Small and Medium Scale Enterprises In Nigeria
The accession of baby and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the bread-and-butter advance and development has been enormous. This accession is cogent for both the developed and developing world. Abounding governments accede the actuality that SMEs comedy a cogent role in the advance and development of their economies. Consequently, a cardinal of government advance projects are geared appear adopting the advance and development of belted SMEs.
The academy of behavior geared appear the abetment and empowerment of SMEs as able-bodied as convalescent the achievement of SMEs charcoal a aloft cold of abounding bread-and-butter action makers and governments. In addition, all-embracing bread-and-butter and banking bodies such as the IMF, Apple Bank, the European Advance Bank (EIB) and the All-embracing Banking Corporation (IFC) accept invested heavily in authoritative SMEs able-bodied and active in developing countries. Furthermore, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in developing countries such as Nigeria accept active advancement and capacity-building campaigns to advance the advance of SMEs.
Despite the accent accorded to SMEs as able-bodied as their accession to bread-and-butter growth, Onugu (2005) argues that the achievement of SMEs in Nigeria has been beneath expectations. Unlike SMEs in alternative countries, the accession of Nigerian SMEs to bread-and-butter advance has not been actual absorbing (Onogu, 2005).
Following from its independence, the Federal government of Nigeria has invested cogent sums of money to advance ambitious and baby business development projects (Mambula, 1997, 2002). However, after-effects from these projects accept not been actual impressive. In adjustment words, best of these projects accept generally been clumsy to crop their accepted returns. Despite the country’s award with raw abstracts and alternative accustomed resources, there has been little advance appear the development of the accomplishment sector, which could accept added the assembly of amount added articles thereby substituting imports, accretion exports and accretion application (Mambula, 1997, 2002).
Business abortion generally comes as a aftereffect of a cardinal of factors. This could be as a aftereffect of poor chump service, poor administration and poor animal ability management. While the poor achievement of SMEs in Nigeria can be attributed to a cardinal of factors, animal ability administration could be a aloft agency in free this poor performance. Animal assets are a arch antecedent of bread-and-butter growth. Like alternative resources, animal assets crave able and able utilisation so as to ensure best accession is accomplished from them. Approximately 50 per cent of bodies assignment in baby and average sized enterprises.
Despite this aerial admeasurement of animal assets in SMEs, best studies that abstraction animal ability administration accept focused on ample corporations with actual bound absorption to SMEs. Moreover, best studies on the practices of animal ability administration accept been agitated out in the developed apple with actual bound absorption paid to developing countries like Nigeria. This abstraction is one of the few studies that focus on the administration of animal assets in SMEs in a developing country. The country that has been called for the abstraction is Nigeria. The cardboard examines the factors that affect the practices of animal ability administration in an SME in Nigeria and how these practices can affect the achievement of the SME in accurate and its accession to the all-embracing advance of the abridgement as a whole.
Objectives of the Abstraction
The cold of the abstraction is to appraise the SHRM practices of an SME in Nigeria. The abstraction will additionally appraise how those practices affect the achievement of the SME and accommodate action implications of the allegation for approaching action development.
The cardboard will be accouterment answers to the afterward questions:
What are the Cardinal animal ability administration practices of the SME
How do these practices affect the achievement of the SME
What are the implications for approaching development of cardinal animal ability administration practices at the SME
The cardboard is activity to chase the afterward areas: Area one will awning the introduction; area 2 will be ambidextrous with the abstract review; area 3 will be discussing the alignment and anecdotic the data; area 4 will accommodate the after-effects and analysis; and area 5 will present abstracts and recommendations.
Strategic animal ability administration (SHRM) practices accredit to those activities that are accurately developed, accomplished and implemented on a advised alignment to a firm’s action (Huselid et al., 1997). The byword “strategic animal ability administration is an adumbration that bodies in the close are admired as cardinal assets (i.e animal capital) that charge be managed and leveraged back implementing and active the action of the firm. In aboriginal years, efforts fabricated to advance a conceptual framework on cardinal animal ability administration were based on the acceptance that in adjustment to advance animal behaviour that would fulfil the cardinal objectives of the firm, the close had to apparatus specific animal ability administration practices (Fisher, 1989; Schuler and Jackson, 1989; Snell, 1992).
A cardinal access to animal ability administration is an access that links the animal ability administration behavior with the cardinal objectives of the firm. There has been cogent agitation over the appellation SHRM as has been the case for animal ability administration (HRM). Abounding advisers altercate that SHRM lacks conceptual accuracy (e.g., Bamberger and Meshoulam, 2000). Three aggressive frameworks on SHRM accept emerged: the contingency, accepted and configurational perspectives (Miles and Snow, 1984; Schuler and Jackson, 1987; Delery and Doty, 1996; Pfeffer, 1998; Youndt et al., 1996; Boxall and Purcell, 2000, 2008). According to the accepted perspective, all HR practices in all firms accept a absolute appulse on close achievement (Delery and Doty, 1996). The configurational angle suggests that close achievement depends on altered HR practices while the accident angle suggests that a firm’s HR practices are a action of its action (Miles and Snow, 1984; Schuler and Jackson, 1987). A cardinal of studies accept activated the altered frameworks and begin adverse results. For example, Youndt et al. (1996); and Chang and Huang (2005) altercate in favour of the accident angle while Tackeuchi et al. (2003) favour the configurational perspective.
The frameworks appropriate aloft are mostly accordant for ample organisations. Little accomplishment has been adherent appear the development of SHRM in SMEs. For example, Saini and Budhwar (2008) in a abstraction of SHRM practices in SMEs in India altercate that belted adherence tends to constrain the alertness to apparatus avant-garde HR practices in SMEs in India because best owners of SMEs tend to accept that they are accomplishing their absolute best. Barber et al (1999) beam that HRM practices that assignment able-bodied in ample organisations do not assignment appropriately in baby firms. As a result, Heneman and Tansky (2002) stresses the charge to advance altered HRM models for SMEs rather than artlessly extending absolute models that are acceptable for ample organisations to SMEs. The abstract on Animal ability administration in SMEs suggests that a cardinal access to HRM in SMEs is yet to be developed. Conceptual models that chronicle animal ability administration practices in SMEs to the cardinal capabilities of these organisations charge to be developed in adjustment to accredit SMEs accomplish the abounding allowances of their animal resources. As can be observed, best of the studies of HRM practices in SMEs accept been bound to SMEs in Western Europe, U.S.A and India with actual bound absorption accustomed to Africa in accepted and Nigeria in particular. In the ablaze of the aloft limitations, this abstraction aims at accidental to the abstract by belief the SHRM practices of SMEs in Nigeria. The abstraction does not intend to assay any hypothesis. Rather it intends to focus on accouterment an all-embracing assay and altercation of the HRM practices of a Nigerian SME.
Research Methods and Data
Research Methods are the approaches taken to accomplish the objectives of a assay activity (Saunders et al., 2009). There are two capital approaches to assay including the anterior and deductive approaches. The anterior access is an access that aims at developing testable hypotheses while the deductive access focuses on testing absolute hypotheses. The anterior access can use a distinct case abstraction to assorted case studies while the deductive access depends on the use of assorted cases. Moreover, the anterior access can use either qualitative or quantitative methods admitting the deductive access relies heavily on the use of ample abstracts sets and quantitative assay methods.
The anterior access is advantageous over the deductive access in that it does not generalise its after-effects to all cases. It aims at accouterment an all-embracing assay of a baby cardinal of cases. Therefore, it is the access that will be acclimated in this study.
In alternative to accomplish the cold of this study, this cardboard will use a case abstraction approach. In adjustment to do this, a Nigerian-based SME will be selected. An all-embracing assay of its SHRM practices will be advised and accompanying to its performance. In adjustment to accretion abundant compassionate of the approaches, the “Interpretative phenomenological Assay (IPA) will be acclimated to accretion an all-embracing assay of the HRM practices of the SME. The Interpretative phenomenological assay (IPA) is an beginning qualitative access to assay in attitude and the human, bloom and amusing sciences (Smith et al., 2009). The animal ability practices that will be advised accommodate recruitment, selection, training, remuneration, leave of absence, interpersonal communication, ailing pay, and promotion. The practices of these variables will be analysed and an appraisal of how they affect the achievement of the SME will be conducted. The achievement measures that will be acclimated accommodate profitability, liquidity, administration ability and advantage ratios. The ratios will be analysed in affiliation to the SHRM practices articular forth with the Nigerian bread-and-butter ambiance in which the SME is based.
The assay will use both primary and accessory data. Abstracts for the SHRM practices will mainly be primary data. This abstracts will be calm application analysis questionnaires issued to the advisers of the SME and interviews conducted with key administration staff. Achievement abstracts will be calm from the banking annal of the SME. Abstracts on the achievement measures will be aggregate from the banking annal of the SME.
Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2000). Cardinal animal ability management: Area accept we appear from and area should we be goingInternational Journal of Administration Reviews, 2(2), 183?203.
Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2008). Action and Animal Ability Management. Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.
Chang,W. J. A., & Huang, T. C. (2005). Relationship amid cardinal animal ability administration and close performance: A accident perspective. All-embracing Journal of Manpower, 26(5), 434?449.
Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of assumption in cardinal animal ability management: Tests of universalistic, contingency. Academy of Administration Journal, 39(4), 802?835.
Huselid, M.A., S.E. Jackson, and R.S. Schuler. 1997. “Technical and Cardinal Animal Ability Administration Effectiveness as Determinants of Close Performance,” Academy of Administration Journal 40(199), 171-188.
Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1984). Designing cardinal animal assets systems. Organizational Dynamics, 13(1), 36?52.
Schuler, R.S. and S.A. Jackson. 1989. “Determinants of Animal Ability Administration Priorities and Implications for Industrial Relations,” Journal of Administration 15(1): 89-99.
Snell, S.A. 1992. “Control Theory in Cardinal Animal Ability Management: The Mediating Effect of Administrative Information,” Academy of Management, Journal 35(2), 292-327.
Schuler, R. S., & Jackson, S. E. (1987). Linking aggressive strategies with animal ability administration practices. Academy of Administration Executive, 1(3), 207?219.
Pfeffer, J. (1998). Seven practices of acknowledged organizations. California Administration Review, 40(2), 96?124.
Onugu, B. A. N. (2005) Baby and Average Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects, St. Clements University
Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., Larkin, M. (2009) Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis: Theory, Method and Research, Sage Publications.
Heneman, R. L., & Tansky, J. W. (2002). Animal ability administration models for ambitious opportunity: Absolute ability and new directions. In J. Katz, & T. M. Welbourne (Eds.), Managing bodies in ambitious organizations, vol. 5 (pp. 55–82). Amsterdam: JAI Press.
Barber, A. E., Wesson, M. J., Roberson, Q. M., & Taylor, M. S. (1999). A account of two job markets: Organizational admeasurement and its furnishings on hiring practices and job chase behavior. Personnel Psychology, 52, 841–867.
Saunders M, Lewis P and Thornhill A (2009) Assay Methods for Business Studies, 5th edition, Prentice Hall FT Harlow
Saini, D. S., Budhwar, P. S. (2008) Managing the animal ability in Indian SMEs: The role of aboriginal realities, Journal of Apple Business, Volume 43, No. 4, Pages 417-434
Takeuchi, N., Wakabayashi, M., & Chen, Z. (2003). The cardinal HRM agreement for aggressive advantage: Evidence from Japanese firms in China and Taiwan, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 20(4), 447?480.
Order a unique copy of this paper