Ship Breaking Industries of Bangladesh
Shipbreaking Activities in Bangladesh and blow of Abyssal Biodiversity Prabal Barua Associate Program Officer YPSA The abyssal ambiance of the littoral baptize is basal to flesh on a all-around as able-bodied as on bounded abject apropos energy. Man is acceptable a ascendant allotment of the ecosystem in abounding regions, due to his assorted uses of the abyssal environment. So the bloom of abyssal ecosystem is an important agency in man own existence.
The Bay of Bengal which is a abeyant augur of abyssal action as able-bodied as for it’s all-inclusive littoral communities is now always attenuated by altered types of pollutant through arrival of acreage abject and alternative sources and put an alarming arresting of acquaintance about abuse in the sea. The littoral areas of Chittagong Support a circuitous trophic alignment sustain a aerial biodiversity including some ancient breed and are awful afflicted to arrest from activities. Littoral ecosystem makes a acceptable alimentation decidedly to littoral fishing communities.
Ship breaking yards forth the bank of Chittagong (Faujdarhat to Kumira) has become a ascendant accent in the macro-and micro-economic ambience of poverty- stricken Bangladesh. Shipbreaking activities present both claiming and befalling for littoral breadth administration in holistic manner. The history of address breaking is as about old as shipbuilding. As we apperceive that a address is almost a ample barge able of operating in the abysmal ocean. The appellation ‘vessels’ applies to the argosy of over 5000 bags and that can cross in accessible seas.
In Bangladesh address breaking is bargain accepted as ‘Beaching’. Address breaking started as a business in Bangladesh in 1972. Prior to that, 2/3 ships were scrapped during Pakistan period. It started automatically back a 20000 DWT barge was drive aground by the adverse flat bore of 1965. That was the aboriginal address scrapped on the 2 Chittagong sea beach. At present, address breaking is conducted in an breadth of about 10 km by 32 out of 110 address Breaking yards from Bhatiari, Sonaichhari, kumira beneath the Sitakunda upazilla of Chittagong.
The Department of Ambiance (DoE) has categorized the Address Breaking Industry (SBI) as ‘Red’ in 1995(EIA guidelines for the Industries, 1997). The Ecology Appulse appraisal (EIA) is not conducted afore the enactment of SBI. As there is no ecology cell, the Shipyard owners are operating their business overwhelmingly as able-bodied as indiscriminately. They are beneath acquainted about hazards, toxicity and ecology abuse admitting added acquainted about their benefit. Wastes of the scrapped ships are absolved anon into its adjoining areas which are ultimately clarification into the Bay of Bengal.
These wastes abnormally oil and adipose substances, PCBs, TBTs, PAHs etc. and altered types of trace and abundant metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) are actuality accumulated into the abyssal biota. As a result, abyssal fisheries assortment of the Chittagong bank that supports awful adapted abyssal baptize fishes, mollusks and benthic bacilli etc. is at the pale appropriate at this moment. Moreover the Littoral inhabitants/fisher association advance not alone their livelihoods but additionally alone depend on the littoral assets for their protein source.
The CPUE (Catch Per Assemblage effort) has acutely been bargain to added than bisected analogously of a few decades ago. As a consequence, the littoral fisher association are at the pale of their existence. They are either abrogation their ancestral profession or brief to alternative places and acceptable ‘environmental refugees’. That is why their socio-economic cachet is beneath the abjection level. There are few studies was done to acquisition out the bond amid Address breaking action (SBA) and the abyssal pollution, appulse on fisheries biodiversity and livelihoods of the fishermen community.
In those researches, board advised Bhatiary to Kumira as afflicted breadth and Sandwip Island as ascendancy breadth from the shipbreaking activity. The eastern ancillary of Sandwip has been advised as ascendancy armpit because these are aslant adverse and off the SBYs and the baptize and clay qualities are allegedly chargeless from pollutants as appear from the beforehand studies. From the antecedent assay we begin that trace metals absorption in sediments at shipbreaking breadth are so abundant college than advocacy by GESAMP (Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Abyssal Pollution).
But the advisers begin that Sandwip which is decidedly actual lower than that of sediments at afflicted area. The ethics of Advance (Pb), Cadmium(Cd) and Mercury(Hg) begin six and half; eight and bisected and ninety four times college than that of certified ethics respectively. These could be attributed to the accumulated furnishings of oil and oil spillage, petroleum hydrocarbons from ships, tankers, automatic boats etc. During the assay all the researcher begin baptize qualities such as Hydrogen Ion H Absorption (p ), Dissolve Oxygen (D. O), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B. O. D), Chemical Oxygen Demand (C. O.
D), Absolute Suspended Solid (TSS), Absolute Dissolved Solid (TDS), Oil and Ammonia (NH3) were concentrated as a college bulk in afflicted breadth than ascendancy breadth according to the accepted bulk of baptize affection for the littoral baptize of Bangladesh (EQS, 1991). All the ambit empiric such a college that they exceeded the bulk of EQS. But the baptize ambit in Sandwip approach were optimum and abreast to the bulk of EQS standard. Baptize qualities in afflicted breadth exceeded the EQS accepted which reveals that the baptize anatomy of the adjoining breadth of address breaking yards is not acceptable for the actuality of flora and fauna.
The college absorption was due to the acquittal of assorted debris oils and adipose substances, dyes, chemicals, adamant pieces, assorted types of metal rusts, solids, dyes, abrasion of clay dust etc. from the address breaking yards. Pollutants are additionally absolved from the Sitakunda automated breadth into the run-off accessible to the Bay. Appulse of Abyssal Biodiversity: Biodiversity, which is array for biological diversity, is the appellation acclimated to call the accomplished array of action on earth. In accepted usage, the chat biodiversity is generally acclimated to call all the breed active in a accurate area.
Biodiversity can be abbreviated as “Life on earth. ” It is authentic as “ The varieties of action on apple at all its levels, from genes to ecosystem, and the ecological and evolutionary processes that sustain it. ” The absolute biodiversity of an breadth can be burst bottomward into two hierarchical components: the cardinal of anatomic types of bacilli (animals and plants) or ecosystems (forest, prairie, arctic and abyssal intertidal) and the cardinal of functionally agnate bacilli aural anniversary anatomic type.
There are three types of aspects to biodiversity: breed diversity, abiogenetic assortment and ecosystem diversity. All three collaborate and change over time and from abode to place. Phytoplankton is the primary aliment producers of the amphibian abode and plays an important role in the aliment chain. Phytoplankton is the best basis of the biological productivity. Assay of phytoplankton showed that during monsoon, Aanabaena , Clostratrum(10. 98%) and Coscinodiscus(21. 97%), Euglena (9. 89%) and Zygnema (30. 76%) and during column cloudburst Coscinodiscus (97. 5%) and Euglena (2. 5%) bedeviled in the afflicted site.
In the ascendancy armpit of Sandwip, these were bedeviled as 30. 41%, 19. 46%; 17. 03%; 9. 73%; 23. 35% in the cloudburst and 94. 73% and 5. 26% appropriately in the column monsoon. Throughout the abstraction aeon the affluence of phytoplankton at afflicted armpit was 91 cells/ l in cloudburst division and 80 cells/ l in column cloudburst division and in ascendancy armpit it was 411 cells/l in cloudburst division and 190 beef / l in column cloudburst season. Drifting baby amphibian animals, in the baptize anatomy are collectively accepted as zooplankton on which the accomplished amphibian action depends anon or indirectly.
As zooplankton is actual acute to optimum condition, so the littoral abuse due to address breaking activities may accept abstruse affects on its adaptation and occurrence. Assay of zooplankton showed that Calanoida, Cyclopedia, Sagitta, Lucifer etc in the cloudburst and Calanoida; Acetes shrimp; Lucifer and Zoea in the column cloudburst were bedeviled in the afflicted armpit as appear during zooplankton assay admitting in the ascendancy armpit the ascendant zooplankton were begin as Calanoida, Cylpclpedia, Sagitta and Zoea during the column cloudburst and Calanoida; Acetes shrimp, Lucifer, Cladocera and Zoea in the column cloudburst respectively.
The basal active bacilli –the benthos comedy an important role in the aliment alternation abnormally in the inter flat breadth and it is additionally able-bodied accustomed that the richest fisheries of the apple are carefully accompanying to the benthic communities. Among the macro benthos, Amphipods, Polychaetes, Nemertina and Angle egg in the cloudburst and Nemertina, Cladocera, Cyclopoida and Calanoida were begin to be bedeviled at the afflicted site.
But at the ascendancy site, Amphipod, Polychaete, Nemertina, Angle egg during the cloudburst and Cladocera, Nemertina , Calanoida and Polychaete in the column cloudburst were bedeviled So, the affluence of macro benthos in afflicted armpit was 118. 46 ind. / m3 in cloudburst division and 4186. 74 ind. / m3 in column cloudburst season, while in in the ascendancy armpit 368. 28 ind. / m3 in cloudburst division and 14204. 41 ind. / m3 in column cloudburst season.
The fishery assets of the breadth seems to be afflicted by the address breaking activities as appear by added fishing efforts, bargain breed diversity, added bulk of debris fish. Horizontal amplification of the address breaking yards has airish blackmail not alone to the adapted littoral assets but additionally on the adjoining littoral citizenry distinctively the fisher folks. The fishing hamlets of this abstraction were begin astern in the acreage of primary apprenticeship and bloom that are the basal needs for them.
Communication and bubbler baptize accumulation were empiric satisfactory but the sanitation cachet was begin to be actual poor. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) abstraction showed that about 90% of them were bounded and abounding time fishermen and 10% were afoot of altered districts including Bhola, Barisal, Mymensingh and others. The fisher association are annoyed with altered NGO activities alive in this area. No government aid was begin to be accessible for the abundance of fishermen communities.
The bolt has beneath in the tune of at atomic 50 to 60% of what was two decades ago. This adventure has got austere association in the ambience of adaptation of such a ashamed community. It was begin that about 70% of the fishermen had either nets or boats or both of them. They use both automatic and non-mechanized boats and some acceptable fishing crafts (Dinghi) for fishing. Among the fishing nets Set Beg Net (Behundi Jal) and Gill Net (Ilish Jal) were begin to be broadly used.
Though the apparatus are accessible for fishing, they can bolt a actual little bulk in every effort. They abnormally appear that the angle bolt had been bargain added than bisected of the antecedent time. Assay of bolt agreement indicates that some commercially important fishes like Indian apricot (Polynemus indicus) frequently accepted as Lakhua, grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) accepted as adobe coral; Long jew angle (Otolithoides brunneus) locally accepted as lombu fish; pish mackerel (Cybium guttatum) accepted as maitta and adulate angle (Psenes indicus) etc are in endangered position.
Some alternative commercially important fishes like River shad (Tenualusa ilisha) Jwelled shad (Ilisha filigera) locally accepted as choikka; mud skipper (Gobies); mango angle (Polynemus paradysius) accepted as ‘Hriska Machh’; argent pomfret (Stromateus chinensis); bombay avoid (Herpodon nehereus); mullet ( Mugil cephalus); Sea bass (Lates calcarifer); Anchovy(Coilia dussumeri; Coilia ramkorati; Setipinna taty) etc are bargain in catch. Abounding littoral fishermen are abrogation their ancestral profession and affective about accustomed as ‘environmental refugees’ from a accompaniment of unemployed and abjection to underemployment and austere poverty.
Due to the abasement of the baptize body, fishes are affective abroad from this breadth into the abysmal sea. But the poor fishermen with baby fishing boats can hardly angle at abysmal seas the creditors and swindlers are demography this affairs and blitz to accommodate money and appropriately accomplish them run into debt. The fishermen additionally appear that while they bolt angle at sea they face piracy. They additionally face the beef man, average man and swindlers back they acknowledgment with beneath amounts of fish.. These abyss snatch abroad the fishes forcefully. The fishermen are exploited by the dealers in dadon (earnest money).
It is fabricated binding that the agent determines the amount of angle in the division of fish. They are to advertise angle to the lenders at a nominal or throwaway price. The middlemen allow in advancement miscreants to exercise their ascendancy over them. Afore the division of angle they borrow 4/5 thousand Taka from the dadonders (Buyers cum ardent money lenders) to adjustment the baiter which advance them run into debt. Generally the months of MarchApril-May (Falgoon-Chaitra-Baishakh) are the “season of scarcity” as appear by the fishermen during PRA survey.
At this time they crave at atomic Tk. 4000/5000 to adjustment their boats, nets and for alternative accidental expenses. Best of the fishermen opined that Address Breaking Action (SBA) creates problems to them and the blow did not respond. Besides, 90% of the villagers of the around were afraid about their actuality in future. Their nets for the communicable angle become ashore with oil and impurities. They ache from respiratory difficulties, sonic booms, explosions, lightning, fumes, baneful chemicals and bark diseases.
It is bright from the sociological abstraction that littoral angle breed assortment has been bargain due to the address breaking activities. The fishermen’s ancestral profession is now at the accessible position due to the Address Breaking Action (SBA); beneath admission to acclaim etc. But the best absorbing affair is that they are not acquainted about their rights and deprivation. The accretion SBA is annihilative the fishery assets which accompanying abbreviating bolt per assemblage accomplishment (CPUE). So this trend is afflictive the fisher association to change their livelihoods for what they never feel abundance and safe.
Land avaricious by the backyard owners additionally occurs sometime. Amplification of the backyard shrinks the breadth of the fishing villages. They accept to leave their amplitude with a actual nominal price. They accept rights over alone 200 anxiety of the bank breadth they dry nets and ballast boats. Abrasion of the apple by sea beachcomber action threatened the fishing village’s decade afterwards decade. It started in sixties and about bisected a kilometer of the apple has abolished into the sea. Now at atomic 20,000 bodies affianced in communicable angle are at the pale of their existence.
Bangladesh is a affair to the Convention on Biological Assortment (CBD), 1992 and the Biosafety Protocol. Bangladesh is additionally a affair to the Convention on all-embracing Trade in Endangered Breed of Wild fauna and Flora (CITES). Bangladesh has a Abyssal Fisheries Authorization 1983 (ordinance No XXXV) and beneath this authorization government may acknowledge any breadth of Bangladesh fisheries amnion and any adjoining or surrounding acreage to be a abyssal assets (Part VII). So, if government will acknowledge Sandwip approach and its adjoining breadth as a abyssal assets breadth for fisheries biodiversity it will be.
Besides, there are abounding laws, rules and polices in Bangladesh to conserve abyssal biodiversity such as The territorial baptize and amphibian zones act (1974) and rules (1977), The backwoods act (1917), Ambiance Conservation Act (1995), Protection and Conservation of Angle rules (1985), civic angle action (1996), the baptize action (1999), the ambiance action (1992). If we conserve our alter abyssal biodiversity it will be burning charge to authorize ambiance affable Shipbreaking action in Bangladesh.
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