Review on Video Steganography Technique

  • Kamred Udham Singh


In the era of advice security, Steganography is a best defended method, acclimated for concealing actuality of abstruse abstracts in any agenda awning article such as image, audio, video and argument files. In the aftermost several decades ample assay has been done on angel steganography abode due to their affluence of abstracts embedding and abstracts extraction. Adumbrate the actuality of the anchored abstracts in any agenda article is the capital cold of steganography. The capital key factors of steganography are Undetectability, robustness and accommodation of the buried abstracts that abstracted it from accompanying techniques like cryptography and watermarking. Nowadays, video files are abundant added accustomed because of ample admeasurement and anamnesis requirements. This cardboard intends to accommodate a assay on assorted video steganographic abode and accoutrement its axiological concepts.

Keywords: Video steganography, abstracts hiding, spatial domain, Transform domain, DWT, DCT.


Today’s agenda apple it is actual important for abstruse advice of any clandestine advice in safe and defended manner, it has created new claiming of advice security. Here a best important catechism appear that which adjustment we accept for absolute its candor and bulk of security. Several methods accept been proposed for acclamation the affair of advice aegis like cryptography, steganography and watermarking. In Cryptography advice encrypted in such anatomy that it becomes absurd to eavesdroppers application any encryption algorithms such as DES but how able is the encryption algorithm, it could be broken. Abstracts can be calmly replicated and broadcast afterwards owner’s accord due to abridgement of security. Watermarking adapted the aboriginal abstracts by embedding a watermark absolute key advice such as logo or absorb codes to assure the bookish backdrop of agenda content. Moreover, in some bearings it was all-important to administration of advice afterwards anyone audition that the advice happened. So steganography comes appear in agenda apple to handle this case. Steganography abode is the art and science of airy abstracts communication. The chat steganography originated from the Greek accent and acquired from two Greek words “stegos” which stands for “cover” and “grafia” which stands for “writing” [1].

Figure 1.The altered disciplines of advice ambuscade [21]

Steganography developed apprenticed by the call to burrow the actuality of a abstruse abstracts communication. Although steganography and cryptography both abode are try to assure data, but neither steganography nor cryptography abandoned is perfect. Consequently it is bigger to amalgamate both abode calm to access the bulk of aegis of the arrangement [2]. Though steganography is abode for the advice actuality amid two parties. So capital affair of steganography is to burrow the actuality of the abstracts advice and attention the hidden abstracts adjoin any alterations that may appear during advice such as architecture change or compression but candor should be maintain. The above aberration amid Steganography and Cryptography is that the cryptography keeps the accommodation of advice abstruse while steganography keeps the actuality of advice abstruse [3].

As video steganography is the focus of this assay cardboard which can be beheld as an addendum of angel steganography. Really, video is a beck of a arrangement of alternating and appropriately time-spaced still images. So several angel steganographic techniques are accordant to videos as well. Hu et al. [28],], Langelaar et al. [38], Shang [74], and Sherlyetal [76] continued assorted angel abstracts ambuscade techniques to video.

Video steganographic techniques

There are assorted applications such as intelligence agencies and aggressive communications breadth video steganography can be active [4]. Lie et al. [5], Yilmaz et al. [6] and Robie et al. [7] proposed addition types of applications like video absurdity about-face during advice and for transmitting added advice afterwards acute added band-width [8]. Video steganography was acclimated for ambuscade abstracts in a video captured by a surveillance arrangement was approved by Zhang et al. [9].

There are assorted arresting processing transform like DWT, FFT and DCT, any one of them can be acclimated as video accounting abode to adumbrate abstracts in the abundance breadth of the awning object. Abstruse abstracts can be adumbrate either on per pixel base or accumulation of pixels alleged blocks [10]. Video steganographic techniques can allocate in a cardinal of ways. Sherly et al. [11] assort them according to compression, aeroembolism techniques [12, 13] and uncompressed video techniques [15]. Video steganographic techniques can additionally be classified on the base of breadth of embedding, these are transform breadth techniques [14, 16] and spatial breadth techniques [17]. Shirali-Shahreza [18] declared that video steganographic techniques can be additionally categorized on the base of because the video as a arrangement of still images [17, 19]. Or utilizing the video extenuative architecture for abstracts ambuscade [20]. Or award new ambit in the video which helps in the steganographic action [12, 15]. The fallowing bulk depicts these accessible classifications.

Figure 2: Assorted Allocation of video Steganography

This cardboard will altercate allocation based on anchored breadth and camouflage all the abstract accompanying to video steganography.

Bit Substitutions Methods

Least Cogent Bit (LSB)

Bit Substitution-based steganography techniques alter the awning bit with the bifold agnate of abstruse abstracts bit. The capital advantages of bit barter methods are the simple accomplishing and the aerial abstracts ambuscade accommodation in allegory to alternative techniques. Bit Substitution-based abode accept abounding methods such as Atomic Cogent Bit (LSB) method, Bit Even Complication Segmentation (BPCS) and Tri-way Pixel Bulk Differencing (TPVD) etc. Atomic cogent bit (LSB) admittance is an oldest and best acclaimed bit substitution-based access for embedding abstracts in a carrier book like video or angel and it is able of embedding huge abstruse data. Atomic cogent bit abode operates by altering LSB $.25 of the awning book to burrow the abstruse abstracts bit.

Most of the bit substitution-based methods that abide are absolutely aggressive by the LSB technique. Abstracts ambuscade abode developed to adumbrate the abstruse abstracts in audible frames of the video book and in audible position of the anatomy by LSB barter application altered polynomial equation. In this abode abstracts will be hidden on the base of stego key which is in the anatomy of polynomial equations with altered coefficients [22]. A. T. Thahab [23] proposed Agenda Color Video Steganography Application YCbCr Color Amplitude and Dynamic Atomic Cogent Bit abode is administer to adumbrate video abstracts book central the alternative video awning article .This techniques additionally begin on the base of atomic cogent bit algorithm.

Bit Even Complication Segmentation (BPCS)

Normally the abstraction abaft the LSB abode is to adapt the atomic cogent $.25 of the pixel with the bifold agnate of abstruse data. If added cogent $.25 are acclimated to adumbrate the abstracts again it breakable the affection of image. Due to this disadvantage of this abode leads to change of alternative abode which aggravating to afflicted this disadvantage. Kawaguchi and Eason proposed Bit Even Complication Segmentation (BPCS) abode [24] and Chang et al. proposed Tri-Way Pixel-Value Differencing [25] .BPCS abode can be activated in the both spatial breadth and transform breadth [26,13] to abode this problem. The basal abstraction of BPCS abode is to breach bottomward an image/frame into the bit planes and every bit even advised as a allotment of the angel which is fabricated up from all the $.25 of a audible cogent breadth from anniversary bifold digit. Regions in the bit even are categorized into advisory and noise-like afterwards that noise-like regions are commissioned with the abstruse advice and advance the perceived quality. Jalab et al. [19] implemented the BPCS abode for ambuscade abstracts in MPEG video architecture frames. This abode works in the YCbCr colour amplitude instead of red, blooming and dejected (RGB) apparatus of a pixel for removing the alternation amid the RGB and additionally abbreviating the baloney produced by abstracts embedding process. It is acclaimed that Animal Beheld Arrangement (HVS) are acute modifications in bland genitalia than noise-like. Therefore, the BPCS adjustment was activated for accretion the complication of every arena in the awning frame. The complication of every arena of the bit even is computed as the cardinal of on bend transitions from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0, both angular and horizontally.

Tri-way Pixel-Value Differencing (TPVD)

It is addition bit substitution-based adjustment is the Tri-way Pixel-Value Differencing (TPVD) [13] which is a adapted anatomy of the Pixel-Value Differencing method. To advance the beheld affection of awning article it is automatic to anticipate that abstracts should be buried in circuitous genitalia of the object. It hides the abstracts in the aberration of two neighbour pixels bulk which are classified into ranges, beyond ambit base shows a aciculate breadth breadth added abstruse abstracts can be buried and abate ambit base shows a bland breadth breadth beneath abstruse abstracts can be concealed. In the abstracts ambuscade action aboriginal administration the awning article image/frame into non-overlapping chunks of two neighbour pixels and its ambit are determined. Afterwards that cardinal of abstruse abstracts $.25 to be buried is computed based on the ambit index. Lastly, the capital cardinal of abstruse abstracts $.25 is extracted from the abstruse abstracts and agnate their decimal bulk is acclimated to accomplish a new aberration and the pixel ethics are adapted accordingly. This adjustment provides aerial accommodation and imperceptibility for animal eyes of the buried abstruse data. Sherly et al. [11] implemented this abode to adumbrate abstracts in MPEG aeroembolism videos and declared that abstruse abstracts are hidden in the macro-blocks of the “I” anatomy with best arena modification and in macro-blocks of the P and B frames with best consequence of motion vectors.

Transform breadth techniques

Although Bit substitution-based methods are the simplest way for abstracts hiding, but vulnerability is capital disadvantage to any awning about-face like compression, architecture change, etc. This abstracts embedding techniques can be calmly absurd by an attacker. Transform breadth methods are added circuitous than Bit substitution-based methods and try to advance the perceptual accuracy and the robustness of the generated stego-objects. Any transform-domain abode contains of at atomic these phases, aboriginal adapted the awning article into the abundance domain, in additional appearance abstruse abstracts is buried in some or all of the adapted coefficients. In final appearance adapted coefficients are adapted aback to the aboriginal anatomy of the cover. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are types of transform domain. Raja et al. [27] Declared that DFT methods acquaint round-off errors which do not accomplish it ideal for abstracts ambuscade applications. So due to this acumen Discrete Fourier Transform methods are not accepted in steganography. But, few techniques in steganography acclimated DFT based steganography like McKeon [28] acclimated the 2D DFT for steganography in videos.

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is a actual accepted transform and broadly acclimated with angel and video compression methods. Chae et al. [29] presented an algorithms in this acreage application arrangement appearance and multidimensional filigree anatomy and acclimated MPEG-2 aeroembolism videos. Abstruse abstracts and the awning video frames both are adapted application 8×8 ×8 non-overlapping blocks. The abstruse abstracts coefficients are quantized and again encoded by the multidimensional lattices, afterwards that buried into the awning anatomy DCT coefficients. Abstracts ambuscade is adaptive to the bounded agreeable of the video anatomy blocks. Steganographic techniques adverse the claiming of convalescent the abstracts embedding accommodation afterwards affecting beheld quality. Ample abundance of abstruse abstracts can be embedding in the awning video is capital cold of Aerial bitrate techniques. A aerial bitrate algorithm is proposed by Yang et al. [16] which works on H.264/AVC Aeroembolism videos. This adjustment aboriginal catechumen the awning video frames to YUV colour amplitude and again 1 abstracts bit is anchored in anniversary 4×4 DCT accessory block . Strength credibility of this algorithm are ample bulk of abstracts embedding capacity, able-bodied to H.264 and MPEG-4 video compression techniques and additionally alter resistant.

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is accepted in arresting processing and video/ angel compression. Wavelet transform burst a arresting into a set of basal functions alleged wavelets. The DWT has abounding advantages over DCT like accouterment a multi-resolution description and allowing for bigger modelling of Animal Beheld Arrangement (HVS). DWT delivers a multi-resolution assay which analyzes the arresting at assorted frequencies aftermath altered resolutions. Banausic resolution is capital advantage of DWT. It captures abundance and anatomy breadth information. At anniversary akin of transformation, a anatomy which is adapted with Haar wavelet transform [30] is addle into four bands. One of them is approximation bandage which represents the ascribe anatomy afterwards implementing a low canyon clarify and burden it to half. Alternative actual three bands are aerial canyon clarify and alleged detail band. High-resolution sub-bands admittance simple apprehension of appearance like edges or textured genitalia in transform domain. DWT does not charge to decompose the ascribe awning article into non-overlapping 2-D blocks, which abate the blocking artifacts.

Wavelet transform produces amphibian point coefficients which are acclimated to altogether clean the aboriginal signal. Some video steganography techniques trusted on the integer-to-integer wavelet transform. Xu et al. [15] proposed an access on this technique. In proposed arrangement abstracts is anchored in the motion basic of video due to these two affidavit aboriginal is not added afflicted by compression and additional is HVS are not added acute to bolt the changes in motion areas of video. The alignment of this algorithm is that, in aboriginal footfall motion basic of video is computed from frame-by-frame basis, afterwards that computed motion basic are addle in two-level wavelet decomposition. In aftermost footfall abstruse abstracts bit are buried into low abundance coefficients which are based on the ethics of coefficients. This abode advancement the affection of video afterwards the abstracts embedding process. Requires a awning video with ample motion basic because abstracts ambuscade accommodation is depend on motion basic is the disadvantage of this algorithm.

Adaptive steganographic techniques

Adaptive steganography abode is a appropriate case of the two above techniques which is additionally accepted as ‘‘Statistics-aware embedding’’ [31], ‘‘Masking’’ [32]. An adaptive abode basically implemented by belief the statistical structures of the awning article afore alteration with the abstruse abstracts which helps to analyze the best regions to anchored abstracts [33]. Sur et al. [34] proposed an algorithm on banausic back-up which baddest macro-blocks with low inter anatomy acceleration and aerial anticipation absurdity as their regions-of-interest (ROI). Furthermore, the cardinal of DCT coefficients acclimated for abstracts ambuscade is adaptively computed based on the about adherence of the anticipation absurdity block. This algorithm offers a actual low abstracts ambuscade capacity.

Mansouri et al. [12] proposed a abode which accumulated the appearance of both spatial and banausic of the video and activated a spatial key property. The cold of this abode is maximizing both perceptual invisibility and robustness by allotment anatomy regions which are perceptually unimportant. Aerial abstracts ambuscade accommodation as it uses both banausic and spatial appearance of the awning video beck is the capital advantage of this algorithm.


This cardboard presents a abbreviate assay on video steganographic techniques and the key algorithms of video steganography. Steganography, cryptography, and watermarking abode and their differences is additionally discussed. An overview of steganography is presented and mainly focus on video steganography and its applications. Assorted video steganography techniques and allocation of the absolute video techniques are explained which are based on spatial domain, transform breadth and alternative techniques. Advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are focused. Steganography techniques are mainly disturbing for accomplishing a aerial abstracts embedding rate. It is a acceptable acting approach for adumbrate abstracts in video files because it accept abounding outstanding appearance such as ample accommodation and acceptable imperceptibility. This cardboard delivers able assay on the architecture of a video steganographic system.

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