary amount is encoded by a byte whose best cogent bit is the assurance bit, the abutting three $.25 represent the backer acreage in balance notation, and the aftermost four $.25 represent the mantissa? A. 2 1/2 + 1 3/8B. 3 1/2 + 4 1/2C. 7 + 3/4 ____________ ANSWER: A, B, and C 17. The afterward is an error-correcting cipher in which any two patterns alter by a Hamming ambit of at atomic three. Attribute Representation A 000000 B 001111 C 010011 D 011100 E 100110 F 101001 G 110101 H 111010 Decode anniversary of the afterward patterns 010011 ________101010 ________011000 ________101101 _______ ANSWER: C, H, D, F 18. How abounding errors in a distinct cipher arrangement could be adapted aback application an error-correcting cipher in which anniversary cipher arrangement is a Hamming ambit of at atomic seven from any alternative cipher pattern? ____________ ANSWER: 3 19. The afterward is a bulletin that was originally encoded so that anniversary arrangement had odd parity. Circle the patterns in which an absurdity has absolutely occurred. 0110101 11110000 10010010 00000000 11111111 00001000 00111101 ______________________________________ ANSWER: Second, fourth, fifth, and sixth 20. Abstracts compression techniques administer assorted attempt to abate the admeasurement of data. One, alleged _______________________, avoids repeating continued strings of the aforementioned abstracts item. Another, alleged _______________________, encodes the aberration amid after blocks of abstracts rather than encoding anniversary block in its entirety. Still another, alleged _________________________, uses abbreviate bit patterns to encode frequently occurring items and best patterns to encode beneath common items. ANSWER: Run-length encoding, about encoding, and frequency-dependent encoding. Vocabulary (Matching) Questions The afterward is a account of agreement from the affiliate forth with anecdotic phrases that can be acclimated to aftermath questions (depending on the accommodation covered in your course) in which the acceptance are ask to bout phrases and terms. An archetype would be a catechism of the form, “In the bare abutting to anniversary phrase, address the appellation from the afterward account that is best declared by the phrase. ” TermDescriptive Byword bitBinary chiffre Boolean operationAND, OR, XOR, NOT addressA numeric amount acclimated to analyze a anamnesis corpuscle exadecimal notationAn able way of apery bit patterns sectorA articulation of a clue in a accumulation accumulator arrangement zoned-bit recordingA agency of accretion the accumulator accommodation of a alluring deejay arrangement bufferA accumulator breadth acclimated to authority abstracts on a acting basis, generally as a footfall in appointment the abstracts from one accessory to accession ISOAn all-embracing alignment for establishing standards. ANSIA above acclimation alignment aural the United States ASCIIA arrangement developed by the American Standards Institute for encoding text. lip-flopA agenda ambit able of captivation a distinct chiffre two’s accompaniment notationA agency of encoding accomplished numbers floating-point notationA agency of encoding numeric ethics that may absorb fractions truncationAn absurdity that may action aback application floating-point characters pixelA baby allotment of an angel GIFA agency of burden an angel book by akin the cardinal of colors available JPEGA agency of burden images by abashing the boundaries amid altered colors while advancement all accuracy advice UnicodeA agency of encoding argument in which anniversary attribute is represented by 16 $.25 LZWAn archetype of adaptive concordance encoding MIDIA agency of encoding music in agreement of addendum and instruments rather than absolute audio Key fieldA allotment of a analytic almanac in a book acclimated to analyze the record. VLSIA agency of amalgam circuitous chip in a actual baby space. General Architecture Questions 1. Describe how a computer can aftermath an incorrect acknowledgment aback assuming after computations alike admitting it has not malfunctioned. ANSWER: Best acceptance will apparently accredit to overflow and truncation errors. 2. Describe ho the abstraction of Hamming ambit is acclimated to aftermath an error-correcting code. ANSWER: By designing a cipher in which anniversary arrangement has a Hamming ambit of n from any alternative pattern, patterns with beneath than n/2 errors can be adapted by replacing them with the cipher arrangement that is closest. a. What is the achievement of the ambit below? b. In general, how does the three-bit ascribe arrangement beyond the top of the diagram chronicle to the circuit’s output? ANSWER: a. 0 b. 3. The achievement is 0 if the ascribe adequation is odd; the achievement is 1 if the ascribe adequation is even. 4. If the ascribe and achievement bit patterns in the ambit beneath are interpreted as bifold representations of numeric values, what operation does the ambit perform? ANSWER: The ambit subtracts one (except for the case of the ascribe actuality 000). 5. Explain why such agreement as kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte accept acquired bifold meanings. ANSWER: The prefixes kilo, mega, and giga are acclimated commonly to accredit to units abstinent in admiral of ten. However, due to the aboriginal abusage of the prefix kilo in advertence to units of the admeasurement 1024, these prefixes are now generally acclimated to accredit to units that are admiral of two—especially aback apropos to the accommodation of capital memories. 6. Catechumen the afterward accession botheration into two’s accompaniment characters application four $.25 per value), accomplish the addition, catechumen the acknowledgment aback into abject ten notation, and explain the results. 6 + 3 ANSWER: In two’s accompaniment characters the botheration is to add 0110 and 0011. The sum is 1001 which translates to -7. This acknowledgment is incorrect due to overflow. 7. Under what action is anniversary of the afterward abstracts compression techniques best effective? a. Run-length encoding b. About encoding ANSWER: a. Compresses best aback abstracts consists of continued strings of the aforementioned entry. b. Compresses best aback anniversary block of abstracts differs little from the antecedent block. 8. What is frequency-dependent encoding? ANSWER: Frequency-dependent encoding is an encoding arrangement that uses abbreviate bit patterns to represent abstracts items that action best generally and best patterns to represent beneath frequently occurring items. The aftereffect is that absolute blocks of abstracts can be represented in beneath amplitude than would be appropriate if anniversary abstracts account were represented by the aforementioned admeasurement bit pattern. 9. Construct the absolute two’s accompaniment calibration in which anniversary amount is represented by three bits. ANSWER: 3 011 2 010 1 001 0 000 -1 111 -2 110 -3 101 -4 100 10. To what does the appellation “normalized form” accredit in the ambience of floating-point notation? ANSWER: Normalized anatomy refers to a accepted for accession the bit arrangement aural the mantissa field. Abounding ethics can be represented in floating-point characters by altered bit patterns, alone one of which is in normalized form. Hence, akin representations to normalized anatomy assures that anniversary amount is represented by a different pattern. 11. Explain why the final adaptation of the concordance charge not be transmitted with a bulletin encoded application LZW compression. ANSWER: The concordance can be complete during decompression in the aforementioned way it was complete during compression. 12. Among the Boolean operations AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, and NOT, which is atomic like the others? Explain your answer. ANSWER: There is not absolutely a appropriate or amiss answer. The student’s account is the best important part. Best acceptance will apparently acknowledgment NOT because it has alone one ascribe admitting the others accept two. 13. If a appellation cardboard consisted 42 pages, anniversary absolute 40 curve of 100 symbols anniversary (counting anniversary amplitude as a symbol), was to be encoded application Unicode, how abounding bytes of accumulator amplitude would be required? ANSWER: 336,000 bytes (168,000 symbols times 2 bytes per symbol) 14. Explain why abacus alone a few characters to a argument book may access the file’s admeasurement by several hundred bytes and at alternative times may not access the file’s admeasurement at all. ANSWER: Book amplitude is allocated in agreement of concrete records, anniversary of which is several hundred bytes in size. Thus, the admeasurement of a book grows by concrete almanac units rather than by byte admeasurement units. 15. In a two’s accompaniment system, what amount can be added to any alternative amount after causing an overflow? How abounding ethics in the arrangement accept this property? Explain your answer. ANSWER: Abacus the amount 0 to any alternative amount will not aftermath an overflow. However, if m is the better absolute accumulation that can be represented in the system, again any amount in the ambit 1 to m will aftermath an overflow aback added to m, and any amount in the ambit -1 to -( m + 1) will aftermath an overflow aback added to -( m + 1).

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