In abounding assay on additional accent classroom, the role and influences of mother argot or aboriginal accent (L1) on additional accent (L2) acquirements has consistently been a hotly debated issue. There accept consistently been contradicting angle about whether to use L1 of the acceptance in the additional accent classroom. However, in the accomplished decade of study, linguistic advisers could not ability a accepted arena on whether the use of L1 is advised as a facilitator or barrier in the accretion of additional language. Altered absolute theories accept arguable opinions about the role of L1 influences on L2 acquirements (Yan, 2010). Based on the abstract gathered, this cardboard is action to abode two assay questions fatigued from the accumulating of angle on L1 use in L2 acquirements classroom. Despite the abounding arguments on the use of L1 in the L2 classroom, little assay was agitated out to admeasurement the furnishings of L1 use in the classroom. Thus, the aboriginal assay catechism in this cardboard is to abstraction what are the furnishings of appliance L1 in L2 acquirements classroom. Upon accretion the effect, this cardboard is additionally absorbed to admeasurement to what extend does the use of L1 admission the performances of L2 learning. Therefore, four accompanying accessories will be advised in adjustment to abode these two assay questions.
According to Nation (2003), the use of L2 in a adopted accent classroom needs to be maximized wherever possible. Though L2 should be the amount accent acclimated in classroom administration and learning, the use of L1 should not be deserted too as it has a baby but cogent role to comedy in communicating acceptation and content. This role is important beyond all accent abilities be it in reading, autograph or cant learning. In a rather aboveboard but absolute assay done by Liu in 2008 by the appellation ‘L1 use in L2 cant learning: Facilitator or barrier’, the furnishings of L1 use on L2 cant teaching is explored. Liu begin that abounding avant-garde teaching methods amusement L2 in abreast from L1. Therefore, in her study, she accepted that bilingual cant teaching adjustment is absolutely acceptable to Chinese EFL learners (Liu, 2008). An empiric assay has been done and it is accepted that able appliance of L1 can finer abetment the anamnesis of new words during L2 cant teaching process. Liu (2008) acclimated the actuality that L1 is present in L2 learners’ mind, therefore, whether the abecedary uses L1 or not, the L2 ability that is actuality created in their apperception and is affiliated in all sorts of agency with their L1 knowledge. This ascertainment is accurate from the sociocultural admission angle that L1 meanings abide to accept a assiduous aftereffect in the L2 acquirements (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006).
The assay done by Liu (2008) is an apt abstraction which accepted the role of L1 in L2 acquirements classroom as a facilitator. An alpha admission was called by her in this abstraction as the methodology. The acumen for applying alpha assay is that this abstraction involves the aftereffect of the analytical abetment of one variable(s) on addition capricious (Ary, Jacobs, Sorensen, 2010). In the experiment, Liu (2008) manipulated the capricious of teaching approach, which is the use of accent during cant teaching. Through the alpha research, the researcher managed to prove that altered teaching admission does accomplish cogent differences in the subjects’ performances in canonizing new words and expressions learned. However, the abstraction ability accept been added actuating if the researcher had advised the cant admeasurement and the abundance calculation of the cant items chose, whether the words are high-frequency words or low-frequency words (Nation, 2001). The cant admeasurement of 60 words ability be too abundant for the Chinese EFL learners. Moreover, learners should be accustomed ample time to accept and acquire the new words. It would be added accomplished if the researcher could assay the base of the chat abundance and abundance of these words so as to abstain actuality over ambitious.
In reviewing the after-effects gathered, Liu (2008) in her study, fabricated a allegory amid the two groups appliance t-tests. For every test, the raw array were anxiously entered into the SPSS abstracts table in adjustment to accretion the acclimatized abstracts for comparison. From here, we apperceive that the researcher was absolute alert in advancing absolute abstracts analysis. To abstain any biasness in the study, the researcher had analyzed the aftereffect of the pre-test for both the alpha and ascendancy accumulation afore proceeding to affirm the authority of the final results. There was no abundant cogent aberration amid the P ethics for both groups although the ascendancy accumulation denticulate a little lower than the alpha group. It can be said that both groups of capacity started the agreement at the agnate cant level. What is absorbing in this abstracts is that the after-effects of post-test agitated by the researcher afterwards the breach of 3 weeks from the pre-test showed that the capacity in the alpha accumulation who accustomed assay in both L1 and L2 acquired new words and expressions bigger than those in the ascendancy accumulation who accustomed assay in L2 only. What again do you anticipate is the account for the aberration in performances of both groups in the post-test? Absolutely is the agency of accent use. Therefore, able affirmation that supports the use of L1 in L2 cant acquirements is presented in her findings. Taken together, the after-effects of this abstraction abutment the abstraction that L1 facilitates the L2 cant learning. The aftereffect that L1 brings about in L2 classroom acquirements is that it enhances the compassionate of new words.
On top of the abstraction conducted by Liu (2008), Bouangeune in 2009 additionally conducted a agnate abstraction on the use of L1 in teaching vocabulary. The add-on of Bouangeune’s abstraction is that he concentrated on low L2 accomplishment students; the L2 in this abstraction is English. Bouangeune (2009) aimed to abode the botheration of low accomplishment in his academy which is the National University of Laos. Again, the researcher additionally seeks to investigate the capability of appliance L1 in teaching vocabulary. The assay catechism that he acquaint in the abstraction is whether L1 helps admission students’ accomplishment in vocabulary. Previous studies accept appear that agents tend to accomplished acceptance for appliance their L1 in English accent classroom (Weinberg, 1990). If the acceptance allege their L1 (Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, Vietnamese, Russian or Farsi) in the English accent classroom, they will be fined 25 cents. This abnormality reminds me of my primary ancestry canicule breadth we fabricated compulsatory to acquaint appliance English during the English Anniversary and if we abort to do so, we will be fined 10 cents for anniversary words that we allege in our mother tongue. As a aftereffect of this aphorism in the school, abounding acceptance dared not allege abundant or allege out loud during that anniversary because they could not antipodal in English accent fluently. Considering the attack to accomplish the L2 learners allege alone L2, is it effective? Or can this admission accord to the faster acquirements of L2?
The fifth antecedent of Krashen’s Monitor Model, the melancholia clarify antecedent says that learners of a accent will clarify or block out the ambition accent if they become tense, affronted or apathetic (Lightbown & Spada, 1999). This acutely explains the bearings faced by the L2 learners as their abecedary fined them for appliance their L1 or mother tongue. Learners who are abashed will become frustrated, upset, affronted and affronted at the ambiance of the accent classroom and back this happens, acquirements stops. Therefore, it is analytical for educators to accede the barriers faced by the L2 learners abnormally lower accomplishment learners. In the abstraction presented by Bouangeune (2009), the researcher accent several affidavit why L1 should be acclimated as a apparatus in the accent classroom. In adjustment to prove his stand, the researcher conducted a pre-test and port-test on cant in four classes of aboriginal year English majors accessory a university in Laos. Two classes were assigned as an alpha accumulation and the another two classes were assigned as a ascendancy group. If we were to compare, Bouangeune (2009) conducted a beyond calibration agreement than Liu (2008) as Bouangeune (2009) acclimated a absolute of 169 subjects. He additionally acclimated added instruments to conduct the study, namely, testing abstracts (pre-test and post-test), teaching instrumentations and teaching techniques.
Apart from the admission of appliance a beyond calibration of experiment, Bouangeune (2009) empiric the guidelines set by Nation (2001) in testing learners’ cant knowledge. The researcher advised assorted best assay with four another answers for the pre-test and post-test. The architecture of the tests is absolute acclimatized and acceptable for acceptance as able-bodied as agents because it is quick to take, accessible to mark and accessible to adapt (Nation, 2001). It serves the purpose to advice agents bound accretion out how abundant assignment needs to be done on these words afore giving them any treatments. The tests were additionally advised in a absolute activated way whereby the cardinal of new words activated is alone 15 as against to Liu’s 60 new words at one time. However, there arises a catechism apropos authority of test. In the post-test, the researcher acclimated words taken from the teaching abstracts in the Accent Practice (LP) classes, which both groups had abstruse afore (Bouangeune, 2009). This abstraction seems to put me in agnosticism if the words are still new to the students. Perhaps they accept already acquired the meanings as they accept appear beyond the teaching abstracts before. Moreover, what would be the acumen for the researcher to use altered sets of pre-test and post-test on the students? Had the researcher accede about consistency? It is appropriate that the researcher should use the aforementioned questions for pre-test and post-test so that the altitude of advance can be ascertained.
Despite the beneath actuating instrumentation, this abstraction managed to accommodate reliable abstracts analysis. The researcher acclimated the Cronbach’s alpha to admeasurement the believability of both tests. It was accepted that both tests were reliable in the akin of .86 and .80, appropriately (Bouangeune, 2009). The array of anniversary allotment of the assay were advised by comparing the beggarly array of the two groups by appliance MANOVA. Taken together, the allegation showed that acceptance in the alpha accumulation which activated L1 in teaching new words outperformed those in the ascendancy group. The acumen for the acceptance in the alpha accumulation to accomplish bigger than the ascendancy accumulation is because they were accustomed abundant absolute input. They were accomplished again the book arrangement and functions of new words from the beginning. This had fabricated them accustomed with the book anatomy and chat meaning. Again, this ascertainment is explained in the fourth antecedent of Krashen’s Monitor Model, the ascribe hypothesis. Acceptance are able still to ability the optimal accretion akin alike actuality challenged by some new cant if they accept best of the ascribe either through account or alert (Lightbown & Spada, 1999). Hence, this abstraction had fabricated an important addition to English Adopted Accent Teaching, decidedly in the breadth of cant for acceptance with a lower accomplishment akin as it shows the capability of appliance L1 in teaching vocabulary.
Using L1 in the L2 acquirements classroom does not alone advice to addition the acquirements of vocabulary, it additionally helps to advance account in writing. A abstraction conducted by Stapa and Abdul Majid (2009) dealt on the affair of investigating if acceptance with lower accomplishment are able to accomplish added account back they use L1 (in this ambience is BM) as against to English and aftermath a well-developed accounting artefact back account are generated in L1 instead of L2. Autograph is one of the aloft strands in accent learning. A acknowledged L2 acquirements is additionally anxious with the accretion of autograph in L2. Accepting acceptance to abode in the L2 classroom can be black sometimes as this botheration is acquired by several factors. This bearings is somewhat agnate to accepting acceptance to allege the L2 back they are poor in the L2. Acceptance developed abhorrence in them back they are appropriate to abode in L2 artlessly because they cannot anticipate or chronicle things in L2. Generating account in the L2 autograph can be a absolute circuitous action due to the affidavit mentioned above. If accent is a abundant albatross for L2 acceptance to write, again this abundant albatross should be removed so that they can alpha to write. The band-aid to removing this albatross is to approach their cerebration to L1 to advance account aboriginal afore carrying them in L2. Therefore, Stapa and Abdul Majid (2009) acclimatized the account bearing action in L1 and L2 by Scott (1996) in their abstraction to abode the botheration statements.
According to Scott (1996), there charge be consistently the achievability of acceptance acceptance to accomplish account in their L1 and advice to analyze the linguistic structures that will alteration their account into the L2. By accomplishing so, acceptance may be able to appear up with added account as they are not ashore by the abashing amid linguistic advice and account on the affair (Scott, 1996). Abstract additionally advised that writers with differing L2 accomplishment about-face from L2 to their L1 during their autograph action (Wang, 2003). Meanwhile, Lucas and Katz (1994) affirmation that acceptance with low accomplishment in English will alone accept their built-in accent as able agency for accouterment admission to agreeable development in article writing. Therefore, Stapa and Abdul Majid (2009) accept appear out with an alpha abstraction to investigate the use of L1 in L2 composing. In the study, the capacity are disconnected into two groups, namely the alpha and the ascendancy group. The capacity were accustomed a training affair in the alpha to accustom them with the procedures. Again they were accustomed admission for account in English accompanying to the article affair a day avant-garde so that they could accumulate some account on the topic. On the aboriginal day of the treatment, the alpha accumulation is accustomed to accomplish account appliance their L1 while the ascendancy accumulation can alone accomplish account in L2. From here, we can see that the architecture of this abstraction is absolute abundant and appropriately planned as the researcher alike anticipation of giving a training affair avant-garde to accomplish abiding that the agreement can be agitated out according to the procedures.
Data administration and assay of this abstraction was performed appliance t-tests. The agency and accepted aberration of the all-embracing account was anxiously advised into tables. Furthermore, the researcher additionally presented a anecdotic assay in agreement of all-embracing score, content, organization, vocabulary, accent and mechanics of the autograph action (Stapa & Abdul Majid, 2009). The after-effects of the abstraction appearance that the acceptance in the alpha accumulation accept outperformed those in the ascendancy group. This concludes that the use of L1 in L2 autograph classroom with low accomplishment acceptance aftermath bigger affection essays. Therefore, it is by no agency adverse to use L1 in teaching L2 autograph amid the low accomplishment students. From this conclusion, we are able to the absolute alteration of L1 in agreement of action (Yan, 2010). The correlations of L1 and L2 can be fatigued as conceptual activities occurred in L1 during autograph in L2. The concepts of chat functions and book structures are transferred from the belvedere of L1 into the belvedere of L2. The researcher in this abstraction accordingly recommends the use of L1 for L2 autograph classroom as it can activate accomplishments ability amid the learners.
Last but not atomic is the account accomplishment accretion in L2 acquirements classroom. The use of L1 does not alone constrain to the breadth of cant acquirements and account developing in writing, it additionally encompasses the breadth of reading. Account in L2 is not a monolingual event; L2 readers accept admission to their L1 as they read, and abounding use it as a action to advice appreciate an L2 argument (Upton & Li-Chun, 2001). Little assay has been conducted to actuate what role the L2 plays in the account strategies of L2 readers. However, several studies accept appear that abounding variables are complex in and access the L2 account process. Upton and Li-Chun (2001) in their abstraction advantaged ‘The role of the aboriginal accent in additional accent reading’ seek to analyze back L2 readers use their cerebral assets and how this cerebral use of the L1 helps them appreciate and L2 text. Furthermore, the advisers additionally appetite to investigate how L1 influences the account and apperception action of L2 readers. The abstraction agitated by the advisers adopted the qualitative methodology. The capacity were disconnected into three groups based on their array on the Michigan Assay of English Accent Accomplishment (MTELP) (Upton & Li-Chun, 2001). The capacity were activated on think-aloud exact protocols and accustomed attendant interviews. These procedures are done to appraise how acceptance use their L1 and their L2 during the absolute act of reading. The after-effects appearance that the average ESL acceptance tended to anticipate about and action the L2 account assignment appliance their L1 added frequently than the avant-garde ESL students. Taken together, this abstraction shows that L1 is absolutely angry on and actively acclimated by L2 readers as they seek to accomplish faculty of an L2 text. Overall, the advisers did a abundant job in cartoon out the role of L1 in L2 account apperception and addressed the assay questions appropriately by assuming that L1 plays a basic role in additional accent reading.
In conclusion, this cardboard has advised the assay questions apropos the furnishings of appliance L1 in L2 acquirements classroom be it in cant learning, account developing and account comprehension. From the four accompanying articles, we can abridge that L1 plays a basic role in the accretion of L2 and the furnishings that it brings about are absolute and constructive. Educators should accede appliance L1 abnormally back ambidextrous with acceptance with low accomplishment in L2. Furthermore, the four accompanying studies additionally set out to admeasurement to what admeasurement of the use of L1 increases the performances of L2 learning. From the allegation gathered, it is accurate that L1 stirs and triggers the abstraction and abstraction accumulation of L2 learning. L1 facilitates the acquirements of L2 to the admeasurement that it encourages low accomplishment learners to block out their filter, frustration, and abashing appear the alien L2. It additionally promotes the performances of L2 learners in agreement of cant learning, abstraction developing in autograph and account comprehension. Further analysis and analysis into the use of L1 in L2 acquirements is acerb recommended to draw added implications that can accord to the acreage of additional accent accretion and apprenticeship as well. Future assay on the role of L1 in L2 speaking classroom may be a abundant and absorbing acreage to adventure in.