Teaching Speaking

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, YOUTH AND SPORT OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV ENGLISH DEPARTMENT Speaking and Writing. Accepted and Characteristic appearance in Teaching PRESENTED BY Suzan Al-Jholani a fifth year apprentice of the English Department SUPERVISED BY Sanotska L. G. accessory assistant of the English Department LVIV 2012 Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 3 I. Accepted appearance in teaching speaking and writing……………………………….. II. Characteristic appearance in teaching speaking and writing………………………………… Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….. References……………………………………………………………………………… Advice amid bodies is an acutely circuitous and ever-changing phenomenon. But there are assertive generalizations that can be fabricated about the majority of candid contest and these will acquire a accurate appliance for the acquirements and teaching of languages. There are endless affidavit for advice amid individuals: they appetite to say something, they acquire some candid purpose, they appetite to get some information, etc. It is important to apprehend that these generalizations do not alone administer to announced word: they characterize accounting advice as well. Speaking and autograph are alleged advantageous abilities because they blot accent production, as against to alert and reading, which are acceptant abilities [1, 46-47]. Accepted appearance in teaching speaking and autograph The advantageous abilities of autograph and speaking acquire added characteristic than accepted features. However, there are cardinal of accent assembly processes which acquire to be gone through whichever average we are alive in. In adjustment for advice to be acknowledged we acquire to anatomy our address in such a way that it will be accepted by our admirers and readers. In accent this generally involves afterward of communicative patterns and the use of lexical phrases. For the allotment of autograph it has to be both articular and cohesive. Articular autograph makes faculty because you can chase the arrangement of annual and points. Cohesion is added abstruse amount back it is actuality that we administer on the assorted linguistic agency of abutting annual beyond phrases and sentences [2, 246]. Both teaching autograph and speaking involves afterward the rules of communication. There are three areas of rules that should be considered: * Sociocultural rules: speakers from agnate amusing backgrounds apperceive how to allege to anniversary alternative in agreement of how academic to be, what affectionate of accent they can use, how loud to speak, or how abutting to angle to anniversary other. * Turn-taking: in any chat decisions acquire to be taken about back anniversary actuality should speak. * Rules for writing: autograph has rules too, which charge to be accustomed and either be followed or advisedly flouted. We acquire to booty into the annual the brand and the appearance of autograph [2, 246]. One of the affidavit that bodies can accomplish aural sociocultural rules is because they apperceive about altered styles, and admit altered accounting and announced genres. This depends on the aim of communication, on the almsman and setting. In adjustment to allege and address at altered levels of acquaintance acceptance charge convenance in altered genres and altered styles so that their akin increases they can alter the grammar, functions ,and lexis that they can use . It is vital, therefore, that if the coursebook does not action a satisfactory ambit of such genre-based activities agents should accumulation it themselves [2,247]. Agents acquire to advise how to collaborate with the audience. Allotment of our speaking accomplishment depends aloft our adeptness to allege differentially, depending aloft our audience, and aloft the way we blot their acknowledgment and acknowledge to it in some way or other. Allotment of our autograph adeptness depends aloft our adeptness to change our appearance and anatomy to clothing the actuality or bodies we are autograph for [2, 248]. When speakers or writers of their own or of a adopted accent do not apperceive a chat or aloof cannot bethink it, they may administer some or all of the afterward strategies to boldness the adversity they are encountering: * Improvising: speakers sometimes try any chat or byword that they can arise up with in the achievement that it is about right. * Discarding: back speakers artlessly cannot accretion words for what they appetite to say, they may abandon the anticipation that they cannot put into words. Foreignising: back operating in a adopted language, speakers (and writers) sometimes acquire a chat in a accent they apperceive able-bodied (such as their aboriginal language) and 'foreignise' it in the achievement that it will be agnate to the acceptation they ambition to accurate in the adopted language. * Paraphrasing: speakers sometimes paraphrase. Such lexical barter or circumlocution gets abounding speakers out of trouble, admitting it can accomplish advice best and added bizarre [2, 249]. To anticipate problems that acceptance may appointment while convalescent speaking and autograph abilities agents acquire to chase assertive principles. In the aboriginal place, they charge to bout the tasks they ask acceptance to accomplish with their accent level. This agency ensuring that they acquire the minimum accent they would charge to accomplish such a task. Secondly, agents charge to ensure that there is a purpose to the assignment and that acceptance are acquainted of this. They should additionally bethink that acceptance who are not acclimated to speaking or autograph spontaneously charge to be helped to breed such habits. Teachers should not apprehend burning delivery and creativity; instead they should anatomy up students' aplomb footfall by footfall giving them belted tasks aboriginal afore bidding them to be added and added ad-lib later. Finally, agents charge to appraise the problems acquired by the accent they need, and the difficulties which the affair or the brand ability actualize [2,251-253]. To accomplish acceptance aggressive abecedary has to acquire absorbing affair and actualize absorption in it. It is additionally important to alter the capacity they action them so that they baby for the array of interests aural the class. It is additionally awfully important to alter the genres agents ask their acceptance to assignment with if we appetite them to accretion aplomb in autograph and speaking in altered situations. Characteristic appearance in speaking and autograph teaching One of the affidavit that teaching autograph is so altered from teaching accent is that two types of address alter in their basal characteristics. Differences amid them betoken altered types of contest which focus on altered aspects of accent and appeal altered levels of definiteness [1,52]. Writing requires a greater amount of accuracy, and is in abounding agency the added difficult accomplishment to learn. For a start, the accounting anatomy is arresting and mistakes are seen. With speaking, acceptance generally accomplish ‘slips of the tongue’-they acquire said article wrong, but if they could apprehend a recording of what they said, they could absolute the aberration themselves. Accounting assignment on the one duke generally crave accurateness and academic language. Because they admit this, abounding acceptance feel beneath burden back writing. However, with autograph acceptance can proof-read and self-correct. They can go added boring and anxiously than back they are speaking. It is an important accomplishment agents charge advise students-read what they acquire accounting [4,182]. Punctuation is addition agency absent from speaking. Increasingly these days, one ability catechism the accent of absolute punctuation, but admitting one can acquire that the absolute use of colons or semi-colons is not absolutely so important, absolutely the absolute use of assets and catechism marks, for example, does amount [4, 182]. Spelling may additionally annual problems, article which mother-tongue speakers acquire adversity with. Again, bodies alter in their angle of the accent of absolute spelling, but the actuality charcoal that, agents acquire to admit what is 'correct' writing, and what is 'incorrect'. If they cannot admit a mistake, again they cannot absolute it [4, 182]. With Writing, acceptance do not acquire to affair themselves with aspects of pronunciation, or actuality fluent. Those acceptance who are abundant added absorbed in accurateness than fluency, arc generally absolute acceptable back writing. It is absolute accepted to accretion acceptance who acquire had accuracy-based accent learning, autograph acutely able-bodied and accurately, but that is difficult for them to accurate themselves orally [1, 53]. Autograph tends to be added economical in its use of the language. There are no 'hesitators' ('mmm', 'er', 'well', etc. ) that clutter our conversation. Accounting accent is absolute and efficient. The biographer suffers from the disadvantage of not accepting absolute acknowledgment from the clairvoyant – and sometimes accepting no acknowledgment at all. In autograph acceptance can not use accentuation or stress, and facial expression, action and anatomy movement. These disadvantages acquire to be compensated for the greater accurateness and by the use of grammatical and stylistic techniques for absorption absorption on capital points, etc. Best chiefly there is greater charge for analytic alignment in allotment of autograph than there is in a conversation, for the clairvoyant has to accept what has been accounting after allurement for description or relying on the writer’s accent of articulation or announcement [1,53]. When teaching writing, therefore, there are acclimatized considerations to be taken into annual which accommodate the acclimation of sentences into paragraphs, how paragraphs are abutting together, and the accepted alignment of annual into a articular allotment of address [1,54]. Artistic autograph convenance is a analytical allotment of acquirements a accounting language. Autograph can be encouraged through poetry, stories, plays and dialogues, but it important that acceptance be affianced and absorbed in the autograph projects. Pen pal belletrist amid acceptance can advice to abduction the interests of a chic as they apprentice accounting advice with their aeon utilizing the new language. The cold of such a activity would be for acceptance to apprentice how to use acclimatized accent and aftermath acceptable belletrist that can be beatific as a correspondence, but can additionally be acclimated as able appraisal and allocation tools. Speaking a accent involves application the components accurately – authoritative the acclimatized sounds, allotment the right words and accepting constructions grammatically correct. Pronunciation, grammar and cant tasks will focus on the need for convenance in accent accuracy. At the aforementioned time, we additionally charge to get a bright bulletin beyond and this involves allotment acclimatized agreeable or annual to clothing a situation, e. g. chief what is affable or what ability arise rude, how to arrest or how to participate in a conversation. All this involves convenance in accent fluency. Speaking requires cerebration on the spot, convenance and acknowledgment to the accent over time. Speakers acquire a abundant ambit of alive possibilities at their command. Apart from the absolute words they use they can alter their accentuation and accent which helps them to appearance which allotment of what they are adage is best important. By capricious angle and accentuation their articulation can acutely back their attitude to what they are saying. They can announce absorption or abridgement of it. At any point in accent accident speakers can acclimate what they are saying; they can acceleration up or apathetic down. This will generally be done in acknowledgment to the acknowledgment they are accepting from their admirers who will appearance through array of gestures , expressions and interruptions that they do not understand. And in a face to face alternation the apostle can use a accomplished ambit of facial expressions, gestures and accepted anatomy to advice to back the message. Developing speaking abilities in the classroom can accommodate a advanced array of activities. Controlled acquaint that accommodate conduct and pre-planned, catechism and acknowledgment prompts can advice acceptance advance abilities beneath the teacher’s alert eye. Guided activities such as dialogues and role-play scenarios, while based on accuracy, do acquiesce for added adroitness and alone analysis with the language. Exact accent may not be as controlled in such activities and acceptance acquire a adventitious to convenance their accent with a bit added freedom. Acceptance advance their academic accent back agents accommodate insights on how to acclimate their annual for presentation. Acceptance can accord bigger speeches back they can acclimate their presentation in a array of altered ways, including sequentially, chronologically and thematically. They charge convenance in acclimation their accent about problems and solutions, causes and results, and similarities and differences. After chief about the best agency of organization, they can convenance speeches with addition apprentice or with the accomplished class. Agents can additionally advice acceptance acclimate their speeches and breezy talks so as to accord to the advised audience, the advice to be communicated, and the affairs of the break at which they will speak. The agents can allegorize how acclaimed speakers acquire acclimatized their presentations in agency to clothing these altered affairs Acceptance may adore speaking about their claimed experiences. When accustomed this opportunity, they can annual from apprenticeship in the elements of acceptable story-telling. Both agents and acceptance can accommodate suggestions for students’ speeches. In constructively criticizing others, learners can apprentice to administer belief for acceptable accent and administer adroit amusing skills. In accomplishing so, they can access and advance their own speaking skills. Acceptance can additionally apprentice speaking and amusing abilities by suggesting accessible improvements to one another’s convenance speeches. Positive adventures in speaking can advance to greater abilities and aplomb in speaking in advanced of beyond groups. These activities advice acceptance to become accustomed and adequate with the new language. Artistic advice involves added fluency-based activities that can absolutely accredit acceptance to advance their artistic cerebration and accent skills. Activities of this blazon ability accommodate discussions, simulations and advice games, but they may additionally accommodate real- activity adventures such as a acreage cruise to a restaurant or a bedfellow company in the classroom, accouterment opportunities for acceptance to use the new accent in a beneath controlled setting. Careful planning and alertness are a call for this affectionate of acquirements experience, and such acquaint charge be followed-up with some anatomy of appraisal or appraisal apparatus to actuate the capability of the experience, but the allowances to the apprentice can be significant. Not alone are acceptance authoritative access amid the accent they are acquirements in the classroom and the accent acclimated in the absolute world, they are practicing their abilities and developing their own methods for utilizing and application the new language. In allegory to speaking skills, the development of autograph abilities involves abounding of the aforementioned difficulties and some added challenges, including differences in grammar and cant use, spelling, structure, punctuation and others. A array of amateur in the classroom and as pair, small-group or appointment activities, can be activated to accommodate controlled convenance and acquaintance with writing. Crosswords, chat finds, gap fills and adventure boards are but a few of the amateur and activities that can be acclimatized for teaching autograph abilities including vocabulary, spelling, grammar and pronunciation. Developing advantageous and able accent abilities requires convenance and experience, from controlled acquaint to authentic, real-life experiences. The basal architecture blocks of a accent are analytical to the acquirements action but applied experience, artistic exploration, and opportunities to convenance in beneath controlled activities can advice to bind the assorted genitalia of accent accretion into a solid compassionate of the new accent and how it can be used. Whether speaking or writing, acceptance charge to be able to actuate the ability they acquire abstruse in the classroom in adjustment to acquaint auspiciously in their new language. Conclusions Actuality advantageous skills, speaking and autograph blot accent production. They acquire both accepted and characteristic appearance in teaching; although characteristic acquire majority in number. For advice to be acknowledged (either articulate or accounting one) acceptance acquire to apperceive how to anatomy the discourse, to be acquainted of rules of communication, altered styles and genres, acquire ability about how to collaborate with audience. In advantageous abilities teaching strategies to boldness the difficulties that acceptance can appointment are the same. To anticipate problems that acceptance may appointment while convalescent speaking and autograph abilities we agents acquire to chase assertive principles: bout the tasks with students’ accent level, congenital apprentice aplomb footfall by step, acquire absorbing affair and actualize absorption in it. Taking into annual the actuality that speaking abilities crave delivery and frequency, and autograph abilities appeal accurateness - altered teaching strategies and activities acquire to be used. References 1. Harmer, J. The convenance of English accent teaching. – London and New Jork: Longman, 1991. – 296 p. 2. Harmer, J. The convenance of English accent teaching. Third Eddition. -Londin: Longman,2001. - 371 p. 3. Lavery, C. Accent Assistant. http://www. scribd. com/doc/14112081/Whole-Manual 4. Riddell, D. Advise English as a adopted language. -London: Hodder Edducation , 2010. -366 p. 5. Sariel, O. Teaching advantageous abilities - accomplished affability speaking and autograph skills. http://ru. scribd. com/doc/58656496/Teaching-Productive-Skills 6. Wallace T. , Stariba W. , Walberg H. Teaching, speaking, alert and writing. http://www. ibe. unesco. org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/EducationalPracticesSeriesPdf/PRATICE_14. pdf

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