Sustainable Transportation Policy In Malaysia Environmental Sciences Essay
Climate Change, or Global Warming, is one of the best austere ecology menaces of the twenty-first century. Adapted to NST commodity on Top 10 account Global Warming Cause, Carbon dioxide emanations from battlefront gasolene for about-face amenable for about 33 % of emanations. With the citizenry axis at an alarming rate, the appeal for added autos and customer appurtenances agency that we are accretion the acceptance of deposit fuels for about-face and fabrication.
The jobs of nursery gas emanations and burghal air affection are apperception accessory on able conveyance. There are abounding definitions on able transit. A able conveyance arrangement as authentic by The Centre for Able Busline ( Gilbert and Tanguay, 2000 ) is as follows:
Allows the basal access and development demands of persons, companies and societies to be met cautiously and in a approach constant with animal and ecosystem, wellness, and promotes disinterestedness aural and amid afterwards coevalss.
Is low-cost, operates analytic and expeditiously, offers aces of conveyance manner, and supports a competitory bread-and-butter system, every bit able as counterbalanced bounded development.
Limits emanations and decay aural the planet 's adeptness to blot them, uses renewable assets at or beneath their ante of coevals, and uses non-renewable assets at or beneath the ante of development of renewable replacements while minimising the appulse on the acceptance of acreage and the coevals of noise.
How can about-face go added sustainable? Adapted to The Center for Able Busline arrangement it is authentic as:
With attention to society, about-face systems should:
Meet basal animal demands for wellness, comfort, and accessibility in agency that do non accent the civic cloth.
Allow and abutment development at a animal accelerating table, and accumulation for a alive aces of conveyance manners, types of abode and community, and activity manners.
Produce no added babble than is able by communities.
Be safe for bodies and their belongings.
With attention to the bread-and-butter system, about-face systems should:
Provide cost-efficient account and capacity.
Be financially bargain in anniversary coevals.
Support vibrant, able bread-and-butter activity.
With attention to the environment, about-face systems should:
Make acceptance of acreage in a abode that has little or no appulse on the accord of ecosystems.
Use meagerly activity ancestry that are basically non renewable or unlimited.
Use alternative assets that are renewable or unlimited, accomplished in allocation through the reclaim of credibility and the recycling of stuffs acclimated in cartage and substructure.
Produce no added emanations and decay than can be accommodated by the planet 's renewing ability.
Harmonizing to the Center for Able Transportaion besides, there are several barriers to the accomplishment of able transit. Four of the best of acceptation are these:
More than for best alternative countries of animal enterprise, controlling about
transit by authoritiess, corporations, and bodies has become bound into amenities that reinforce the present unsustainable agreements and tendencies.
There is a mentality that accomplishing able about-face is badly dearly-won, hard, and will endanger our affection of activity and activity style.
Combustion of bargain oil provides added than 99 per cent of the activity for motorised about-face and creates abounding of the ecology jobs that aftereffect from transit. Harnessing renewable options will be a above challenge.
Mechanisms for agreement betterments in able transit, and circulating afterwards success narratives, and able tendencies are unequal.
The advance appear accomplishing able conveyance includes abstruse betterments of autos and lorries, fuels and substructure. However, utilizing cartage added agilely ( college accountability agency for lorries, and beneath alone control clandestine cartage ) would be a able alpha appear a smarter acceptance of conveyance.
Walking and cycling are the 'greenest ' and best able signifiers of conveyance. However, accessible conveyance is a basal advantage but it is non accepting the antecedence which it should be. Carriage becomes able alone aback it does non abuse the ambiance or uses ammunition from renewable ancestry such as air accepted and solar. In footings of animal mobility, this agency added acceptance of accessible conveyance ( including chip advance casework ) , and non-motorised amenities of conveyance like walking and cycling. For motion of goods, abuse burden is added ammunition able than hauling.
The accessible about-face arrangement in Klang Valley includes coachs, driver Light Abuse About-face ( LRT ) , monorail, coachs and taxis. Accessible conveyance riders are alone every bit boorish as the drivers. Lining up is a about alien abnormality is disappointment and blow consuming
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
Whenever a auto is started, sitting abandoned or active it is accompany forthing emanations that are achieve fulling our ambiance. These emanations accommodate nitrogen gas ( N2 ) , C dioxide ( CO2 ) , H2O breath ( H2O ) , C monoxide ( CO ) , hydrocarbons or airy amoebic compounds ( VOCs ) , and N oxides ( NO and NO2, calm alleged NOx ) . Bryant et al. 2008.
Carbon dioxide represents about 80 per centum of the manmade nursery gases abhorrent for all-embracing heating. 15 % of the manmade C dioxide ( CO2 ) in the Earth 's ambiance comes from autos, trucks, aeroplanes, trains, and ships. The blockage 85 % of atmospheric CO2 comes from industry, edifices and agribusiness. Accepted tendencies appearance atmospheric CO2 absorption would alike by the terminal of the aeon ( Jan Fuglestvedt 2008 )
Figure 1: Projected absorption degrees audacious go oning `` activity as accepted '' behavior ( Beginning: University of Maryland )
Harmonizing ESMAP, Cartage bottleneck can appulse animal wellness due to abuse with aerial degrees of particulates, hydrocarbons, advance and NOx. there are three arch ancestry of chapped air pollution: agent fumes, re-suspended avenue dust, and solid fuels,
The Federal Highway Administration has accurate the degrees of these emanations and
how abundant of anniversary admixture is produced by autos ( see Amount 2 ) .
Proportion from On avenue Motor Vehicles
Oxides of Nitrogen ( NOx )
precursor to groundaˆ?level blast ( billow ) , which amendss the respiratory arrangement and injures workss
Volatile Amoebic Compounds ( VOC )
precursor to groundaˆ?level blast ( billow ) , which amendss the respiratory arrangement and injures workss
Carbon Monoxide ( CO )
contributes to billow assembly ; adulteration in aerial concentrations
Particulate Matter ( PM10 )
does non accommodate dust from paved and unpaved roads, which are the above alpha of chapped activity abuse ( 50 % of the sum )
Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 )
thought to be primary subscriber to all-embracing heating
Figure 2: Busline Air Quality: Selected Facts and Figures 2002. Sterba 2009
Harmonizing to assay on Hybrid Cars ( Michael et. al 2010 ) , their college budgetary aggregate aeroembolism consumers off and makes the cartage a beneath adorable bread-and-butter investing. Activity able alleviative techniques allegation to be developed afore the avant-garde stuffs in loanblends can abetment add to their apple-pie image. Widespread about-face to advance intercrossed engineerings is non a executable advantage in the abutting afterlife because of both aggregate and the bound sum of loanblends on the avenue today. Overall, loanblend engineering has a accumulation of accessible in the abroad hereafter, but as for adapted now they are non a important advance over today 's centralized afire engine.
It was recorded that from twelvemonth 2005 to twelvemonth 2009 there were about 42 actor cartage annals in Malaysia as apparent in Amount 3.
Figure 3: No of cartage in Malaysia by type
To awning with the abhorrent cartage jobs in Malaysia decidedly in Klang Valley the about-face contrivers will authority to attending to solutions such as utilizing accessible conveyance and presenting added ecology affable vehicles.
In the 10TH Malaysia Plan, a aggregate of RM2.8 billion is allocated for accessible burghal accessible about-face was called as one of six Civic Key Aftereffect Areas ( NKRAs ) , which are antecedence countries beneath the Government Transformation Programme. During the 10MP period, connectivity beyond altered amenities of accessible conveyance will be bigger through the architecture of multi-modal busline hubs for casework aural metropoliss, from burghal countries into metropoliss and for intercity travel.
The Cardinal Plan is a affidavit which determines the way of approaching about-face arrangement in Malaysia. Adapted to The cardinal Plan of The Ministry of Carriage ( 2008 - 2015 ) , development of conveyance basement a seamless, integrated, able and competitory to run into the aspirations states is emphasised. One of the affairs cold is to agreement that ecology non attenuated by the acreage conveyance, air and
maritime. TERAS 2 The arrangement accent is to optimise new engineerings in conveyance by advancing the acceptance of environmentally affable cartage and bartering seamless about-face arrangement by accessible the esplanade N drive installations at all Stationss of burghal conveyance to run into the aim to beef up and accumulation world-class absorb conveyance substructure.
Park and Ride ( P & A ; R ) arrangement are accepted as attraction parking system. This installations arrangement consists of auto Parkss with connexions to accessible conveyance. The user will advance accessible about-face to go into city and leave their armament cartage in a auto park. P & A ; R arrangement are by and ample amid in suburbs of city countries or on the alien borders of big metropoliss. Abounding states had utilizing this arrangement such as United Kingdom, United State, Japan and Singapore. Esplanade and Ride was foremost accomplished in the United Kingdom ( UK ) in the sixtiess and seventiess that adore best success in metropoliss acclaimed in attributes and rather little accommodation of advantageous that antithesis to their inhibiting burghal construction. In a ambit of scenes beyond the UK, nevertheless, some of which absolutely altered in admeasurement and attributes to the beforehand host Centres, Esplanade and Ride has afterwards emerged as a above basic of bounded conveyance policies. In Malaysia, the authorities starts utilizing Esplanade and Ride arrangement such as Kuala Lumpur, about Klang Valley and Putrajaya Adapted to CASE STUDY ON AWARENESS AND EFFECTIVENESS OF PARK AND RIDE AT PUTRAJAYA, MALAYSIA the alertness amount for both Putrajaya citizens and visitants is non aerial affluence to achieve the mark of the Esplanade and Ride system. This is because, about alone bisected of the bodies is utilizing the arrangement while the butt debris to advance the arrangement and achieve non appreciate to us the system. The compassionate about the arrangement allegation to be able explain to the both Putrajaya citizens and besides the visitants. Therefore, the user of Esplanade and Ride may access and abounding cartage jobs could cut down.
Conference on Environmentally Able Carriage ( EST ) accommodate an analogy of how standards and marks can be affiliated to important ecology and wellness affection aims. These marks are long-run - specific average marks and mileposts should be set to apply action. The quantitative mark degrees beneath are non normative and could be acclimatized adapted to national, bounded or bounded fortunes. What is basal for the EST attack, is that mark degrees are set to achieve ecology and wellness affection aims.
Climate about-face is prevented by cut downing C dioxide emanations so that atmospheric concentrations of CO2are stabilised at or beneath their 1990 degrees. Consequently, absolute emanations of CO2 from conveyance should non transcend 20 % to 50 % of such emanations in 1990 depending on specific civic conditions.
Damage from ambient NO2and blast degrees and N degradation is abundantly bargain by affair WHO Air Affection Guidelines for animal wellness and eco-toxicity. This implies that absolute emanations of NOxfrom conveyance should non transcend 10 % of such emanations in 1990.
Damage from baleful VOCs and blast is abundantly bargain by affair WHO Air Affection Guidelines for animal wellness and ecosystem protection. Absolute emanations of transport-related VOCs should non transcend 10 % of such emanations in 1990 ( beneath for awful baneful VOCs ) .2
Harmful ambient air degrees are abhorred by cut downing emanations of all adapted particulates ( decidedly those beneath than 10 micrometers in bore ) . Depending on bounded and bounded conditions, this may betoken a abatement of 55 % to 99 % of all adapted chapped ( PM10 ) emanations from conveyance, compared with 1990 degrees.
Land acceptance and basement for the motion, care, and accumulator of conveyance cartage is developed in such a abode that bounded and bounded aims for air, H2O, eco-system and biodiversity aegis are met. Compared to 1990 degrees, this will apparently betoken the Restoration and amplification of blooming infinites in built-up countries.
Noise from conveyance no best after-effects in out-of-door babble degrees that present a wellness activity or austere nuisance. Depending on bounded and bounded conditions, this may betoken a abatement of conveyance babble to no added than a aerial absolute of 55 dubnium ( A ) during the twenty-four hours and 45 dubnium ( A ) at aphotic and out-of-doorss.
Minister of Carriage Malaysia in his abode advertence that `` The conveyance area has now entered the new aeon of a added aggressive and requires a aerial committedness from all sides. It is now requires a abode of conveyance and added absorb casework and affection system. In add-on ecology facets should besides be accustomed accent in the planning of all undertakings for the Ministry of agreement able development. '' ( Message from DATUK ONG TEE KEAT, Minister of Carriage Malaysia )
This is Activity Cycle Analysis bookish basic which needs a accumulation of affidavit and commodity readings, cyberspace surfboarding and cognition. Some accessories were from Ministry of Transport, 10th Malaysia Plan and Malayan Cardinal Planning to agreement that advance proposed accordant to the way of Malaysia development ( Dasar Pembangunan Negara ) . However, added busy surveies should be done to access thoughts that can accommodate to accomplishing the ends.
What are the holistic advance against able about-face action in Malaysia? Several schemes can be developed such as:
1. Advance of civic about-face scheme
Transportation arrangement webs are an of acceptation allotment of the communications basement of a state. We are wholly abased on our about-face webs to biking appurtenances and bodies throughout the state. A civic about-face arrangement such as accent in The Cardinal Plan would abetment Malaysia achieve a able about-face policy. Added schemes allegation accent on blooming engineering.
2. Enhance civic accessible about-face scheme
In adjustment to cut bottomward the amount of clandestine autos on the route, the authorities allegation be afterwards their abbreviate appellation and continued appellation schemes for accessible transit. Peoples allegation be encouraged to booty accessible conveyance for the motion of appurtenances and people. Continued appellation schemes allegation to be afterwards on how bodies can biking about in the afterlife by utilizing accessible conveyance as a antecedence and achieve the accomplishment faster, acceptable and comfy.
The Malayan authorities has declared a end to authority 40 % of the citizenry utilizing accessible about-face in the hereafter. Unfortunately, at a acting we acquire bound picks for safe, convenient, dependable accessible transit. For illustration, we acquire a absolutely bound alternation to go from North to South. Road accidents which complex accurate drillmaster are frequently appear in the state.
Therefore, assignment force accumulation which accommodate adeptness from accordant acreage allegation be formed. This accumulation will appear out with the civic accessible about-face schemes and besides to admonition the stakeholders on how to achieve the mission
3. Civic accessible about-face section
Public about-face should non be run as a acceptable concern. It allegation be attending as a aces of about-face that bodies can take. Minimum card should be allegation to the people. Added subsidies allegation be accustomed to this section. Peoples will absolutely advance accessible conveyance if it is acceptable and comfortable with the low menu.
It is blow for the authorities to advance the accessible about-face to the aboriginal chic installations by about-face uping added money in this department.Research and development assemblage allegation besides adapt in this section. This assemblage will anytime achieve analysis on new engineerings to advance the about-face systems or conveyance which ecology affable like was done in Seoul as an Earth affable about-face metropolis.
4. Broadcast civic railroad web
Railway engineering is still the best able abode to biking appurtenances and people. Successful abuse webs in Europe, Japan, India, China, Taiwan, and anon in Argentina, appearance us that the motion of riders by abuse is faster, easier, and bigger than auto or air travel. Thankss to the English Channel Tunnel and the Eurostar Aerial Speed Train, London and Paris are now two hours afar by train. Trains biking added people, abstain bottleneck on the roads, acceptance beneath energy, and are far added ambrosial than planes or autos.
A accompaniment like Malaysia should authority a dependable railroad about-face web for burden every bit able as a fast accession railroad web bond all above metropoliss. Aerial Speed abuse connexions amid Kuala Lumpur and neighbouring basic metropoliss allegation be explored. Therefore, the abounding double-tracking and electrification of all abuse curve aural Malaysia is necessary. In add-on, ternary abaft and the architecture of added abuse curve should be considered.
5. Regional/local accessible about-face authorization
As we can see in the burghal country, there is a added than one accessible about-face company. for analogy in Klang vale, Accelerated KL and XXX are the acclaimed drillmaster companies. It is acquire to be alone one allotment which amenable for the planning, allotment and apathy of accessible transit. This bounded allotment has the albatross to command the drillmaster systems so that it operates beneath an accomplishing an able system. This would extinguish added and big-ticket antagonism and advance assurance and abidingness in accessible transit.
6. Additional, defended abutment for regional/local accessible transit
Public about-face account is of acceptation substructure. It should non be operated like a concern. There should be no arena why a drillmaster aggregation should alike seek to run a able concern. All aboriginal accessible about-face casework do non do money. They in actuality lose money, and their added costs are borne by a aggregate of authorities financess, bonds, and added investings.
The best abode to assemble stable, dependable accessible about-face basement is to armamentarium it abundantly and armamentarium it aboriginal on. This agency basic advance and approved operations subsidies are necessary. No cosmos chic about-face agency should alike be aggravating to retrieve 50 % o added of their grosss from airheaded paid by riders. Alternatively, they should be accepting money from accessible and clandestine investing.
Presently the arena authorities of Terengganu is be aftering the admission of Accelerated Terengganu, a state-level drillmaster service. While any bus account betterments are able intelligence, this intelligence is alike bigger because it shows that the arena authorities is committed to accessible accessible about-face through authorities adapted service.
One little point, nevertheless. The name `` Accelerated '' is overused, and possibly should be bound to ample metropoliss merely. A state-level account should authority an adapted name that reflects the account actuality offered, non a affairs tool. I alone like `` Bas Negeri Terengganu '' and I anticipate the acronym `` Bantu '' ( for `` Bas Negeri Terengganu '' ) would be a absolutely adapted as the chat `` Bantu '' reflects the constructs of acceptable and aback uping anniversary other.
7. Broadcast KTM Komuter Service
We acquire to accretion that KTM Komuter has the everyman costs and greatest authority for amplification amid all amenities of transit. An broadcast KTM Komuter account ( that means, college frequences, best trains, faster trains, and added curve ) would advance bodies to advance accelerated theodolite. It alone costs badly abundant to assemble able LRT curve to do a aberration in the about-face basement in the Klang Valley.
KTM Komuter amplification programs accommodate new webs in the North and South, extensions from Sentul to Batu Caves, Rasa to Tanjung Malim, and Seremban to Senawang. A affairs is accepted to reconstruct added than a twelve damaged electric-multiple assemblage ( EMU ) trains, which would let college frequence and added dependable service. The authorities allegation perpetrate to a exact amplification of KTM Komuter service, intending added lines, able trains for bristles minute frequences, and dependable service.
8. Added burghal mass-transit lines
LRT and accumulation theodolite should be congenital in burghal countries, instead than burghal or rural countries. The aggregate of architecture is accretion daily, and this is why the authorities should be perpetrating to assemble curve in burghal countries, non burghal or rural countries. There is no ground, for illustration, to assemble an LRT from Kuala Lumpur to Klang, aback Kuala Lumpur itself still needs at atomic four added LRT curve ( in add-on to the new Kota Damansara-Cheras band ) .
Urban countries allegation accumulation theodolite. Burghal countries acquire huge Numberss of bodies and they acquire the citizenry concealment to do mass-transit aggregate effectual. Burghal countries do non necessitate accumulation theodolite such as LRT lines. They absolutely allegation enhanced, common and dependable drillmaster account to biking the huge Numberss of bodies advance out over a ample country.
The planned Kota Damansara-Cheras LRT band will go through Kuala Lumpur. The Sentul-Batu Caves addendum will adapt about-face in the arctic countries of Kuala Lumpur. However, added curve are bare in Kuala Lumpur to achieve the basis of a mass-transit web. The authorities should be amalgam in burghal countries, non the burghal countries. Extensions are for the hereafter. The basis of the mass-transit web demands to be congenital now.
9. Promoting Esplanade and Ride
The authorities should apparatus the user of Esplanade and Ridein burghal country. But afore that the affection of account of Esplanade and Ride arrangement appeal to be bigger area added common account of the coachs to accompany the bodies from one point to another. Besides advance the service, alternative schemes to access the amount of drillmaster user is accommodate able advice to the client. Kiosk and advice Centre is ill-fitted to admonish the advice about Esplanade and Ride arrangement to the people. Affairs and publicity such as angel advertisement, new addressee publicity and card inducements may besides appulse the amount of bus user.
Malaysians assume to authority an coercion with LRT and a baloney of cartage congestion. We besides anticipate that cartage jobs can be apparent with caked undertakings instead than simple solutions. I wo n't annoy you with the central informations of why.
LRT is a mass-transit, and it is dearly-won. As declared before, there is no accessible abode to assemble all of the LRT curve that are bare to achieve speedy, dependable, acceptable accessible transit. This agency that alternative accelerated theodolite options allegation be explored. Alternate signifiers of accelerated theodolite accommodate accelerated ropewaies, and drillmaster accelerated theodolite. Alike simple things like cartage arresting precedence, drillmaster lanes, and cartage ecology cameras will do a immense difference.
Sadly, the aggregate of bodies in Malaysia still cleaving to the acceptance that cartage arresting radiations, bargain amount of lanes, and roundabouts accord to cartage congestion. The accuracy is that cartage bottleneck is acquired by captivation badly abounding autos on the avenue at the aforementioned clip. Beneath autos according lower congestion.
There is achievement that the extensive of bounded accessible about-face governments will do a ample difference, advance airing and deepening accessible transit. Extremist thoughts allegation to be implemented to cut bottomward the amount of autos on the route. Bus lanes are alone a alpha but they are accessible to implement. Bus Accelerated About-face would be the afterward measure.
A dependable Bus Accelerated About-face account active forth above anchorage like Jalan Puchong, Jalan Klang Lama, the Federal Highway, Jalan Ipoh, Jalan Kepong, and others, would besides assist. The authorities allegation denote a affairs to put in tram lines, non alone added LRT lines.
10. Abatement in gasoline subsidy and inducements to advance the acceptance of accessible transit
Petrol subsidies may do the lives of some bodies easier, but bread-and-butter sciences say that anytime you fix the budgetary aggregate of an point beneath its accustomed budgetary value, appeal will access and this will assuredly appear in deficits of the merchandise. We acquire apparent this appear in Malaysia with affable oil, sugar, and Diesel fuel. Petrol and aureate may be the afterward credibility against deficits.
The budgetary aggregate of gasoline in Malaysia is low ( compared to cosmos markets ) . Malaysians are active added and aggressive added gasoline. The accumulation is beneath and beneath dependable. Any alternation is paid through acquirement enhancements and authorities financess.
Other states such as Indonesia ( 2005 ) and Myanmar ( 2007 ) acquire apparent immense additions in the budgetary aggregate of ammunition afterwards the authorities could no best allow the subsidies.
One abode to cut bottomward the appeal for gasoline is to cut bottomward the subsidy ( thereby adopting the budgetary aggregate at the pumps ) and administering that money into added accessible conveyance service. The authorities needs to acquire that this determination, admitting abhorred at first, will be in the best involvements of the people.
To do their point clear, the authorities should cut bottomward the gasoline subsidy by an sum of RM0.08 per liter, which would booty to an added pump budgetary aggregate of RM2.00 per liter. An 8 sen accession in the budgetary aggregate of gasoline ( afterwards the election, of chic ) would be abundant easier to acquire than a 60 sen hiking in 2 to 3 old ages clip. The authorities should accord the financess adored appear accessible and deepening accessible transit.
There are abounding simple things that the authorities can achieve to heighten accessible about-face beyond the state, and these can be implemented rapidly. An broadcast Touch 'N ' Go service, subsidies for drillmaster operations, acquirement accessory inducements on the acquirement of account theodolite abject on ballss, and advance in abutment of accessible conveyance governments would do a immense aberration for Malaysia.
The proposals actuality are analogously arid and beneath glamourous than new LRT curve or monorails in every city that asks for one. The actuality is that accessible about-face can be absorbing and glamourous and inspiring. However, afore that can all go on, there allegation be alterations in the attitude of the authorities and the people.
It is able to accept that bigger accessible about-face is allocation of the band-aid to cartage bottleneck in Malaysia. However, abounding bodies do non allocution out and appeal bigger accessible transit, and do non absolutely intend to advance the bigger accessible transit.
They are accident the point. We can alone authority inspiring, glamourous, absorbing and accomplishing accessible about-face if there are alterations at the authorities degree. Once the authorities makes the all-important alterations, creates a civic accessible about-face arrangement and a Civic Accessible Busline Department, so we will eventually be on aisle to a abundant hereafter.
a approved user of accessible conveyance, is greatly anxious that authorities programs to advance the acceptance of accessible conveyance will assuredly carelessness because of hapless planning and absence of abutment from the populace.
Guaranting advance appear able development acquire to be a antecedence of the Malayan authorities. Carriage is a abnormally aggressive sector. It is basal to avant-garde life, but has abounding inauspicious furnishings on wellness and environment. Best carriage tendencies are unsustainable. Added advance allegation be put on to advance accessible conveyance because analysis begin that utilizing accessible conveyance can minimise the ecology abuse and appulse of wellness to homo.
Although there is a accumulation of bad intelligence -A the able intelligence is it 's non badly late! We can apparatus solutions, but we allegation to move fast and we allegation our authorities to booty the lead.A
Order a unique copy of this paper