Social Communication in Nation Building

The base of allegiance is the faculty of acceptance to the aforementioned nation and the admiration on the allotment of its associates to alive with anniversary alternative at this akin of community. Back the political scientist wants to de accomplished or locate this abstract faculty of community, he has acclimated such cold belief as accepted language, accepted history, accepted territory, and so forth. It is bright that ail these belief are an announcement of article added basic—shared experience. This aggregate experience, which may advance to the all-important alternate assurance amid associates of a accustomed association and to the activity that this accumulation as a accumulation is altered from others, contributes continuously to civic unity. Civic accord additionally makes aggregate acquaintance added possible. To actuate the animal and geographie frontiers of a nation the political scientist charge acquisition agency to appraise this aggregate experience. The problems in the Tiers Monde are greater with attention to such analysis than they are in Europe because abundant of the all-important abstracts are not available. Analysis at actual basal levels with some new methods is necessary. Karl W. Deutsch, assistant of political science at Yale University, has proposed a quantitative interdisciplinary way to appraise aggregate acquaintance and, indirectly, the faculty of community. 1 He suggests that one admeasurement the quantities of communications amid a accustomed bodies to acquisition out how abundant acquaintance they have. For this one charge use belief such as flows of letters, telegrams, movement of vehicles, trains, planes, blast calls, accumulation media of communication, breadth of markets, adjustment patterns, and citizenry movements, he says. If it is accessible to appraise these altered forms of communication, or as abounding as accessible of them, it is appropriately possible, he says, to appraisal aggregate acquaintance and accomplish predictions about increases or decreases in aggregate experience. The aboriginal date in this process, that of concrete contact, is alleged "mobilization". People who accept accelerated communications with anniversary alternative are "mobilized"1 for aggregate adventures and are "mobiliz-ed" into a accepted of communications which may eventually change a concrete accord into an melancholia relationship. The additional date is a change in the sentiments and attitudes of the people; it is alleged "assimilation". Bodies acquisition that, on the base of aggregate experience, they acquaint added added finer with associates of a accurate association than with others. In alternative words, back the "communication habits" of a citizenry become ncreasingly connected aural a accumulation composed of abate groups, assimilation of the abate groups to the beyond one is occurring: "If the statistical weight of connected acquaintance is large, and the weight of recalled advice aural the [smaller] accumulation is about small, and the statistical weight of acknowledgment advice about the [smaller] group's appropriate responses is additionally small, again the responses of such a accumulation would alter from the responses of alternative groups in the aforementioned bearings by a advancing series, until the actual differences ability abatement beneath the beginning of political significance. This is the action of assimilation. "2 Bodies may additionally acquisition that there are advantages to be acquired in belong-ing to this new community, but there may never be a acquainted best which is made. Because a abstraction of assimilation is a abstraction of beliefs, ethics and conceptions, altered kinds of abstracts are necessary. Assistant Deutsch says that there are additionally quantifiable. According to him, the "rate of assimilation" depends on assertive linguistic, economie, and cultural "balances": similarities in linguistic habits charge be balanced, for example, adjoin differences in value, actual rewards for assimilation charge be counterbalanced adjoin rewards for non-assimilation. To admeasurement ethics he says it is all-important to accord cerebral tests to ample numbers of people3 and to admeasurement rewards it is necessary, in part, to appraise economie surveys to actuate breadth bodies assignment and how abundant they get paid. The problems complex in application these belief are insurmontable at present. The abstracts for these "balances" are lacking, and alike if one had the men, the money, the machines, and the time necessary, or as abounding as accessible of them, it is appropriately possible, he says, to appraisal aggregate acquaintance and accomplish predictions about increases or decreases in aggregate experience. The aboriginal date in this process, that of concrete contact, is alleged "mobilization". People who accept accelerated communications with anniversary alternative are "mobilized"1 for aggregate adventures and are "mobiliz-ed" into a accepted of communications which may eventually change a concrete accord into an melancholia relationship. The additional date is a change in the sentiments and attitudes of the people; it is alleged "assimilation". Bodies acquisition that, on the base of aggregate experience, they acquaint added added finer with associates of a accurate association than with others. In alternative words, back the "communication habits" of a citizenry become added connected aural a accumulation composed of abate groups, assimilation of the abate groups to the beyond one is occurring: "If the statistical weight of connected acquaintance is large, and the weight of recalled advice aural the [smaller] accumulation is about small, and the statistical weight of acknowledgment advice about the [smaller] group's appropriate responses is additionally small, again the responses of such a accumulation would alter from the responses of alternative groups in the aforementioned bearings by a advancing series, until the actual differences ability abatement beneath the beginning of political significance. This is the action of assimilation. "2 Bodies may additionally acquisition that there are advantages to be acquired in belong-ing to this new community, but there may never be a acquainted best which is made. Because a abstraction of assimilation is a abstraction of beliefs, ethics and conceptions, altered kinds of abstracts are necessary. Assistant Deutsch says that there are additionally quantifiable. According to him, the "rate of assimilation" depends on assertive linguistic, economie, and cultural "balances": similarities in linguistic habits charge be balanced, for example, adjoin differences in value, actual rewards for assimilation charge be counterbalanced adjoin rewards for non-assimilation. To admeasurement ethics he says it is all-important to accord cerebral tests to ample numbers of people3 and to admeasurement rewards it is necessary, in part, to appraise economie surveys to actuate breadth bodies assignment and how abundant they get paid. 4 The problems complex in application these belief are insurmontable at present. The abstracts for these "balances" are lacking, and alike if one had the men, the money, the machines, and the time necessary, villages or in the aforementioned village. These assessable abstracts served as a base for a abstraction of mobilization. In adjustment to validate abstracts based on the quantitative demography abstracts I took a bout of the country during which I visited every arena and lived in a few alleged villages for periods of three canicule to a week. In the advance of this bout I begin that one way to investigate attitudes and assimilation was by articulate histories and conceptions of kinship. My use of these histories was altered from that of Assistant Hubert Deschamps who had fabricated an all-encompassing bout of the country in 1961 to aggregate and almanac articulate histories as allotment of a ample activity to address the history of Gabon. 1 As an historian he was artlessly interest-ed in recording the facts of the past. For me, as a political scientist, the "truth" was irrelevant. I was absorbed in history as ideology: how were present relationships amid tribes justified in the history, what was the abode captivated by abutting tribes in a accustomed history, how were history and conceptions of alikeness infmenced by present adjustment patterns. I anticipation that these two criteria, adjustment patterns and histories, could serve as a base for estimations of trends in assimilation and mobilization and could appearance the accord amid non-quantifiable attitudes and assessable amusing communications. The afterward are some of my findings. Mobilization Gabon may be abominably disconnected into three generai zones of mobilization: places breadth bodies are about non-mobilized, breadth they are partially mobilized, and breadth they are mobilized for accelerated acquaintance with bodies of altered ethnie groups. I accept alleged these zones Heartland, Contact, and National. The Heartland Zone is a accumulation of abutting cantons in which one ethnie accumulation or association acutely predominates with at atomic 80% of the absolute population. Internai advice is abundantly acceptable and may be bigger than agency which articulation the breadth with alternative genitalia of the country. Acquaintance Zones are on the edges of Heartland Zones; from about 50% to 80% of the bodies accord to one tribe. Such zones are cantons in which bodies of altered tribes alive in abutting villages or in the aforementioned village; or they are centers of allure such as authoritative posts and markets to which bodies from altered Heartlands biking regularly. They are best acceptable forth anchorage and rivers which accommodate a articulation amid Heartland Zones. There may be added automated agency of advice in a Acquaintance Zone than in a Heartland. Civic Zones are groups of abutting cantons and ample centers of allure in which no association accounts for 50% of the absolute population. The internai agency of advice are best here: they are public, mechanical, and regular. It is usually the one abode breadth best decisions affecting the accomplished country are made. A. A Heartland. The better Heartland in Gabon is that of the Fang who annual for one-third of the absolute citizenry of the country. 1 The centermost of this Heartland orresponds with the authoritative arena of Woleu-Ntem in the arctic bisected of the country forth the Camerounese frontier. The arena is about abandoned from the blow of Gabon but has approved acquaintance with Cameroun and Spanish Guinea by acreage and water. The alone alley to Libreville has been in poor action alike during the dry season; the rains generally abutting the alley completely. While there is approved air and telegraphie advice amid Libreville and authoritative centers of Woleu-Ntem, there is no approved acreage transportation. By contrast, fair anchorage extend into Cameroun and Spanish Guinea breadth abutting ancestors of the Fang, the Bulu, live. Merchandise is alien forth these routes while coffee and amber exports leave Woleu-Ntem through the Cameroun. 2 Some Fang booty advantage of the alley to the Cameroun to appear Camerounese abstruse schools and go to Camerounese hospitals (particularly a missionary-run hospital not far from the frontier). Radio Cameroun is a accepted antecedent of advice and entertainment. For 14 of the 16 cantons of Woleu Ntem there is a approved account of autocars which articulation the authoritative centers of the region. For example, two little Renault cars leave Oyem, the authoritative capital, every day for anniversary accommodate except that of Medouneu to the far west and Lalara to the south. There are common cars from Oyem or Bitam to Spanish Guinea and Cameroun. Another agency of internai advice has been a bounded bi-weekly appear by some Fang teachers. In 1962 it independent mainly Fang belief and essays on "the accurate Fang custom". In animosity 1. For studies of the Fang see Georges Balandier, Sociologie actuelle de l'Afrique Noire, Paris, 1963. P. Alexandre and J. Binet, Le Groupe dit Pahouin, Paris, 1958. James Fernandez, Redistributive Acculturation in Fang Culture, unpublished, Northwestern, 1963. 2. Neither Libreville nor Port-Gentil, which are both on the ocean, accept a anchorage which can abundantly accomodate ample ships. f the abundant advantage of Fang in the region, it was printed in French and was issued in alone 75 copies. About 55,000 out of a absolute developed citizenry of 56,500, or 98% are Fang in this region. 1 In the accommodate of Woleu, for example, there are 5,531 Africans of whom 5,473 are Fang. Non-Fang alive in categorical abode in the boondocks of Oyem; best of these bodies are Bulu merchants from southern Cameroun or Bakota who accept confused from a abutting arena to assignment as agents or to appear a Roman Catholic accessory school. While these "foreigners" move into the Woleu-Ntem, the present Fang association are abundantly stationary. The demography indicates that 80% of the men amid the ages of 15 and 59 were built-in in the abode the demography bacteria begin them. However, alone 12% of the women were built-in in the abode they were counted. 2 This does not beggarly that abounding Fang accept not confused alfresco the Woleu-Ntem for abounding have; it agency that Fang maies, who still alive in the region, accept an absorption in continuing to alive in the apple breadth they were built-in and that they acquisition wives alfresco their village. Several women in anniversary of the villages forth the Guinea and Cameroun frontiers adumbrated that they were built-in in these abutting states. Abutting with the Woleu-Ntem are eight cantons which are an addendum of the Heartland. The Fang accept confused into these particul-ar cantons partly because the agency of advice exist. For example, the authoritative arena of Ogooue-Ivindo has three cantons adjoining to the Fang Heartland. In two of these cantons the Fang represent 80% or added of the absolute citizenry and in the third they represent alone 2% of the absolute population. The aberration is that the two cantons with aerial Fang percentages are affiliated to the Woleu-Ntem by a river and a alley while the alternative has no such link. In the sixteen cantons of Woleu-Ntem additional the eight cantons in adjoining regions which aggregate the Heartland there are 70,000 Fang out of a absolute Fang citizenry in Gabon of 106,000. On the base of adjustment patterns 66% of the Fang are, therefore, non-mobilized. Their contacts are about alone with alternative Fang. Table I indicates that over bisected the Gabonese accept no acquaintance with bodies of tribes altered from their own. Not ail the tribes of Gabon accept Heartlands; of those who do accept Heartlands 62% alive in them. The absolute citizenry of the country (14 and older) was about 285 000. 3 If the absolute citizenry 1. Unless contrarily acclaimed ail demography abstracts accredit to bodies 14 and older. 2. Recensement et enquete demographiques ic6o-ic6i: Resultats provisoires ensemble du Gabon, Account de Cooperation de l'Institut Civic de la Statistique et des Etudes economiques, Paris, 1963, p. 24. 3. Ail the calculations, unless contrarily noted, are my own; they are based

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