Sop Cassava Processing

|Document ID: |Standard Operating Procedures’ Title: |Print Date: | |ORIGIN-CA2 |CASSAVA PROCESSING |08/07/2012 | |Revision: |Written By: |Date Prepared: | |01 |Ayodele E. J. AJAYI, General Manager Operations |08/07/2012 | |Effective Date: |Reviewed By: |Date Reviewed: | |mm/dd/yyyy | |mm/dd/yyyy | | |Approved By: |Date Approved: | | | |mm/dd/yyyy | |Applicable Standard: None | |Company: ORIGIN Group of Companies Limited Vegefresh Foods Limited, Nigeria. | |In Africa, cassava is mostly acclimated for animal burning in assorted forms alignment from baking the beginning bake-apple to processing it into cassava flour. |[pic] Cassava starch in the making: afresh harvested roots cycle | |along a agent belt at a processing bulb in Brazil | | | |[pic] | | | | | | | | | |Cassava Starch. | | | | | Policy: It is a action of this Company to accommodate Standard Operating Procedure abstracts that accommodate instructions on how to accomplish assigned tasks. Purpose: The purpose of this certificate is to ensure that accepted tasks on the acreage are performed safely, qualitatively and in acquiescence with applicative regulations. Below are some of the ways, this Standard Operating Procedure could accept absolute or aberrant absolute appulse on ORIGIN Group’s Agric business performance: a) People charge bendability to accomplish top performance. This SOP will abate arrangement variation, which is the adversary of assembly adeptness and affection control. b) This SOP will facilitate training. Having complete step-by-step instructions helps trainers ensure that annihilation is absent and provides a advertence adeptness for trainees. c) This SOP can be an accomplished advertence certificate on how a assignment is done and what are the expectations from advisers bushing in on the jobs they do not accomplish on a approved basis. d) This SOP can advice in administering achievement evaluations. They accommodate a accepted compassionate for what needs to be done and aggregate expectations for how tasks are completed. e) Advisers can drillmaster and abutment anniversary alternative if there is affidavit accessible on absolutely how assorted tasks charge be done and anybody knows what their co-workers are declared to be doing. This can additionally advice accomplish a added accommodating aggregation access to accepting all the circadian tasks done correctly, everyday. f) This SOP encourages approved appraisal of assignment action and connected advance in how things are done. Scope: This SOP is accounting for Assembly Managers, Lab Technician, Branch workers and Sales Distributors. The specific tasks aural “Cassava Processing” are covered. This SOP does not awning the Cassava Production, Harvesting and Marketing. Responsibilities: The Assembly Managers, Lab Technician, Branch workers and Sales Distributors should be amenable for analogous and implementing the Cassava Processing Branch and artefact sales tasks. The Assembly Manager is amenable for training and managing the Branch Workers, Supervisors, Lab Techs etc; Assembly Manager should abutment the objectives behavior of the Company and accommodate ascribe to added development of SOPs. He/she would be amenable for planning, organizing, authoritative and managing the activities of the absolute branch and the accepted aliment of all branch equipment. Branch Workers are accepted to acquittal their duties calmly and in acquiescence with the Standard Operating Procedures, assignment chiral and accessories chiral provided. The Standard Operating Procedures 1. 0 Cassava processing Cassava processing aims at accretion the affection and storability of cassava tubers. This enhances the adeptness of the farmers to advance added products, such as baking articles out of cassava flour. It added ensures abridgement or absolute abolishment of abominable baneful accommodation in cassava so that it is acceptable for animal consumption. A. Producing Cassava Abrade and Chips: I. Application low-cyanide varieties - Afresh harvested cassava is bald application a knife. The bald cassava is afresh done and burst into abate pieces (chips). These are afresh broiled on a aloft belvedere beneath absolute sun for about 2 canicule or specially-made driers, until damp agreeable of about 8 to 10 % is reached. Appropriately broiled chips become boxy to break, but crumble into abrade back hit with a adamantine account like a hammer. The dehydration action should be done continuously and the dehydration chips should not be apparent afresh to baptize to abstain molding. The chips may afresh be arena or formed into flour; broiled chips abundance bigger than flour. II. Application high-cyanide varieties - Afresh uprooted cassava are bald and burst into abate pieces (chips). The burst chips are afresh broiled in the sun for about 3 canicule to about 14 % damp content. The chips are afresh blood-soaked in baptize for 8 hours, and broiled afresh to a damp agreeable of about 8 %. B. Producing Gari - Brewed cassava dough: Gari is a creamy-white or chicken broiled cassava product, accepted in West Africa. It is able by case the alfresco of the bake-apple bark and washed. The done tubers are afresh grated application a grater. It is afresh arranged in accoutrements with holes to cesspool off the aqueous and larboard to agitate for 1 to 5 days, depending on the adopted flavour. The brewed actual is afresh apprenticed to let out the added baptize abrogation a cassava cake. The actual block is burst apart and advance on frying metal trays aloft a fire. The particles are absurd until brittle and dry, about 10 % damp content. The gari is afresh cooled, sieved and arranged for auction or storage. C. Cassava Starch abstraction Afterwards abrasion and peeling, roots are grated to absolution starch granules. The "starch milk" - baptize absolute abeyant granules then, afar from the pulp, afterwards which the granules are afar from the baptize by sedimentation or in a centrifuge. At that point, the starch requires solar or bogus dehydration to abolish damp afore actuality milled, sieved and packed. In artisanal assembly systems, circadian starch achievement ranges from 50 to 60 kg of starch per worker, while semi-mechanized processing can crop up to 10 tonnes a day. In modern, absolutely automatic starch abstraction plants, circadian achievement is as aerial as 150 tonnes. Cassava Processing Accessories I. Acceptable cassava processing does not crave adult equipment. Processing cassava into gari requires accessories such as grater, presser and fryer. The acceptable cassava grater is fabricated of bedfast kerosene tin or adamant area perforated with nails and attached assimilate a lath board with handles. Grating is done by abrading the bald roots adjoin the asperous perforated apparent of the adamant area which tears off the bald cassava basis beef into mash. In contempo years, assorted attempts accept been fabricated to advance graters. Graters which are belt-driven from a changeless 5 HP Lister blazon agent accept been developed and are actuality abundantly acclimated in Nigeria. Its accommodation to abrade cassava is about one ton of beginning bald roots per hour. II. For clarification balance aqueous from the grated lurid the sacks absolute the grated coarse accumulation are boring apprenticed bottomward application a 30-ton hydraulic jack columnist with lath platforms, afore sieving and baking into gari. Stones are acclimated in acceptable processing to columnist out the balance damp from the grated pulp. Tied lath frames are acclimated for this purpose in places area stones are not available. Pans fabricated from adamant or earthen pots are acclimated for baking the brewed pulp. Ammunition copse is the mad or antecedent of activity for boiling, roasting, bleared and frying. Ammunition copse may not be calmly and cheaply acquired in the approaching because of accelerated deforestation. III. Slight changes in the accessories acclimated in processing can advice to save ammunition and abate the discomfort, bloom hazard, and backbreaker for the operating women. The bread-and-butter success of any approaching bartering development of cassava processing would depend aloft the adeptness of anniversary processing date to mechanization. However, the aboriginal footfall to booty for advance of cassava technologies should be to advance or adapt the simple processing accessories or systems anon used, rather than to change absolutely to new, sophisticated, and big-ticket equipment. Accumulator of cassava candy articles Processing, decidedly dehydration and roasting, increases shelf activity of cassava products. Acceptable accumulator depends on the damp agreeable of the articles and temperature and about clamminess of the accumulator environment. The damp agreeable of gari for safe accumulator is accord 12. 7%. Back temperature and about clamminess are aloft 27°C and 70% respectively, gari goes bad (Igbeka 1987). The blazon of bag acclimated for packing additionally affects shelf activity depending on the adeptness of the actual to advance safe artefact damp levels. Jute and hessian accoutrements are recommended in dry air-conditioned environments because they acquiesce acceptable blast (Igbeka 1987). Back gari, broiled lurid and abrade are able-bodied broiled and appropriately packed, they can be stored after accident of affection for over one year. Broiled cassava assurance ("kumkum") can be stored for up to 2 years (Numfor end Ay 1987). "Chickwangue", "Myondo" and "Bobolo" can be preserved for up to 1 anniversary but they can be kept for several added canicule back recooked. Cassava leaves as vegetable I. Cassava shoots of 30 cm breadth (measured from the apex) are harvested from the plants. The adamantine petioles are removed and the blades and adolescent petioles are formed with a abrade in a mortar. A aberration of this action involves blanching the leaves afore pounding. The consistent lurid is afresh boded for about 30-60 minutes. In some countries, the aboriginal above baptize is decanted and replaced. Pepper, palm-oil and alternative ambrosial capacity are added. The admixture is afresh above for 30 account (Numfor and Ay 1987). Unlike the roots that are about carbohydrate, cassava leaves are a acceptable antecedent of protein and vitamins which can accommodate a admired supplement to predominantly civil diets. Cassava leaves are affluent in protein, calcium, adamant and vitamins, comparing agreeably with alternative blooming vegetables about admired as acceptable protein sources. The amino acerbic agreement of cassava leaves shows that, except for methionine, the capital amino acerbic ethics in cassava beat those of the FAO advertence protein (Lancaster and Brooks 1983). II. The absolute capital amino acerbic agreeable for cassava blade protein is agnate to that begin in hen's egg and is greater than that in oat and rice grain, soybean seed, and appearance blade (Yeoh and Chew 1976). While the vitamin agreeable of the leaves is high, the processing techniques for advancing the leaves for burning can advance to huge losses. For example, the abiding baking complex in authoritative African soups or stews, after-effects in ample accident of vitamin C. III. Cassava leaves anatomy a cogent allotment of the diets in abounding countries in Africa. They are acclimated as one of the adopted vegetables in best cassava growing countries, decidedly in Zaire, Congo, Gabon, Central African Republic, Angola, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. The cassava leaves able as vegetable are alleged "sakasaka" or "pondu" in Zaire, Congo, Central African Republic and Sudan, "Kizaka" in Angola, "Mathapa" in Mozambique, "Chigwada" in Malawi, "Chombo" or "Ngwada" in Zambia, "Gweri" in Cameroon, "Kisanby" in Tanzania, "Cassada leaves" in Sierra Leone, "Banankou boulou nan" in Mali, "Mafe haako bantare" in Guinea, and "Isombe" in Rwanda. They are mostly served as a booze which is eaten with chickwangue, fufu, and above cassava. Revision History: Revision |Date |Description of changes |Requested By | |01 |08/07/2012 |Initial Absolution | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | References: http://www. fao. org/index_en. htm http://www. fao. org/ag/agp/agpc/gcds/ [pic] The Global Cassava Partnership, a bunch formed - beneath the advocacy of the FAO-facilitated Global Cassava Development Strategy - by all-embracing organizations, including FAO, CIAT, IFAD and IITA, civic analysis institutions, NGOs and clandestine partners. All-embracing Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Starting a Cassava Acreage – IPM Field Guide for Extensions Agents. 2008; All-embracing Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Disease Ascendancy in Cassava Farms. IPM Field Guide for Extension Agents; All-embracing Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Weed Ascendancy in Cassava Farms. 2000. IPM Field Guide for Extension Agents; In-Service Training Trust (ISTT). Cassava Assembly Field Guide. 2008. NRDC Campus, Lusaka, Zambia. ----------------------- ORIGIN Group’s SOP: Confidential and Proprietary Page 6

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