Their efforts accept to accept paid off, as apparent by the constant well-defined, and able images of some of the world's accepted brands (e. G. Marlboro, Ivory, Pepsi). In band with this evidence, theorists and practitioners (CB. Gardner and Levy, 1955; Esplanade et al. , 1986; Rise and Trout, 1 986) accept recommended that developing, communicating, and advancement a brand's angel is acute to its abiding success. 32 Cast angel important The accent of a brand's angel in its abiding success necessitates accepting a framework for strategically managing the angel over the continued appellation Esplanade et al. , 1986).
Brand managers accept had actual little administering for ambience up such a conceptual framework. One notable barring is cast abstraction administering (BCC) proposed by Esplanade et al. (1986). BCC proposes that every cast angel should be based on a cast abstraction or a brand-specific abstruse meaning. In its accepted form, a cast abstraction can be either allegorical or functional, and appropriately comprises one aspect of a brand's image. Anatomic brands amuse actual and applied needs. Allegorical brands amuse allegorical needs such as those for self-expression and prestige, and their ancestral acceptance is alone incidental.
For example, in the class Of wrist watches, the cast Cassia would be advised a anatomic cast back its account lies primarily in its adeptness to acquaint the time correctly. The cast Moved, on the alternative hand, would be advised a allegorical cast back it is acclimated primarily for its cachet appeal, and its adeptness to acquaint the time is alone an accidental acumen for its usage. Once a abstraction is called for a brand, esplanade et al. (1986) admonish that it should be maintained over the brand's activity for account of consistency. Allegorical or functional
While the angle of cast abstraction administering is allegedly appealing, the hypothesis that brands can be either allegorical or anatomic in their address to consumers raises a cardinal of absorbing issues. The aboriginal affair is whether apologue and functionality are two audible concepts or are two ends of one cast abstraction continuum. In accession to the character of these two concepts, esplanade et al. (1986) accept that anniversary of these concepts is unidirectional. Whether that is absolutely so has not been advised in empiric analysis to date.
Also, to our knowledge, no measures or scales accept been plopped that would appraise whether a accurate cast is allegorical or functional. Thus, empiric analysis has not anon advised these accompanying issues. An compassionate of such issues would additionally be actual advantageous to business managers in planning accession strategies for their brands. In this basic study, a set of scales are developed to appraise a brand's allegorical and/or anatomic amount to consumers. In the process, we JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING, VOLT. 15 NO. 1 1998 up. 2-43 @ MAC UNIVERSITY PRESS, 0736-3761 appraise the affair of acumen and ambit of the two cast incepts. Two schools of anticipation Cast abstraction Background There is a continued attitude of analysis into animal needs and motivations. While there are a ample cardinal of theories and models that explain the attributes of animal action for burning behavior, a simple typology would advance two audible schools of thought. The rational academy or the "economic man" archetypal suggests that consumers are rational and try to aerate absolute utility.
They do so by affairs articles based on cold belief like amount per ounce or gallons per mile (Coffman and Kane, 1994). In accession at this excision, consumers about go through a array of cerebral operations that accommodate chief the accent of anniversary aspect in a artefact category, acquisition advice about aggressive brands' attributes, anticipation the levels of anniversary aspect in aggressive brands, and assuredly application a acumen aphorism to adjudge on the optimal cast (for an all-embracing analysis of the advice processing literature, amuse see Bateman, 1979).
A cardinal of researchers, however, argue that the rational archetypal is adapted alone for appurtenances which consumers amount for their actual and commonsensical benefits, and does not abundantly abduction their action for arresting articles that amuse their affecting wants (CB. Levy, 1959; Ditcher, 1960; Holbrook, 1980). For example, Hiroshima and Holbrook (1982) agenda that the rational archetypal does not abduction the multistory imagery, fantasy, fun, and affections associated with the burning of some products.
They accredit to this blazon of consumption, based on alone tastes and abstruse artefact benefits, as gluttonous consumption. Thus, in adverse to the rational or advice processing approach, the affecting or gluttonous academy holds that consumers' motives are motional in nature. In this perspective, individuals use claimed or abstruse belief such as taste, pride, admiration for adventure, and admiration for cogent themselves, in their burning decisions (Coffman and Kane, 1994). Consumer behaviorist's accept continued accustomed the accent of both types of motivations (CB.
Katz, 1960; Metal, 1983). Empirically, several advisers accept acclaimed the actuality of these two altered types of motivations and the altered artefact aspect categories that tap into these motivations (CB. Metal, 1988; Metal et al. , 1990; Sahara and Siring, 1991). Thus, both approach and analysis abutment the abstraction that consumers' needs are apprenticed by functional/ commonsensical as able-bodied as by symbolic/expressive motivations. In befitting with this tradition, park, Gasworks, and Manacling (1986) acclaimed that consumers' needs could be classified as actuality either anatomic or symbolic.
They advance that anatomic needs are accompanying to specific and applied burning problems admitting allegorical needs are accompanying to Selfridges and amusing identification. To tap into these two altered types of needs, Park, Gasworks, and Manacling (1986) proposed that all brands should accept a "brand incept", which is an all-embracing abstruse acceptation that identifies a brand. They appropriate that a cast abstraction be either allegorical or functional, appropriately borer into consumers' allegorical and anatomic needs respectively. Esplanade et al. S (1986) cast abstraction administering framework advises managers to baddest a specific abstraction for a cast at the time of its accession and again use the business mix to abutment and reinforce it over the brand's life. This helps consumers accept with accuracy what a cast can do for them. JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING, VOLT. 15 NO. 1 1998 33 Anatomic or commonsensical accomplishments The actuality of altered types of motivations amid individuals suggests that aural best artefact categories, consumers' needs could be either anatomic or allegorical in nature, and brands could be positioned to amuse either of these two types of needs.
Thus, anatomic or commonsensical needs of consumers could be exploited with a "functional" brand, I. E. One positioned with a anatomic cast abstraction or meaning. Similarly, a cast could be positioned as a "symbolic" cast to tap the needs of those who ambition to enhance their self-image or their amusing image. Esplanade et al. Rather argued that brands should be positioned to address to either one of these types of needs, but not both, for a cardinal of reasons. A cast abstraction that is both anatomic and allegorical poses problems for consumers because they cannot acutely chronicle the cast to either their anatomic or their allegorical needs.
In addition, it increases the cardinal of aggressive brands and makes cast angel administering difficult. This argument, about apparently compelling, has not been activated in empiric research. In one accompanying research, esplanade et al. (1991 ) Were able to appearance that nonusers' acknowledgment to anatomic extensions of anatomic brands was added favorable than their acknowledgment to authority extensions of anatomic brands. In the aforementioned study, consumers additionally displayed a added absolute acknowledgment to authority extensions of authority brands than to anatomic extensions of authority brands.
Please agenda that, in this study, the authors affected that cast concepts could be either anatomic or celebrated (not symbolic). Changing questions Several questions, though, abide unanswered. Are anatomic and allegorical cast concepts abundantly acclaimed in consumers' minds? If so, what are mom characteristics that advice in appropriate these cast concepts? Is the authority of a cast an able representation of a brand's apologue to its customers? Are functionality and apologue alone the two ends of a continuum?
In any event, is there a apparatus to appraise the functionality or apologue of brands? The absence of analysis to brighten these issues resulted in this study. This abstraction was set up to acknowledgment the above-mentioned questions: to investigate the abnormality of the functionality or the apologue of cast angel and to advance scales that would advice allocate a cast as anatomic or symbolic. Apart from the abstract contributions, the issues aloft in this abstraction accept a cardinal of authoritative implications for cast positioning.
Method In band with this abstraction capital cold of exploring the affair of cast mage functionality or symbolism, scales absolute items anticipation to admeasurement a brand's anatomic or allegorical amount to consumers was developed. The calibration was accurate by testing the scale's adeptness to discriminate amid brands a priori articular as anatomic or symbolic. Correlations amid the items in the calibration and basic and acknowledging agency analyses of the abstracts were berry to investigate the ambit of cast functionality and symbolism.
Stimuli lie Pairs of brands were articular in a few frequently acclimated artefact categories, such that one cast in anniversary brace was, a priori, anticipation to be anatomic and the alternative symbolic. In alternative words, the aboriginal cast was anticipation to primarily amuse anatomic needs admitting the additional cast was anticipation to mainly amuse the allegorical needs of consumers of the artefact category. The pairs of brands which were called are apparent in Table l. 34 Artefact class Allegorical cast Anatomic cast Watches Role Timex 2 Sports shoes Nikkei Converse 3 Cosmetics Lana¶me Amiability 4 Hair chrism Paul Mitchell Suave 5 Ice chrism Hagen Dads Scaliest Table l.
Item bearing Adjectives or phrases anticipation to announce a brand's apologue or functionality were aboriginal generated by the authors and a focus accumulation of alum acceptance at a university. The focus accumulation acclaimed the adversity of advancing up with adjectives anecdotic anatomic or commonsensical appeal. Based on these processes, three adjectives and phrases were articular as apropos to functionality and 17 as apropos to symbolism. Three sets of check items Three sets of check items were developed for the 20 adjectives and phrases.
The aboriginal set of questions approved respondents' acceding with assorted statements about individuals' use of a cast to accurate themselves. The additional set of items approved respondent< ratings on the characteristics of the brand, admitting the third set of items approved evaluations of the user of the brand. Responses were abstinent with seven-point scales in all cases. With account to the items apery cast functionality, respondents recorded their acceding with the account that " (brand) was for eople who are down-to-earth" and evaluated the acumen Of: (1) the cast itself; and (2) the user of the brand.
Brand apologue The 17 adjectives and phrases apery cast apologue were adjourned with three sets of items. In the aboriginal set of items, respondents were to accede with these statements: (1) "people use (brand) as a way of cogent their personality'; (2) " (brand) is for bodies who appetite the best things in life"; (3) "a (brand) user stands out in a crowd"; and (4) "using (brand) says article about the affectionate of being you are". The additional set of items approved to appraise these cast characteristics: (1) hemolytic; (2) prestigious; (3) exciting; (4) cachet symbol; and (5) characteristic v. Invitational. The third set Of items evaluated these characteristics Of the brand's user: (1) adult v. Simple; (2) not at all v. Actual romantic; (3) not at all v. Actual successful; 35 (4) different v. Ordinary; (5) beautiful v. Plain; (6) alive v. Subdued; (7) alluring v. Sedate; and (8) not at all v. Actual elegant. Analysis architecture and administering Two abstracted questionnaires were able with questions on bristles of the ten bang brands such that anniversary check independent questions about one f the brands aural a artefact category.
Thus, a accountable would acknowledgment the aloft questions with account to either a allegorical cast or a anatomic cast aural a artefact class but not both. This action was acclimated to annihilate any allusive biases in responses. The analysis was administered to 62 alum acceptance at a above south-eastern university. Rest Its Analysis of correlations TO access a basic abstraction of the arrangement Of relationships amid these items, the correlations amid the items were aboriginal examined.
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