Stereotypes And Realities Of The Japanese Yakuza Criminology Essay

Part 1: Yakuza as Criminals

First and foremost, the Yakuza is a abomination syndicate and appropriately it is unsurprising that they allow in all sorts of bent activities that absorb the vices (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. xviii). The added above activities would be gambling, prostitution, extortion and biologic ambidextrous (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. xviii).

The yakuza’s captivation with bank can be said to date aback to a few hundred years ago, aback back some of the yakuza were accepted as the bakuto, additionally accepted as the gamblers (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 7). The bakuto is one of the ancestors of the yakuza and addition antecedent would be the tekiya (the peddlers) (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 7), but some yakuza do not absorption themselves to be the aforementioned as the tekiya (Saga, 1991, p. 195). In the 20th century, the yakuza’s bank activities mainly complex active bank joints in the ball district, area alluring and application their barter were of ascendant significance. Besides the bank collective actuality consistently raided by the badge (since active bank joints is actionable in itself), the yakuza were absolutely able gamblers that about do not bluff as it would hunt abroad their barter already they were begin out (Saga, 1991). Added recently, besides administration action on assorted activities such as Sumo Wrestling and horse races, the Yakuza accept additionally congenital pachinko parlours into their bank activities which has been actual assisting for them back pachinko is acknowledged and is “Japan’s civic bank pastime” (Stratfor, 2012, Bent Enterprises section, para. 2).

The Yakuza accept additionally invested abundant efforts into corruption as it is a awful assisting industry that caters to abundant address from Japanese men. This has acquired the yakuza to accept a duke in chicanery and animal trafficking as able-bodied (Stratfor, 2012, Bent Enterprises section, para. 3). In the animal trafficking aspect, the yakuza accomplishment adolescent adopted women by adorable them from across to Japan, afresh banishment them to assignment in the sex industry. Sometimes, “unwanted changeable accouchement from China” are bought for this purpose as able-bodied (Bruno, 2012, chap. 4). As for the chicanery aspect, not alone do the Yakuza aftermath and advertise chicanery that may accommodate arrears girls (Stratfor, 2012, Bent Enterprises section, para. 4), they additionally bootleg in chicanery actual from across (Bruno, 2012, chap. 4).

In the case of extortion by the Yakuza, a abnormality accepted as the sokaiya has to be briefly mentioned. By sokaiya, one refers to “people who agitate actor meetings” by agreeable in assorted acts, be it through abandon or alternative forms of disruption; appropriately associates of the association pay these bodies to anticipate them from advancing the actor affairs (Szymkowiak, 2002, p. 5). Often, these sokaiya buy some shares in a aggregation to accretion them admission to these affairs afresh dig up animal secrets of the association or its associates and corruption to agitate the approaching actor affair and acknowledge these secrets if they are not paid. Their demands are usually met by associates of the association for abhorrence of cruddy revelations (Bruno, 2012, chap. 4). Due to the affluence in which money could be acquired from the corporations as able-bodied as the low accident of such an action (the corporations were absurd to address the extortion to the authorities back they were abashed the sokaiya would acknowledge their secrets), the yakuza readily affianced in such a anatomy of extortion and “[amassed] ample banknote payoffs from corporations” (Szymkowiak, 2002, p. 76).

As for biologic dealing, the yakuza mainly accord in amphetamines. These analeptic drugs were acknowledged and aggressive during and afterwards World War 2, area they were mainly acclimated by soldiers and civilians respectively. Amphetamine corruption was so astringent that the “Stimulant Biologic Ascendancy Law” was anesthetized in 1951 to barrier the use of amphetamines and this law was able to some admeasurement (Hill, 2003, p. 99). However, alike today, biologic corruption still occurs in the anatomy of methamphetamine injections. The yakuza bang-up this industry due to their availability of assets and manpower which allows them to be able to handle this actionable industry; some yakuza associates are consumers of these drugs as well. Although there is antipathy aural the yakuza appear those that accord with drugs, abounding yakuza still about-face to biologic ambidextrous to sustain their lifestyles (Hill, 2003, p. 100) back biologic ambidextrous is a actual advantageous industry (Hill, 2003, p. 101). It is so advantageous that about a third of the yakuza’s assets comes from biologic dealing, abnormally in methamphetamines (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. xviii).

Hence, it seems that the Yakuza appoint absolutely heavily in bent activities and are absolutely criminals. In fact, in the Civic Badge Agency White Cardboard in 1989 (as cited in Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 131), about 80.3% of the yakuza’s assets is acquired from actionable activities, amid which the added cogent activities will be analeptic biologic trafficking (34.8%) and bank (16.9%). In this case, the yakuza’s bent activities may accept led to them actuality banal as criminals, which they absolutely are. However, it is ambiguous as to whether they are the archetypal abyss that anybody expects them to be. For example, “in movies and novels, the yakuza are consistently all-encompassing for swords and guns” but that is not absolutely the case as they do not appetite to bolt the absorption of the badge and account their businesses to abutting bottomward (Saga, 1991, p. 194). This is an absorbing point that seems to portray the yakuza as businessmen. Also, the yakuza are accessible about their identities as yakuza admitting their bent activities. It is not aberrant to see them cutting accessories declaring their assemblage amalgamation and they additionally aboveboard affectation their assemblage emblems on their offices. Some of the yakuza leaders accept alike apologised to the accessible through columnist conferences for “any aggravation they ability accept caused” during assemblage wars (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. xviii). All these accomplishments accomplish them assume altered from the archetypal bent that is generally buried about their bent character and this is what distinguishes the Japanese Yakuza from the Mafia.

Part 2: Yakuza as benevolent followers of samurai values

Besides actuality criminals, the yakuza additionally display courage in some instances which could be attributed to the access of the samurai in abounding aspects of the yakuza. One such aspect would be the accord amid the administration and the yakuza associates which is accepted as oyabun-kobun (“father role-child role”). This accord is abnormally Japanese as it is acquired from the “lord and vassal” accord of the samurai which originated in feudal Japan. This accord entails the adherence and addition of the kobun in acknowledgment for the advice and aegis of the oyabun (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 8). A aftereffect of this accord is yubitsume which is a way for an aberrant yakuza affiliate to “pay penance” to his leader. Yubitsume involves the disengagement of a little feel collective which is afresh offered to the leader. This attitude contributes to one of the best accepted stereotypes of the yakuza, which is that they all accept ‘missing fingers’. Also, yubitsume absolutely has its origins from a few centuries ago back the added affecting yakuza wielded the katana (the weapon of the samurai) and the accident of a feel collective will abate their anchor of the katana. This increases the assurance of the aberrant affiliate on his baton and he accordingly becomes added “indebted” (Stratfor, 2012, Inside the Yakuza World section, para. 5). Already again, the access of the samurai, which is a Japanese entity, can be apparent in the traditions of the Yakuza.

Another affair that the Yakuza adopted from the samurai would be the ethics from bushido, in accurate the ethics of ninjo (“obligation” or “strong faculty of duty”) and giri (“human feeling”). With these values, the yakuza could authenticate that they, like the samurai, could “combine benevolence and affection with their aggressive skills” (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 17). These ethics are allotment of what makes the yakuza abnormally Japanese. Furthermore, the acceptance of these ethics may accept contributed to the academic yakuza hero that was aforetime portrayed in yakuza movies in the 1960s – a benevolent yakuza that had to accept amid his interests and obligations (Schilling, 2003, p. 23). Additionally, the Japanese Yakuza approved their courage back they abundantly provided assorted types of abatement food to adversity victims afterwards the 2011 convulsion and tsunami in Japan; they additionally did so afterwards the Kobe convulsion in 1995 (Norman, 2011). The courage approved by the yakuza casts agnosticism on their identities as abyss and sets them afar from accustomed abyss and conceivably alternative bent organisations like the Mafia (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 18).

However, there are some that altercate that the yakuza were added benevolent in the past. Shotaro Hayashi, a yakuza boss, asserted that the “real yakuza existed until alone the end of the Showa era [1925]” and that “there was added courage in those days” (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 126). This could be why the boilerplate of the yakuza has seemed to change in contempo years; the “modern-day gangsters” as portrayed in added contempo yakuza movies are added barbarous and far from ‘noble’, yet they are said to be added astute (Schilling, 2003, p. 19). This about-face in assuming calls into catechism what the yakuza absolutely are currently. Yet, the accepted boilerplate in the yakuza movies seems to be contradicted by the contempo accomplishments of the yakuza in the Japanese convulsion or conceivably there ability be a added acceptation abaft the accomplishments of the yakuza.

Part 3: Yakuza as nationalists

Besides actuality benevolent followers of the samurai values, the yakuza are additionally nationalists. The alpha of the nationalist yakuza began in 1881 back Mitsuru Toyama set up the Genyosha (Dark Ocean Society), the “forerunner of Japan’s avant-garde abstruse societies and affectionate groups”. This led to the conception of a new blazon of yakuza that were heavily complex in political activities, accurately ultranationalism (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 22). They adjourned their political activities through sponsorships from affluent assemblage or archetypal yakuza crimes. Initially, the added acceptable yakuza acted alone from these new yakuza but as it became bright that they aggregate agnate behavior (such as Shinto) (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 23) and both favoured the appropriate addition (due to threats from the larboard wing), abounding of the administration and their gangs adapted to ultranationalism (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 24). In 1919, a civic alliance of gangsters, the Kokusui-kai, was created, which eventually became the paramilitary arm of one of Japan’s cogent political parties then; eventually, some yakuza administration alike managed to become associates of the assembly (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 25). Besides that, the yakuza connected to accord manpower for angry and alternative purposes so as to beforehand their account (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. 26). Although all these contest happened afore the war, alike till today the yakuza are affiliated with the Liberal Democratic Party, which is a right-leaning political affair (Stratfor, 2012, The Meiji Restoration section, para. 4). In this case the yakuza assume to be aloof Japanese aggravating to beforehand a political account in Japan, instead of criminals.

Part 4: Yakuza as Mafia

The Japanese Yakuza can additionally be apparent as agnate to addition non-Japanese bent syndicate, namely the Mafia. Afterwards all, the bent activities that the yakuza are complex in are absolutely agnate to those of the Mafia. Also, like the Mafia, the yakuza are affecting in the architecture and ball industries; they additionally ascendancy abundant accepted businesses which are sometimes acclimated as fronts for their actionable ones. Both of them accept some political ability abaft the scenes as able-bodied (Kaplan & Dubro, 2003, p. xviii). The best arresting affinity amid the two bent syndicates will conceivably be their accepted laws as apparent in Kaplan & Dubro (2003):

Never acknowledge the secrets of the organization.

Never breach the wife or accouchement of addition member.

No claimed captivation with narcotics.

Do not abstain money from the gang.

Do not abort in accordance to superiors.

Do not address to the badge or alike the law…(p. 125)

These similarities assume to advance that the Japanese Yakuza ability accept been afflicted by entities alfresco of Japan as both the Yakuza and the Mafia are complex in agnate activities and are absolute by the aforementioned rules.


There is little agnosticism that the Japanese Yakuza are absolutely abyss as their captivation in assorted bent activities is extensive. However, they assume to alter somewhat from the boilerplate bandit due to the ethics they assume to uphold, which could be due to their Japanese roots and the access that the Japanese samurai had on them. Furthermore, the yakuza assume to be acerb affiliated with the political bourgeois of Japan, authoritative them affiliated to nationalists as well. Their similarities with the Mafia, admitting obvious, assume to be rather bound as assorted differences can be acclaimed and were mentioned in the paper. Ultimately, the yakuza are originated from and based in Japan, so although it would be a amplitude to alarm them “uniquely Japanese” as no allegiance is absolutely unique, they absolutely acquire the characteristics that appearance that they are Japanese.

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