Salem Witch Trial Theories

Brennyn Mackey 2 May 2011 The Secret War of Salem Exposing the Culprit abaft the Accumulation Agitation The Salem Witch Trials were a alternation of abominable contest that appeal an annual for their occurrence. The trials that took abode in 1692 acquired neighbors in the association of Salem Apple in the antecedents of Massachusetts to about-face on one accession out of paranoia, accusing one accession of witchcraft. According to Carol Karlsen, a longtime columnist of the subject, nineteen bodies were hanged and about 200 others were confined (40). A few theories acquire been offered in adjustment to explain the basis of this accumulation hysteria. The theories in catechism charge to be advised to see which holds the best credibility. Best historians who acquire advised the accountable accede on the archival adjustment of contest that set this aphotic adventure of history into motion. They acquire it began in the domiciliary of Abbey Samuel Parris. Abbey Parris endemic a West Indian bondservant called Tituba. Tituba would acquaint the adolescent girls belief of her adventures in abracadabra back the abbey was away. This baby accumulation of girls started with Abigail Williams, the reverend’s niece, and Elizabeth Parris, his daughter. Soon, a few girls from adjoining homes joined. Eventually, the girls began to display awfully aberrant behaviors. They would acquire hallucinations and convulsions. A physician arrested the girls, but he bootless to acquisition a accustomed annual for their behavior. He attributed their ailments to a abnormal annual (Salem Witch Trials). The girls began to affirmation they were actuality afflicted by witches and started authoritative accusations. Thus, the agitation ensued. Those who acquire advised the accountable of the Salem Witch Trials acquire actual few disagreements on these events. Though history may acquire accurate the events, it has not presented a bright basal annual to their occurrence. Why did the girls act in such a manner? Advisers acquire presented their own theories for this mystery. One approach that attempts to explain the agitation is that there was a fungal contagion such as ergot in the aliment that the girls ate. This would be an ideal annual for their convulsions. Accession approach is that abracadabra was absolutely actuality practiced. This approach states that the abundantly odd behavior of the girls was attributed to the practices that Tituba was teaching them. A final approach that draws abundant absorption is that the girls were acting. Advisers acquire looked at these contest from a political angle and advance that Abbey Parris abiding the adolescent girls to act in an odd manner. The approach that answers the best questions afterwards adopting an according cardinal of new questions is the best explanation. The approach that Abbey Parris acclimated the girls to accretion abundance holds such a status. The approach that there was an ergot bane is advocated by a assistant called Linnda Caporeal. Caporeal has argued that a fungal adulteration accustomed as ergot, which grows on rye, had been ingested by the girls, causing their behaviors. She goes on to explain that “all the affection [of ergot poisoning] are alluded to in the Salem Witch Trials” (Caporeal). This approach does not accomplish faculty back because why the alone ones afflicted were the adolescent girls in the Parris household. Convulsive ergot contagion best about affects baby children, but the Salem Apple had hundreds of residents. The accomplished apple ate grains harvested from the aforementioned fields and this approach does not acquire an annual of anyone abroad announcement the aboriginal convulsions. It is far too casual that the alone ones afflicted were a few adolescent girls. This approach has additionally been attacked by advisers such as Spanos and Gottlieb. They abode the point ahead mentioned as able-bodied as the comestible action of the villagers. In accession article, they responded to Caporeal’s arguments apropos the afflicted girls as able-bodied as the villagers’ comestible susceptibility. Spanos and Gottlieb accompaniment that “the actuality that best individuals […] active in the aforementioned households as the afflicted girls showed no signs of affection is attributed by Caporeal to advanced alone differences in susceptibility to ergot poisoning. ” They additionally altercate vitamin A deficiency. According to their research: Ergot contagion in individuals with able vitamin A intakes leads to addle rather than convulsive symptoms. Vitamin A is begin both in angle and in dairy products. Salem Apple was a agriculture association and Salem Town, which belted the village, was a acclaimed seaport; beasts and angle were plentiful. There is no affirmation to advance a vitamin A absence in the diet of the inhabitants, and it would be decidedly absurd for the alleged "afflicted girls," some of whom came from flush agriculture families. The absence of any instance of addle symptomatology makes it awful absurd that ergot played any role in the Salem crisis (Spanos). The approach that there was an ergot bane does not assume to authority up to the accounts of Spanos and Gottlieb. The approach of ergot bane has boring absent believability due to these pieces of evidence. Another approach that attempts to explain the paranoia is the approach that abracadabra was actuality accomplished in the community. The chat “witch” came into English from Wicca, an Anglo-Saxon chat that agency “wise one” (Buckland 26). Witches acquire been beheld throughout history as agents of Satan, overextension misfortune. This is an abstract average agnate to the delusion that witches fly about on broomsticks and transform into animals. A Wiccan columnist accustomed as Sheena Morgan addresses issues apropos apocryphal stereotypes of witchcraft. She states that bodies “have lots of misconceptions about what Wicca and abracadabra absolutely entail. People assume to abash abracadabra with Satanism or devil adoration […] Wicca […] does not seek new adherents” (14). The columnist implies that Wicca is a pantheistic adoration that promotes accord with the accustomed apple and does not entail bloodletting rituals. All the “Halloween” aspects of Wicca are academic misrepresentations of their beliefs. The Puritans had a abysmal abhorrence that those aphotic conceptions were a reality. Such assumption notions and religious behavior that the Puritans had apropos abracadabra charge acquire been the ammunition for the trials. According to Puritan beliefs, witches admirable Satan. Melanie Gauch, a lifetime Wiccan, has declared that Wiccans do not acquire in a devil. That is a Christian angle that the Puritans accessory with paganism. The Puritans acclimatized complete bent of the Wiccan behavior and created the paranoia in their own minds back they acquainted threatened. In the Bible, Exodus 22:18 states, “Thou shalt not ache a witch to live” (King James Bible). The puritans followed the Bible wholeheartedly, and their behavior agitated them to accusations, and again on to interrogations. However, the capital botheration with the abracadabra approach is that it cannot be proven. The accusations themselves could not alike be proven. One way to allege accession of abracadabra was by use of ashen evidence. If an bogeyman appeared to an individual, they could point a feel at accession and allege that actuality of afflicting them (Salem Witch Trials). This ashen affirmation was alone witnessed by the afflicted, but was about accustomed as aboveboard evidence. Due to abhorrence and hysteria, accusations could be fabricated afterwards affidavit of any witchcraft. It is awful absurd that abracadabra played any allotment in the alarm of the trials. The approach that Abbey Samuel Parris was the accurate damaging abaft the trials carries the best logic. Samuel Parris was carefully associated with the Putnam ancestors and had been accustomed a minister’s arrangement that included all the accepted benefits, such as a appropriate salary, a abode and chargeless firewood. However, Parris had accustomed all this in accession to a appellation and accomplishment to the parish, which affronted the association who did not appetite to be congregationally abstracted from Salem Town (Saari 35-6). He was in atrocious charge of accepting his position as abbot and the beginning of abracadabra accusations was the best way to do it. In a time of such paranoia apropos atrocious forces, the villagers would be in atrocious charge of his services. Ernest King and Franklin Mixon Jr. authored an commodity discussing that concept. According to them: Salem Village, both afore and through the abracadabra trials, was a religion-based community, acceptance its abbot to apply a akin of political–economic ascendancy over its citizens. During the acme of the itchcraft episode, there was an added appeal for apostolic casework (salvation) in the Salem area. Recent analysis has argued that the abbot acclimated the abracadabra adventure to advance and body aloft claimed and accumulated abundance (King and Mixon). This demonstrates that Abbey Parris had the political motives for demography advantage of the girls’ behavior. Back abracadabra accusations arose, some of the Salem association who had adjoin the reverend’s arrangement had no best but to appear abbey and pay any offerings they could. If they did not do so, they would run the accident of actuality accused of witchcraft. This was a artlessly absolute band-aid for Abbey Parris. Afore continuing to appraise the reverend, it is all-important to acquire his background. Samuel Parris was built-in in London and grew up to accede his father’s plantation. Afterwards a blow devastated the plantation, he became a merchant. However, back his business failed, he absitively to be a abbot (Orr 16). It seems the reverend’s activity had a alternation of failures. According to Frances Hill, columnist of abundant books on the subject, Parris’s aboriginal accident had been bottomward out of Harvard (117). After all the alternative hindrances, he was accessible to acquire a job as abbot of Salem Village, but again accepted added and added changes to his arrangement over time, continuously negotiating affairs such as firewood and blah provisions, the accomplishment to the admiral abode and bacon (118). The Putnam ancestors controlled best of the farmland in Salem Apple and played a ample allotment in his apostolic contract. This affirmation shows there may acquire been a political affiliation amid the two. Salem Apple and Salem Town were in a aeon of abundant political tension. During this time, the Putnam ancestors endemic best of the farmland in Salem Apple and capital to become abstracted from Salem Town, the adjacent advancing anchorage on which the alternative villagers depended aloft for bread-and-butter affidavit (Salem Witch Trials). This disconnected the village, and the Abbey Samuel Parris became abbot during this turmoil. Alternative than political division, the villagers had accustomed worries such as Indian raids and smallpox outbreaks, which added tensions. This was the amusing bearings at the time of Parris’s ascendance to position of minister. In adjustment to accretion political power, Abbey Parris would acquire had to do article about those who adjoin him. The authors Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum appraise the amusing history of the Salem association in their book, Salem Possessed and they acquire noticed a pattern. A alternation of petitions adjoin the abbey were calm and the names of those who adjoin Parris in the accomplished were the ones best about accused of witchcraft. The names included the majority of the Proctor ancestors and Rebecca Nurse (183-6). The best alarming case was the annual of George Burroughs, the antecedent abbot of Salem Village. When George Burroughs batten out adjoin the trials that Abbey Parris was championing, he was anon approved for witchcraft. He was begin guilty. Soon afore he was hung, he had recited “The Lord’s Prayer,” which was allegedly absurd for a witch (Salem Witch Trials). Unfortunately, it is not accustomed for assertive whether or not Abbey Parris had been advocating adjoin him until his moment of death, but this was accession allegation that formed in Parris’s favor. The Salem Witch Trials may acquire been an aberrant event, but they still acquire a rational explanation. Numerous advisers acquire attempted to explain abroad the contest with assorted theories, but alone one annual has withstood questioning. The approach that Abbey Parris acclimated the girls to accretion political access is best sensible. The abbey would acquire absent his job and afterwards so abounding setbacks in his beforehand life, he would not acquire been able for accession loss. The relationships amid two of the girls and the abbey makes the abbey awful suspect, but alike added so was the actuality that the accused were the ones who had usually adjoin Parris in the past. The accounts of George Burroughs and the political affiliation amid the Putnam ancestors and Abbey Parris carries additionally carries a lot of weight. In the end, the affirmation shows that Abbey Samuel Parris was the culprit abaft the accumulation hysteria. Works Cited Boyer, Paul, and Stephen Nissenbaum. Salem Possessed: The Amusing Origins of Witchcraft. Harvard, 1974. Print Buckland, Raymond. Abracadabra from the Inside: Origins of the Fastest Growing Religious Movement in America. St. Paul: Llewellyn Pub. , 1971. Print. Caporeal, Linnda. Ergotism: The Satan Loosed in Salem? ” Science Vol. 192 (1976) Web. 30 Apr. 2011. Gauch, Melanie. Facebook Claimed Message Interview. 1 May 2011. Hill, Frances. The Salem Witch Trials Reader. Cambridge: Da Capo P. , 2001. Print. Karlsen, Carol F. The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Abracadabra in Colonial New England. Ontario: Penguin Books Canada, 1987. Print. King, Ernest W. , and Franklin G. Mixon. “Religiosity and the Political Economy of the Salem Witch Trials. ” Amusing Science Journal. 47. 3 (2010): Abstract. Business Source Premiere. Web. 29 Apr. 2011. Morgan, Sheena. The Wicca Handbook: A complete Guide to Abracadabra and Magic. London: Vega, 2003. Print Orr, Tamra. Bodies at the Center of: The Salem Witch Trials. Farmington Hills: Blackbirch Press, 2004. Print. Saari, Peggy. Abracadabra in America. Detroit: UXL, 2001. Print. “Salem Witch Trials. ” In Search of History. History Channel. A&E Television Networks, 1998. DVD Spanos, Nicholas and Jack Gottlieb. “Ergotism and the Salem Apple Witch Trials” Science Vol. 194 (1976) Web. 30 Apr. 2011.

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