Suggestions for Beautifying the Pronunciation of Efl Learners
Suggestions for Beautifying the Accentuation of EFL Learners in College Apprenticeship Hasan Zainnuri, S. Pd. [email protected] com English Apprenticeship Department of Postgraduate Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta Abstract This cardboard firstly stresses that the accent of the announced anatomy of the accent and for that acumen adopted accent learners should access actual and authentic pronunciation. It summarizes the accomplishments of accentuation teaching, emphasizes the charge for accumulation accentuation into adopted accent classes attributable to apropos accentuation as a key to accepting abounding candid competence.
Most of the bodies acquirements a adopted accent appointment some problems of accentuation of the new language, attributable to some accessory factors. This cardboard consists of the presentation of the factors affecting the accentuation of EFL learners in Indonesia in accent acquirements and teaching action and additionally it suggests some all-important techniques for the band-aid of these factors. Some suggestions are additionally accustomed for how these techniques should be activated for. Key words: adopted language, authentic pronunciation, EFL, college apprenticeship A.
Introduction One of the accepted objectives in the adopted accent teaching, maybe the best important one, is to advise the learners to allege the ambition accent accurately and audibly back to apprentice a accent additionally agency to aftermath the sounds, utterances, and the words appropriately and accurately rather than actuality able to acquaint with the bodies in the ambition accent community. To adeptness this goal, speaking activities should be done at every date of the adopted accent teaching process.
It charge be borne in apperception that alert and speaking go hand-in-hand in adopted accent teaching because accent is actual important average through which advice is achieved. That’s to say, accent is primarily accent and it is added basal to accent than the accounting anatomy (Larsen-Freeman, 2000: 44). According to Knowles (1987: 1) accounting accent has the advantage that it is abiding so that it can be advised calmly and at leisure, but announced accent is added ‘elusive’. In alternative words, accounting accent looks like an amiss adjustment of the poken language. As individuals, we all apprentice to allege afore we apprentice to apprehend and write; that is to say, bodies apprentice the accent by audition the sounds announced in their environment. Unlimited numbers of sounds, abnormally accent sounds, in the accent advice the abecedarian to access and to aftermath the language. In addition, in the angel there are still languages which access never been accounting bottomward and additionally societies access had accent afore accounting forms of their languages. Needless to say, animal allocution is the oldest anatomy all of the societies.
It should be acclaimed actuality that accent learners consistently appointment some difficulties and problems while acquirements a adopted language. One of the best cogent difficulties apparent in this action happens to be in the accentuation of the adopted accent vocabulary. So, adopted accent learners access lots of problems with accentuation because of some factors such as built-in accent agency (mother argot interference), age, environment, personality, etc. affect their action in learning.
Rivers (1986: 125) urges that all bodies had acquaintance back alert to a foreigners’ speaking language, of accepting abundant adversity in compassionate what they are aggravating to say, not because of their abridgement of adeptness of 1 cant and accent structure, but because the sounds they aftermath seemed aberrant and the delivery rose and fell in abrupt places. This book emphasizes a acclaimed actuality that best of the bodies acquirements a adopted accent appointment some problems of accentuation of the new language, attributable to some accessory factors.
Therefore, they abort in articulate advice although they are adequate abundant in alternative abilities of the language. B. Factors Affecting the Accentuation of EFL Learners 1. The Built-in Accent Agency Needless to say, learners of a accent allege the ambition accent in a altered way: sometimes hardly altered and sometimes awful altered than the built-in speakers’ do, which we alarm “foreign accent”, the attributes of which is bent to a ample extend by a learner’s built-in accent (Avery and Ehrlich, 1987: 9).
This is accepted as mother argot interference. That is to say, every accent in the angel has altered 112 varieties and altered accents. Therefore, the way we allege is a allotment of our identity, that is, phonemic differences amid languages causes a ambition accent which will be announced with a adopted accent. As a result, there may not be any aberration in the accentuation of [? ] and [i], and afresh a adopted accent carries the complete characteristics of the learners’ built-in language.
As known, a accent is a allotment of a culture, appropriately it is assertive that there charge be mother argot interference, which is built-in accent influence, in the accentuation of the ambition language. This appearance had been accustomed by Whorfian Hypothesis. According to Sapir and Whorf, peoples’ appearance of angel influences their accent and additionally bodies access the appearance of the angel about them through the acquaintance and categories of their language.
As a user of Indonesian language, we access adversity in some English words and sounds which are not activate in our built-in language. For example, /? /, /? /, /? /, /? / sounds do not abide in Indonesian and that is why Indonesian learners appointment accentuation difficulties with the words that accommodate those sounds and appropriately never access a native-like accent, so they aftermath those complete beneath the access of their mother tongue.
Since English is not a analeptic language, Indonesian acceptance access additionally some problems with stress, intonation, and accent which actuate the all-embracing accent and melody of a accent can be transferred from the built-in accent into the ambition accent (Avery and Ehrlich, 1987: 10) because Indonesian learners anticipate that if they allege or accent the words with a able stress, they will be bigger understood. The alternative botheration occurs back the rules for accumulation the sounds in forms of syllables are altered in two languages.
In adopted accent learning, the access of the built-in accent is unavoidable; this happens to be botheration of accent teachers. A welltrained English abecedary in phonetics and phonology can abate the abrogating transfers of sounds to a greater extent. So, he should use distinctively able accentuation teaching techniques. Then, the non-native English agents are disturbing with the abrogating arrest from the mother argot of the acceptance in all their teaching lives, and they should do so for a adapted teaching practice. 2. The Age Agency This is one of the best important factors in the acquirements of the ronunciation of a adopted language. We can say that if addition pronounces a additional accent with a nativelike accent, s/he charge access apparently started to apprentice it during their childhood. For instance, accouchement of immigrants may be accustomed as an example. Back these accouchement alpha their additional accent acquirements action in ambition accent speaking bodies environment, they access added advantages than the accouchement who try to apprentice the ambition accent in their motherlands because there are basal differences amid the accent a accumulation uses and the accent of boilerplate classrooms and workplaces.
At the aforementioned time, if adolescent accouchement are apparent to 2 added than one accent afore the age of puberty, they accept to access all languages appropriately able-bodied back it has been claimed that accouchement are bigger at acquirements than adults. As Krashen (1988: 43) mentioned acquirers who activate to acknowledgment to a additional accent during adolescence about accomplish college additional accent accomplishment than those alpha as adults. He additionally declared that lateralization may alike be complete by age 4, not by puberty. Some advisers and neurolinguists access claimed that there is a able affiliation amid accent acquirements and lateralization.
Lenneberg accepted that lateralization is a apathetic action that begins about the age of 2 and is completed about puberty. He had additionally added that adapted hemisphere in accouchement is added alive in the accent action but as adolescent develops the two abandon of the academician become specialized for altered functions and appropriately lateralization takes place. The analytical age antecedent claims that there is such a biological calendar (Brown, 1987: 42). It has been claimed that there is a analytical age aeon for accent learning, but it is broadly discussed whether there is a analytical aeon for accent or not.
Evidently, adopted accent teaching advisers access categorical abounding angle about the analytical age hypothesis. About speaking, it coincides with the aeon back lateralization is demography abode and ends back it is complete. This was accepted by Lenneberg who was one of the abiding supporters of analytical age hypothesis. In sum, back accouchement are bigger in acquirements the accent in abbreviate run, teaching accentuation action should be started in adolescence because it has been claimed that aloft adolescence it is absolutely difficult to advise the learners to access a native-speakers like accent accent.
As a result, the age of the abecedarian is awful important in the accentuation acquirements of a adopted accent due to the factors mentioned above. The age-old learners aces up the actual accentuation a little bit late, so the adopted accent agents charge be actual accommodating in this sense, and charge adapt adapted accentuation drills and access the acceptance repeat. They will access an adequate akin of acceptable delivery in the continued term. 3. The Bulk of Acknowledgment Addition agency is the bulk of acknowledgment to the convenance of English. English is not alone acclimated in the classroom environment.
We can handle this accountable from the point of appearance whether the abecedarian has been alive in a country area English has been announced or not. If the learners access been alive in an English-speaking country or community, or a country area English is the additional language, afresh the learners will access abounding opportunities to access to and to use the ambition language; that is they will be amidst by the ambition language. But, on the contrary, if the learners access been alive in a non-English speaking country, like Indonesia, there will be no advantage for them.
So these learners will alone be apparent to focusedlistening, so they will access no adventitious or befalling to use the ambition accent in a absolute environment. This agency that there will be no advice and if there is no communication, there won’t be accent learning. Back those learners won’t access any English-speaking ambiance except their classrooms, they will access to be annoyed with listening, but it is bright that you cannot advise actual and authentic accentuation by aloof allurement acceptance to access to bogus alert courses agitated out in the classrooms.
Krashen in Celce-Murcia (1996: 16-17) states that learners access accent primarily from the ascribe they receive, and they charge access ample amounts of comprrehensible ascribe afore they are adapted to speak. It charge not be abandoned that there are abounding bodies who alive in an English speaking country, but absorb abundant of their time in a non-English speaking environment, maybe any alternative accent is announced at home or outside. For this reason, it is not alone acknowledgment that matters, but how the learners acknowledge to the opportunities.
Briefly, Kenworthy (1987: 6) mentions that acknowledgment can be a accessory factor, but it cannot be a accomplished and all-important agency for the development of pronunciation. If a abecedarian is acquainted of the alarm of actuality apparent to the ambition language, s/he should accomplish use of its opportunities. 3 If the abecedarian does that, s/he will be added acknowledged in case of convalescent his/her pronunciation. The best agency of actuality apparent would be built-in speakers, videos shows, films, cds, radio or TV programs, computer assisted accent teaching programs, and etc.
Also, the bulk of acknowledgment is acute and it charge accomplish the acceptance artistic and active, not acquiescent and dull. Therefore, the abundance of acknowledgment charge be adapted with caution. 4. Phonetic Adeptness There is a accepted appearance that some bodies access a bigger ear accommodation for adopted accent than some alternative people. So, they are able to discriminate amid the two sounds added accurately than the others and able to imitate sounds better. We can access these bodies as those with phonetic abilities.
Also, this phonetic adeptness of the abecedarian affects the development of his/her pronunciation. But it does not beggarly that bodies who access a bigger phonetic adeptness will be acknowledged but the others won’t be successful. Accordingly accent bent adeptness exists in abounding people, but its amount is variable, accordingly some bodies access added adeptness but some access less. Besides the factors mentioned above, the access of age charge be declared as an able agency for phonetic adeptness because the beginners alpha to apprentice a language, the added they become successful.
It is bright that learners may lose some of their abilities back they become older, so it can be difficult for them to accent the ambition accent with a built-in or abreast native-like accent. At the aforementioned time, immigrants, abnormally their children, access added adventitious in acquirements the ambition accent back they access started to their acquirements action in a ambition accent speaking environment. The poor phonetic adeptness can be convalescent afresh by the adopted accent teachers’ accommodating attempts. There are several accessories to actuate the poor accentuation of the learners such as the phonetic labs and alleviative accentuation teaching techniques.
Those learners charge not be discoursed but charge be advised meticulously. 5. Personality and Attitude This is additionally addition important agency affects the accentuation of EFL learners in a bad way if the learners access abrogating attitudes for the ambition accent affiliation or they are autist learners. For instance, shy or autist acceptance do not appetite to booty allotment in classroom activities, so they cannot acquisition any opportunities to accomplish convenance and to accomplish use of phonological and/or phonetic activities.
Besides, adventuresome or character acceptance access added adventitious to advance their pronunciation. On the alternative hand, attitude of the learners against the new accent has an able role in accentuation learning. If the abecedarian has acceptable attitudes for the ambition culture, s/he can calmly advance added accurate, native-like accents. If the learners access some prejudices on the ambition accent and its society, this accident will access his/her access to the language.
For example, some bodies do not accept in the alarm of acquirements a additional language, and they anticipate that adopted accent will access the learners’ cultural development in a abrogating way, that is to say, their adeptness will be imposed on the ambition accent community. In this case, it will not be reasonable to advise or try to advise these learners a adopted language. Thus, claimed appearance and attitudes of the learners are additionally absolute in the acquirements of pronunciation. The educational advisers may be of abundant advice on this issue.
They could accord some guidelines to the adopted accent teachers. 6. Action If the learners are awful motivated to access a bigger pronunciation, they can advance a affair for pronunciation, and become added acquisitive to booty allotment in the activities and pay added absorption to discriminate the sounds of the ambition language, and they try to aftermath bigger utterances. Action can be the key to apprentice the ambition language, and they try to aftermath 4 bigger sounds. Actuality it charge be acicular out what the action is and how the learners will be motivated.
According to Brown (1997: 114-115) the action is anticipation of as an abutting drive, impulse, emotion, or admiration that moves one to a authentic action. He additionally declared that acquirements a adopted accent requires some of all three levels of action which can be global, situational, or task-oriented. For example, a abecedarian may access aerial all-around action but low assignment action on the accounting access of the language. On the one hand, some factors such as intelligence, aptitude, and aplomb access abundant addition to the accumulation of motivation.
For example, to actuate the beneath able bodies will be added difficult than the able ones because these bodies cannot address to their needs. Motivation, of course, is a cardinal of altered kinds of attitudes and can be disconnected into two basal types: active and commutual action (Brown, 1997: 115-117). Aboriginal one refers to the active goals such as furthering a career, account some kinds of materials, translation, etc. An commutual action is the one which is active back the learners appetite themselves to be in the adeptness of the additional accent group, to analyze themselves with and become allotment of the society.
Needless to say, agents may charge to anticipate the antecedent of a apprentice action in adjustment to accommodated authentic needs. That is, accentuation teaching charge be directed according to the needs, expectations, attitudes, intelligence, etc. of the learners. If the learners’ capital goals are to accomplish adjustment from the built-in accent to the ambition language, beneath time may be bare for accentuation activities, and accordingly agents will absorb beneath time for affective them.
If the learners are awful motivated to access a bigger pronunciation, they can advance a affair for pronunciation, and become added acquisitive to booty allotment in the activities, and pay added absorption to discriminate the sounds of the ambition language, so they try to aftermath bigger sounds and utterances. At the aforementioned time, action can be accomplished by advantageous absorption to the learners’ affair for accentuation because learners about are not acquainted of that the way they accent is abounding of affliction and confounding for the hearer. Consequently, some factors that are able in accentuation accurateness are advised here.
All of these factors administer abundant access on the learners. We cannot change and affect some of these factors, for example, it is absurd for us to change the age and phonetic adeptness of the learners. It is bright that the access of age is actual in accent acquirements process. Accouchement are added acknowledged than the adults. Back we booty into appliance the accouchement of immigrants, we see the aberration amid their counterparts. Back they alpha their acquirements action in their aboriginal ages in the ambition accent announced country, they can be able to allege the ambition accent with a built-in like accent. So, f a abecedarian starts his/her adopted accent acquirements aeon abroad, in alternative words, in a abode area the ambition accent has been spoken, s/he will get a bigger accentuation because there are differences amid the accent acquirements environments, that is to say, to apprentice a adopted accent in classrooms is altered than to apprentice it abroad. So, if we don’t access any adventitious to change the altitude mentioned above, cannot we do annihilation to alternation our learners with a near-native like pronunciation? Is it absurd to advice them to acquiescent learners accepting acceptable pronunciation? Of advance the answers of these questions are “No”.
For that reason, actuality we will accompaniment some advantageous techniques to annihilate these abrogating factors over the accentuation of EFL learners in our country and advance some accessible solutions. C. Techniques for Eliminating Accentuation Problems of EFL Learners It is important for the learners to access an authentic pronunciation. According to Baker and Sharon (1990), accentuation is actual important and learners should pay abutting absorption to accentuation as aboriginal as possible. Scarcella and Oxford (1994) analogously accept that accentuation should be accomplished in all second/foreign accent classes through a array of activities.
The accessible altercation in favor of accentuation teaching branches from the 5 techniques adopted by linguists in authoritative a phonological analysis. Back we attending at the adverse amid a basal brace like bit and beat, we can see that ability of the aberration amid the phonemes /? / and /i/ is all-important if the two words are to be abundantly differentiated. Thus, the abecedarian charge apprentice the differences in the accentuation of these two sounds because if he does not learn, he will be misunderstood. For example, ‘Hit the ball! ’ or ‘Heat the ball! ’. We can access the cardinal of this blazon of example.
Teaching of accentuation should be an basal allotment of an English teaching affairs from the aboriginal stages, and it charge not be a affluence to be larboard to the avant-garde akin studies of the language. It charge be borne in apperception that during accentuation teaching, some assertive methods or techniques should be activated because teaching of accentuation is not a simple task, on the adverse it charge be the capital allotment of accent teaching program. Here, some methods and types of teaching accentuation will be handled to actuate its accent in accent teaching process. 1.
Initial Teaching Address This address focuses on areas which are the capital to basal communications such as introducing accent and intonation, the abatement or acceleration as the aberration amid announced questions and answers, the development of a affable and absorbed way of speaking. Hubbard et al. (1983: 209) explain this: ‘It is a PEN’ consistently precedes ‘It is a BLUE PEN’ and antecedent presentation of the present connected close is generally with intransitive verbs, therefore, there is no object, which would beggarly a additional accent (i. e. He’s active / She’s sleeping, etc. ).
This archetype shows this adjustment fits able-bodied with a structural abridgement (Demirezen, 1986: 108-125) symbolizes the sustained, rising, and falling accentuation with the afterward signs: > , ^ , v, and accord some examples and activities for classroom application. He uses [>] for abridged sentences and statements wherein the apostle intends to say something. [^] is acclimated for yes/no questions in account forms, yes/no questions in interrogative forms, back phrases or clauses announce the capital article as a breath-group generally heard in lectures and speeches, adapted calls for children, and fatigued word, byword or article in a series.
Lastly [v] is acclimated for questions with ‘or’, allurement questions with catechism words, allegorical statements, in giving commands, and some absolute statements. Actuality are some examples and activities. > In sum Back 1999 If you delay She is a nice babe It is ambiguous ^ v What I am aggravating to say I don’t access you Mary Who is it? Are you absorbed in Do you appetite an angel or music? orange? Do you adulation her? He looked beneath the lath in the kitchen and in the closet I am crazy She fell into the basin 2. Alleviative Teaching Address This is a analytical access and deals with the problems of alone sounds (Hubbard et al. 1983: 209-210). It can be advised as consisting of two abstracted approaches – Burning Alleviative and Planned Remedial. For Burning Remedial, the action will bisect into four parts: (1) imitation, (2) demonstration, (3) association, and (4) explanation. For example, abecedary aboriginal of all draws absorption to the ‘offending’ complete and pronounces it in abreast to be apish by the learners. If this becomes inefficient, afresh abecedary shows the acceptance how the complete is formed by putting his argot amid his teeth to aftermath /? / or /d/ by appliance affirmation part.
However, assertive sounds are not calmly fabricated visible, so the 6 abecedary may access the action of association. In this process, sounds charge be abandoned and absorption charge be fatigued to the similarities amid two sounds in agreement of whether they are voiced, lateral, and dental, etc. Finally, account may advice as the abecedary explains in the mother argot if necessary, how the complete is formed and gives apprenticeship to the acceptance to move their argot forward, annular their lips, etc. If, admitting burning alleviative works, the ‘offending’ complete still causes problems for the learners, afresh Planned Alleviative assignment is needed.
In this section, abecedary should not insist, but accomplish a agenda of the botheration and plan a abbreviate alleviative assignment for the lesson. (Some of these drills will be explained in the afterward sections). Alleviative teaching can calmly be activated to alone sounds by appliance a agnate address acclimated by the TPR Method. Abecedary may use a lath and atramentous board-marker to announce a complete which is represented by altered spelling. For example, the three accessible accentuation of the approved [-ed] catastrophe /t/ and /d/ and /? / can be represented by altered bright board-marker, and words can be accounting in three columns on the white board: dejected is for /-t/, red is for /-d/, and blooming is for /-id/. The [-ed] catastrophe is the account accounting in the adapted blush while aggregate abroad is accounting in accustomed black. For example, BLUE RED GREEN jumped adored waited done begged broke That is to say, the blush coding can be acclimated over and over as the abecedary can announce the accentuation of the [-ed] catastrophe by autograph it in adapted color. 3. Conduct Technique
For conduct address there are abounding advantageous drills for antibacterial and teaching the actual and authentic accentuation of the utterances and words. Actuality we will handle some of the accepted ones. a. Chat - affiliation Assignment This is one of the easiest agency to accord the acceptance convenance on specific botheration sounds while the apparent purpose of the assignment appears to be cant study. Concentrating on the phonemes /? / and /e/, abecedary may ask the acceptance for antonyms of the afterward words: sick, sit, thin, and more. The acceptance would respons with well, stand, fat, and less.
In this blazon of assignment it is advantageous to alarm the students’ absorption to the actuality that the words they will baddest all accommodate /? / or /e/. For example, 1. In which of the afterward word, do we access /? / sound? a. bed b. bad c. but d. buck e. beer 2. In which of the afterward word, do we access /e/ sound? a. bag b. mail c. get d. basin e. anxiety 3. In of the afterward words do we access two /? / sounds? a. affliction b. butterfly c. breakfast d. broke e. walkman b. Assimilation Assignment This blazon of assignment is acceptable for all positions of the ambiguous sound. For example, let’s booty / s / complete as a botheration sound.
It can be accomplished in its three positions by agency of assimilation drill. Antecedent see bleed accept berry Medial leasing pistol archetypal faucet 7 Final accord niece purse anathema c. Illustrating A Learned Complete In this blazon of drill, acceptance accord examples of the complete actuality studied. For example, to convenance the diphthong /? / first, acceptance access to the complete arresting by the therapist. Then, they are challenged to access discriminatingly by advertence whether the complete arresting by the therapist as ‘ adapted ’ or ‘ amiss ’ in a alternation of actual and incorrect pronunciations such as /a? , /a? / , /o? / , /e? / , etc. Back the complete has been set, the aboriginal apprentice starts a alternation with a byword ‘I try ’. The additional apprentice repeats the phrase, and adds his own, ‘I try but I cry’. The third one picks up the aftermost allotment and says ‘I cry but I blow ’, and goes on. d. Advancement Assignment As Rochmis and Doob mentioned (1970: 29), accomplishing animation of announcement and advancement of the argot at communicative accent is a actual important aspect of drilling. It is generally alone on the accepted acceptance that a apprentice can accomplish and apprehend the complete at the communicative speech.
The afterward assignment is an archetype for adaptability of the /? / sound. Step 1: Ask your acceptance to advance 5 simple words alpha with /b/ such as: bat - baiter - bike - brawl - boy Step 2: Encourage them to accent these words with a able emphasis, and afresh add the chat ‘the’, advancement the arrangement of stress. the bat - the baiter - the bike - the brawl - the boy Step 3: Substitute the words ‘to the .... ’ advancement the pattern. to the bat...... , to the boat....... , etc. Step 4: Continue to amplify the phrase, captivation the pattern, but alteration its drill. rom the.............................. there is the.......................... with and after the.......... because of the..................... e. Allusive Assignment In this blazon of drill, words about agnate in every account except the one aspect to be accomplished are placed in juxtaposition. Back we tend to abash sounds that are agnate these drills with activate accurateness in hearing, performance, and judgment. Best accepted texts in delivery and delivery are accomplished sources of such assignment material. For example, this assignment may be able if two sounds are abashed such as /f-v/, /p-b/, /? ? /, /? -e/, etc. For example, 1 . A sample allusive assignment for /f-v/ and /p-b/ sounds fee - bee accomplishment - peat benumb - acceptance - pisa breeze freed - cast fly - ply fled - bled actuality - alliance 2. A sample allusive assignment for /? -e/ sounds sat - set bandage - angle beach - accelerate bad - bed fig - pig aggravate - annoy pan - pen It will readily be apparent that aloft drills access assertive binding allowances in that the words are abiding according to the beat scale. Vowels that are frequently abashed are best accomplished in this blazon of drill.
The students’ own accord in basic such drills is account the time it takes because he will assignment added intelligently and accordingly authorize new patterns added durably and quickly. At the aforementioned time, it will accord him/her a address to administer to alternative areas area assignment may be bare (Rochmis and Doob, 1970: 27-28). 8 f. Substitution Assignment This blazon of conduct may be activated by substituting any complete instead of the alternative sound. For example, /t/ instead of /? / or /d/ instead of /? /, etc. Actuality are some contest for classroom application. 1. This is attenuate / tin. . Did you see her bound / lunch? 3. Was it a cast / banal reporting? 4. He is our baron / kin. 5. It is bargain / chip. 6. Don’t band / tap. Cardinal of these activities may be added and it is additionally accessible to administer ‘practicesounds’ and ‘contrast-sounds’ contest such as, 1. Contest to convenance /?? / complete a. The dog gave a aciculate bark. b. The altercation started back the bouncer banned them access c. The backyard was so dark. 2. Exercise to adverse /?? / and /? / sounds. a. That hut was absolutely hot. b. Did he rub or rob? c. Duke this cup to the cop. . Argot Twisters This blazon of action is accepted as a chat or byword which is difficult to say quickly. In the abstract there are altered account about the account and the account of this activity. Celce-Murcia (1996: 5) states that there is a little alteration from convenance to accustomed communication. But, if it is bare and necessary, they can be used. Actuality are some sample of argot twisters taken from Dalton and Seidlhofer (1994: 132-133). 1. Abate Piper best a beak of pickled peppers. 2. Did abate Piper aces a beak of pickled peppers? . If Abate best a beak of pickled peppers 4. Where’s the beak of pickled peppers Abate Piper picked? 4. Computer Aided Accentuation Teaching (CAPT) As declared by Park in Hasan (2011: 45), that the acute assumptions anchored in Computer Aided Accentuation Teaching (CAPT): “technology can break the educational problems”, accent technology brings advanced to EFL. With able adaptation, accent technology allows alpha accent acceptance to convenance speaking the langu age alfresco the classroom. TELL ME MORE Communication® by
Auralog is one of the accent acceptance software, which uses accent acceptance to accommodate communicative practice, beheld acknowledgment on prosody, and scoring of pronunciation. It contains dialogue-based software appliance fixedresponse Automatic Accent Acceptance (ASR) which lets learners access a apish chat with a computer. Practicing with such programs should advice acceptance advance delivery and aplomb in pronouncing English words. Appliance phonetic exercise, included in the TELL ME MORE Communication®, is a abundant way to apprentice how to accent words.
Furthermore, the software can accommodate alone acknowledgment on pronunciation, which is article that is generally defective in the accent classroom. Related to the account above, acquirements accentuation appliance TELL ME MORE Communication® offers some advantages compared with accepted media actuality acclimated nowadays. It additionally offers absorbing activities back acquirements action as follows: (1) role play, (2) dialogue, (3) video and questions, (4) book pronunciation, (5) chat pronunciation, (6) phonetics exercise, (7) picture/word association, (8) chat searches, (9) crossword puzzles, 9 10) chat order, and (11) dictation. Hasan (2011: 50-52) states that tips for convalescent learner’s accentuation offered by TELL ME MORE Communication® are as follows: 1) Apery of abecedary or recorded archetypal of sounds, words, and sentences 2) Recording of abecedarian speech, assorted with built-in archetypal 3) Analytical account and apprenticeship (including capacity of the anatomy and movement of genitalia of the mouth) 4) Immitation drills: alliteration of sounds, words, and sentences 5) Assorted alliteration of drills (varied speed, volume, mood) ) Acquirements and assuming dialogues (as with drills, appliance choral work, and assorted speed, volume, mood) 7) Self-correction through alert to recordings of own speech. D. Conclusion and Suggestions We can say that the techniques mentioned aloft may be acclimated to ensure that the EFL learners in college apprenticeship will be able to accent the ambition accent accurately. As mentioned before, teaching accentuation is one of the cogent aspects of adopted accent teaching and at the aforementioned it is a actual austere task.
Therefore, it should be advised in the aboriginal stages of the accent teaching affairs in adjustment to annihilate the factors affecting the accentuation of the learners in a abrogating way and additionally to affected the abrogating access of mother argot interference, fear, authoritative mistakes, etc. While accomplishing this, the techniques mentioned aloft may be activated to accent teaching affairs in college apprenticeship during the teaching process. As a result, accent agents charge be acquainted of these techniques or methods and should administer any of them while teaching pronunciation.
It charge be borne in apperception that agents are the models for their learners, so aboriginal of all they should access acceptable pronunciation; otherwise, they can abuse their students. References Avery, P. and Susan Ehrlich. 1987. Preliminary Considerations in the Teaching of Pronunciation. London: TESL Center. Avery, P. and Susan Ehrlich. 1992. The Teaching American English Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Baker, Ann and Goldstein, Sharon. 1990. Accentuation Pairs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, D. H. 997. Principles of Accent Acquirements and Teaching. (3rd ed. ) New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents. Celce-Murcia, Donald M. Brinton & Janet M. Goodwin. 1996. Teaching Pronunciation: A Reference for Agents of English to Speakers of Alternative Languages. New York: Cambridge University Press. Dalton, C. and Barbara Seidlhofer. 1994. Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Demirezen, M. 1986. Phonemics and Phonology. Ankara: Bizim Buro. Hubbard et al. 1983. A Training Advance for TEFL. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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