Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Issues in the UK and US

Why it Charcoal a Common Affair in the United States and the European Union

            Unsolicited sexual harassment, abnormally adjoin women, has been a austere and harrowing issue all about the apple for centuries. Title VII of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 in the United States defines animal aggravation as blackballed advances, requests for animal favors, and alternative exact or concrete conduct of sexual nature that actualize abhorrent or adverse environments (1964, 3). This includes any instance of verbal harassment, molestation, rape, etc. that breach the victim’s address while creating a hostile, humiliating, or aspersing ambiance (European Institute for Gender Equality). Animal aggravation has taken abounding shapes and forms throughout history but one actuality remains, women are exploited and discredited while their harassers are added than generally unaffected. Women accept not been properly represented and advocated for aural their corresponding countries and their voices accept been silenced. They accept not had a belvedere to apostle for themselves as able-bodied as others because best of the time, their accusations are ignored, discredited, and they are affected to adumbrate their affliction and suffering.

Both the United States and the European Union accept laws and assembly in place that prohibit institutions, like schools and workplaces, from accepting any gender discrimination and animate the aegis of women’s rights. Additionally, countries in the EU accept ratified assemblage such as the Assemblage on the Elimination of Bigotry Adjoin Women (CEDAW). However, these measures have been abortive because there is a astringent abridgement of adjustment of these laws and conventions and no ecology of how they are actuality implemented. Sexual aggravation ante acceleration steadily in both these regions as over sixty percent of women in the US and EU accept been sexually addled in their lifetime (Clarke 2007, 1) and article charge be done about it. Thankfully, testimonies, particularly from the accomplished few years, accept sparked the conception of movements that afford ablaze on the appalling instances of animal aggravation of women around the apple and betrayal the individuals abaft such abhorrent acts. Widespread movements, such as #MeToo and Time’s Up accept accustomed victims a community to alleviate and a articulation through which they can activity animal harassment both in and out of the workplace. There would not be a charge for movements like these if aggravation and advance were not a arresting issue. Animal harassment remains a common affair in both the United states and the European Union because, alike with conventions, laws, and assembly in place, the abridgement of regulation, bound ecology of implementation, and an absence of national recognition leave victims abandoned in their fight.

            Sexual harassment comes in abounding altered forms and affectionate them is the first step adjoin compassionate the consequence of this issue. By comparing how both the United States and the European Union ascertain animal harassment, we can begin to assay the close apparatus of anniversary country in absorption to animal harassment. Cases of animal aggravation are consistently unsolicited and blackballed according to the United States Equal Appliance Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Moreover, the European Institute for Gender Equality defines animal aggravation as a anatomy of gender based abandon including acts of exceptionable physical, verbal, and non-verbal conduct, which accept the grounds or aftereffect of actionable the victim’s address while creating a adverse or degrading ambiance (EIGE 1). A key chat acclimated in the analogue of both the US and the EU is unwelcome. The chat blackballed emphasizes the victims’ discomfort and animosity of entrapment. However, it is not the aforementioned as involuntary because a victim may accept agreed to assertive things afore realizing it was abhorrent or potentially dangerous. The capital aberration amid these two interpretations is their focus. The US centralizes on the act of sexual harassment while the EU concentrates on the results.

            Additionally, there are two capital distinctions of animal aggravation that administer to both the EU and the US. The aboriginal is the clandestine sphere. This akin capacity animal corruption in the home or clandestine activity of an individual. A abstraction conducted by Quinnipiac University appear that fifteen percent of women who accept been sexually harassed and/or abused said it happened at home. (Frederick, 2) People often forget that some instances of aggravation activity aural the victims’ homes because best cases of animal advance activity in the additional sphere, the public sphere. This anatomy involves instances of exact harassment, animal advances, molestation, rape, etc. that activity in the accepted association (RAINN). Additionally included in the accessible apple is animal aggravation in the workplace. United States law recognizes two kinds of animal aggravation aural the workplace, quid pro quo sexual aggravation and adverse assignment environment. Quid pro quo involves an employee that has to abide and abide animal aggravation in barter for employment, a promotion, a raise, etc. Adverse assignment environment, as authentic by US law, is an abhorrent assignment ambiance that hinders an employee’s performance as a aftereffect of animal aggravation in the abode (Title VII). On the other hand, the EU does not admit altered forms of animal aggravation in the workplace and uses a accepted definition. This is a huge allotment of the problem because the abridgement of acumen and acceptance generates aloofness and people forget that animal aggravation in the abode is an absolutely altered issue on its own.

            The impact of animal aggravation on survivors is astringent and can ambit from abasement and all-overs to post traumatic accent ataxia (PTSD). Victims can abound to abhorrence concrete and sexual conduct and abstain abrogation their homes (Thomas, 143). According to Equal Rights Advocates, a women’s law centermost in the US, one in four women, amid the ages of 18 and 35, accept been sexually addled in the workplace. This is abandoned a statistic those who accept appear animal advance and, sadly, abounding women hide their affliction and adversity out of fear. Additionally, this arrangement gets slimmer as the women get older. The likelihood of women experiencing animal aggravation in or out of the abode gets college the beforehand they are. If a abstraction were conducted on women ages 18 to 75, the arrangement would be afterpiece to one in two women. 95 percent of these women ache from debilitating accent reactions including anxiety, headaches, beddy-bye disorders, weight accident or gain, depression, and abhorrence of physical/sexual contact, as mentioned beforehand (Equal Rights Advocates).

            Furthermore, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) assured that about 90 million women in all EU Affiliate States accept accomplished at atomic one anatomy of sexual harassment aback the age of 15. That agency that about 60 percent of women have been sexually harassed. These statistics prove that accepting ratified a convention such as CEDAW has little to no aftereffect on aggravation and advance if there is no accomplishing and hard-set guidelines. Animal aggravation has a disheartening aftereffect that hinders women from asserting themselves aural the workplace. Among men, it reinforces the academic appearance of women as objects. Extreme animal aggravation creates adverse or alarming assignment environments that account women to abdicate their jobs and attending for addition one or it discourages them from gluttonous jobs altogether. Women are too abashed to allege out about the issues they’re adverse because they do not appetite to lose their jobs but if it gets too acute they feel as there is no alternative advantage but to quit. For best of American and European history, women agilely endured abusage and harassment in the workplace, with little to no aegis or way out. By the 1920s, working women were brash to abdicate their jobs if they cannot handle animal advances (Hill, 2). These traumatized women, some of which are distinct mothers, lose their antecedent of assets because their choir are silenced and they cannot advocate for their rights. Moreover, animal aggravation at assignment can accept major consequences not abandoned for the victim but for alternative alive women who witness it. Like the addled individuals, women try not to draw too abundant absorption to themselves to abstain actuality sexually addled as well. This hinders them from performing their best because they do not appetite to angle out, alike if it means sacrificing abeyant promotions, raises, acknowledgements, etc. (Webb, 52) These women are exploited and abject because they accept no one to activity for them as laws adjoin animal aggravation both in the US and the EU are not adequately enforced.

            The Convention on the Elimination of Bigotry Adjoin Women (CEDAW) is an international accord that was adopted by the United Nations Accepted Assembly in 1979. It outlines bigotry adjoin women and calls for civic activity to end gender based discrimination, harassment, and violence. Additionally, it requires States Parties to appoint provisions, programs, policies, and strategies which prohibit animal aggravation in all spheres. The United States was one of the aboriginal signatories on the assemblage but still has not ratified it. The US claims there are laws and regulations already in abode that accomplish what CEDAW means to accomplish, one of them actuality Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It aims to eradicate animal aggravation in schools and workplaces. The ambition of the Sexual Aggravation Policy, which is in aftereffect at all schools and workplaces, is to accommodate an ambiance chargeless of animal harassment, intimidation, and exploitation. However, it has not worked effectively as animal advance and aggravation ante are steadily increasing. On the alternative hand, countries in the European Union, such as France and the United Kingdom, accept active and ratified CEDAW. After acknowledging the convention, member states are adapted to accommodated a alternation of altitude to end bigotry of women in all forms. This includes assimilating gender adequation into their legal system, abandoning abominable laws and adopting adapted ones, establishing accessible institutions, etc.

            To monitor the accomplishing of CEDAW, the Board on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women was set in abode by the UN. It is comprised of 23 independent experts from about the apple that conduct observations and propose recommendations to accompaniment parties. However, these observations are few and far apart and the recommendations are not heavily enforced. The board also requests that letters be beatific in every few years from all affiliate states that have ratified CEDAW yet abounding do not comply. If a country does not accelerate in general letters of how gender adequation and anti-sexual aggravation laws are being enforced, the UN does not booty any action. These countries are still considered to accept ratified the assemblage alike if they are not adhering to the guidelines set alternating by the UN. I capital to appraise whether there is a correlation between the ante of animal aggravation and acceptance of CEDAW. I concluded that there is no alternation amid the two because the United States and countries in the European Union accept the aforementioned ante of animal aggravation and assault. On average, over sixty percent of women in the US and EU appear they accept been sexually harassed in their lifetime and animal aggravation ante accept been steadily increasing in both these regions (Clarke 2007, 1). This all leads aback to the abridgement of appropriate appliance and reinforcement, for both CEDAW and alternative legislature like Title VII, that leaves victims and survivors of animal advance unprotected while the perpetrators get abroad with their crimes. Furthermore, the unwillingness of civic governments to appropriately apparatus and absolutely attach to regulations apropos animal aggravation in the abode causes this affair to remain pervasive.

            Sexual harassment in the abode is annihilation new and has been an disturbing affair for centuries, but it has apparent a massive beachcomber of absorption and acceptance recently as celebrities, citizens, coworkers, and others use their platforms to advocate for the rights of women about the world. The prevalence of workplace harassment led to the conception of groundbreaking anti-sexual advance and women’s empowerment movements such as #MeToo and Time’s Up. These movements, like many others, would not be all-important if animal aggravation were not an affair or if it were appropriately addressed by civic governments and institutions. Celebrities have stepped up and accused Hollywood producers, directors, and actors who have taken advantage of their positions and animal addled women, such as Harvey Weinstein, Louis C. K., and Kevin Spacey. Countless women accept announced out about harassers, accurately Harvey Weinstein whose scandals triggered a alternation of allegations adjoin analogously able men about the apple (Rodino-Colocino, 97). These contest affronted the creation of the #MeToo movement, a angle adjoin animal harassment, specifically in the workplace. It started in the United States on amusing media as a hashtag beneath which women would allotment testimonies about their personal experiences with animal assault, harassment, and abduction in the abode or a professional setting. It provides a association of healing and lets victims and survivors apperceive that they are not abandoned in their pain. Celebrities are looked up to and their acutely absolute lives are envied. The #MeToo movement is extremely able and about-face our appearance of Hollywood’s elites. Their adventuresomeness to openly and so vulnerably allotment their adventures with the apple gives women hope. Through their stories, we can additionally see that acclaim and affluence does not grant you a absolute life. Celebrities go through pain, discomfort, and fear just like anyone abroad and this shows women that they can let their articulation be heard as well. Victims in European Union countries accept begin their articulation just as Americans through abounding able women’s declarations. The movement went viral in October of 2017 and apparent the boundless prevalence of sexual harassment. Aback then, #MeToo has advance to over 200 countries and women in every community, big or baby accept the adventuresomeness to allege out and apostle for their own rights (Edge, 22).

            In response to the #MeToo movement and the Harvey Weinstein scandal, the Time’s Up movement was founded in January 2018 by Hollywood celebrities. Additionally, abounding A-listers accept assisted in the conception of the Time’s Up Acknowledged Aegis Fund. The armamentarium provides legal support, defense, and advising to victims of animal harassment, assault, or abuse in the workplace. As of February 2018, Time’s Up has aloft 20 million dollars for its acknowledged aegis fund. It has additionally acquired over 200 volunteer lawyers who are activity to assignment anon with victims to ensure their rights are protected (Chu 2018, 16). When you appointment the Time’s Up website, the aboriginal affair you see is a adduce that reads, “The alarm has run out on animal assault, harassment, and asperity in the workplace. It is time to do article about it.” This perfectly exemplifies the ambition of the movement. The time is up on silencing women and attention abusers. It is time to accomplish a change and booty affairs into our own easily aback governments debris to accede the severity of animal aggravation and do article about it (Time’s Up Now).

However, the #MeToo and Time’s Up movements accept bent affluence of abrogating backlash. Abounding men and, surprisingly, even women altercate that these movements are unnecessary. Their claims ambit from attention gluttonous to blame an agitator advanced agenda. The individuals who push aback are not accomplished on the goals these movements. Abounding individuals have claimed that #MeToo and Time’s Up are abandoned means for women to get added attention and acclaim by falsely accusing others. People in action affirmation that since there is no affidavit of the assaults, alternative than women’s testimonies, how can they believe them? Additionally, men altercate that accusations accomplish macho workers and executives accept to abstain women in the abode completely. They affirmation there is no advice amid males and females unless it is anon accompanying to work and this can aching their assignment achievement (Rodino-Colocino, 98). Nevertheless, the action to the movement has abandoned accustomed women a bigger acumen to activity for their rights and protection. There will consistently be antagonists but victims and supporters are doing their allotment to lift their voices, abnormally for women who are teared down and silenced.

            Additionally, the #MeToo and Time’s Up movements accept fabricated their way beyond the pond, literally. What started in the United States has fabricated an appulse all over the globe as added than 200 countries accept been actively adopting acquaintance and implementing the goals of these movements into their own communities (Edge, 22). The celebrities that accept apparent their abutment for the cause, such as Angelina Jolie, Natalie Portman, Justin Timberlake, Sebastian Stan, and abounding others, accept activated their platforms to apostle for an issue that is not abandoned accepted in the United States but it applies all over the world including Europe. The all-around ability of these movements is massive and shows that women debris to be silenced and casting aside, rather we will affiliate our choir and speak out for those who cannot. An archetype of the all-embracing access of Time’s Up and #MeToo is the conception of British versions of them. British media and the ball industry accept had a billow of alive issues that leave women activity hopeful of allusive change. European celebrities, including Kierra Knightley, Emma Watson, and Daisy Ridley, are speaking out and demanding action. By the end of January, the British Time’s Up action had acquired the support of over 50 internationally acclaimed women (Chu 2018, 16).They are chain beneath this account and increasingly adopting their choir in a column Harvey Weinstein age. Various celebrities accept reflected the abutment of Americans by cutting all atramentous to the BAFTA commemoration abundant like celebrities who wore all atramentous to the Oscars and the Golden Globes.These furnishings are mirrored in assorted countries in the EU and the consistent acquaintance is causing a change of desperate proportions. These movements accept been able to accomplish what national governments and assembly accept bootless to do. They accept accustomed all women a hopeful articulation and accept able and dedicated them in the face of injustice and animal harassment.

            I believe that there are abounding changes that could be implemented in both the United States and the European Union to lower the ante of animal aggravation in the workplace and, eventually, eradicate it. First, the United States should admit the flaws and failures of its laws to absolutely assure women and eradicate animal aggravation in all spheres. They should booty all-important measures to accredit CEDAW and achieve aldermanic accoutrement that ensure the assurance of women in and out of workplaces. There should additionally be able abuse measures set alternating for the perpetrators, such as abortion of appliance and prison sentences area necessary. Too abounding harassers get abroad with their crimes and they charge be stopped. I accept that the US should additionally admeasure funds to organizations, foundations, and movements like Time’s Up and #MeToo that properly analyze harassers and accommodate aegis for the victims of sexual assault. Next, countries in the European Union that accept ratified CEDAW should regulate and admeasurement the admeasurement of implementations aural their respective governments and institutions. I accept that EU countries would additionally account from recognizing assorted forms of animal aggravation rather than relying on a general definition. Additionally, the Board on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women beneath CEDAW should recruit added associates to adviser appliance of the assemblage into law. They could additionally abjure the affiliate states’ allowances of ratification. If they accept not fabricated an accomplishment to apparatus behavior and no change is detected, they should not be able to say they ratified the convention.

            In conclusion, the prevalence and pervasiveness of animal aggravation in both the United States can be attributed to their abridgement of adjustment of these laws and conventions and the absence of implementation monitoring. Alike so, the conception of movements such as Time’s Up and #MeToo accept aided in apery for the victims of animal advance and giving them a articulation to allege out about their experiences. The abridgement of adequate representation and advancement in the US larboard women no best but to allege out for themselves and advice others victims and survivors who accept been silences. Their stand was alarming and alternative countries like the United Kingdom, France, etc. mirrored their movements and efforts (Chu 2018, 16). This has been bringing about the change that governments bootless to. Through the backbone and global reach of these movement and armamentarium the ante of animal aggravation and advance can be decidedly lowered. Additionally, the US and the EU would account from implementing adapted regulations to conventions, afterlight and revising current law and legislature, ambience able abuse measures for perpetrators, and nationally acquainted animal aggravation in and out of the workplace.

References

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Rodino-Colocino, Michelle. “#MeToo: Countering Cruelty with Empathy” in Communication &

Critical/Cultural Studies, pp. 96-100. 2018.

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Policies in UK Universities” in British Journal of Sociology of Education. 2004.

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