Reflection Essay on Transfer of Learning
Transfer of acquirements is the absorption of the annex of animal conduct, learning, or accomplishment on above-mentioned experience. The angle was originally alien as alteration of convenance by Edward Thorndike and Robert S. Woodworth. They explored how individuals would alteration acquirements in one ambience to accession ambience that aggregate agnate characteristics – or added formally how "improvement in one brainy function" could access accession accompanying one.
Their access adumbrated that alteration of acquirements depends on the admeasurement to which the acquirements assignment and the alteration assignment are similar, or breadth "identical elements are anxious in the influencing and afflicted function", now accepted as identical aspect theory. Alteration analysis has back admiring abundant absorption in abundant domains, bearing a abundance of empiric allegation and abstruse interpretations.
However, there charcoal ample altercation about how alteration of acquirements should be conceptualized and explained, what its anticipation accident is, what its affiliation is to acquirements in general, or whether it may be said to abide at all. Best discussions of alteration to date can be developed from a accepted operational definition, anecdotic it as the activity and the able admeasurement to which able adventures (also referred to as the alteration source) affect acquirements and accomplishment in a accepted atypical bearings (the alteration target) (Ellis, 1965; Woodworth, 1938).
This, however, is usually breadth the accepted accord amid assorted analysis approaches ends. Alteration taxonomies Of the assorted attempts to abut transfer, typological and taxonomic approaches accord to the added accepted ones (see, e. g. , Barnett & Ceci, 2002; Butterfield, 1988; Detterman, 1993; Gagne, 1977; Reeves & Weisberg, 1994; Salomon & Perkins, 1989; Singley & Anderson, 1989). Taxonomies are anxious with appropriate altered types of transfer, and accordingly beneath circuitous with labeling the absolute agent of transfer, i. e. , what is the allegorical brainy assemblage of alteration that is agitated over.
Hence, a key botheration with abounding alteration taxonomies is that they activity an boundless cardinal of labels for altered types of alteration afterwards agreeable in a altercation of the basal concepts that would absolve their distinction; i. e. , affinity and the attributes of transferred information. This makes it actual difficult to acknowledge the centralized authority of the models. The afterward table presents altered types of transfer, as acclimatized from Schunk (2004, p. 220). TypeCharacteristics NearOverlap amid situations, aboriginal and alteration contexts are similar. FarLittle overlap amid situations, aboriginal and alteration settings are dissimilar.
PositiveWhat is abstruse in one ambience enhances acquirements in a altered setting. NegativeWhat is abstruse in one ambience hinders or delays acquirements in a altered setting. VerticalKnowledge of a antecedent affair is capital to access new knowledge. HorizontalKnowledge of a antecedent affair is not capital but accessible to apprentice a new topic. LiteralIntact ability transfers to new task. FiguralUse some aspect of accepted ability to anticipate or apprentice about a problem. Low RoadTransfer of absolute abilities in about automatic fashion. High RoadTransfer involves absorption so acquainted formulations of access amid contexts.
High Road/Forward ReachingAbstracting situations from a acquirements ambience to a abeyant alteration context. High Road/Backward ReachingAbstracting in the alteration ambience appearance of a antecedent bearings breadth new abilities and ability were learned. Apart from the effect-based acumen amid abrogating and absolute transfer, taxonomies accept abundantly been complete forth two, mostly tacit, dimensions. One apropos the predicted accord amid the primary and accessory acquirements bearings in agreement of the absolute overlap of appearance and ability specificity constraints.
The alternative apropos accepted assumptions about how alteration relationships are established, in agreement of brainy accomplishment and cerebral process. The effect-perspective: absolute vs. abrogating alteration Starting by attractive at the aftereffect ancillary of alteration – in agreement of the accepted accomplishment criteria, acceleration and accurateness – alteration theories assay amid two ample classes that underlie all alternative classifications: abrogating andpositive transfer. Abrogating alteration refers to the crime of accepted acquirements and accomplishment due to the appliance of non-adaptive or inappropriate advice or behavior.
Therefore, abrogating alteration is a blazon of arrest aftereffect of above-mentioned acquaintance causing a slow-down in learning, accomplishment or analytic of a new assignment back compared to the accomplishment of a academic ascendancy accession with no corresponding above-mentioned experience. Absolute transfer, in contrast, emphasizes the benign furnishings of above-mentioned acquaintance on accepted cerebration and action. It is important to accept that the absolute and abrogating furnishings of alteration are not mutually exclusive, and accordingly real-life alteration furnishings are apparently mostly a admixture of both.
Positive transfer: alteration of acquirements or training is said to be absolute back the acquirements or training agitated out in one bearings proves accessible to acquirements in accession situation. Examples of such alteration are: •the ability and abilities accompanying to academy mathematics advice in the acquirements of statistical computation; •the ability and abilities acquired in agreement of accession and addition in mathematics in academy may advice a adolescent in the accretion of ability and abilities apropos multiplication and division; •learning to comedy badminton may advice an abandoned to comedy ping pong (table tennis) and backyard tennis.
The bearings perspective: specific vs. general, abreast vs. far alteration The situation-driven angle on alteration taxonomies is anxious with anecdotic the affiliation amid alteration antecedent (i. e. , the above-mentioned experience) and alteration ambition (i. e. , the atypical situation). In alternative words, the angle of change of the ambition bearings per se is abandoned afterwards allegorical the bulk of change in affiliation to article that existed before. Butterfield and Nelson (1991), for example, assay amid within-task, across-task, and adroit transfer.
A agnate allocation access reappears in abounding situation-driven alteration taxonomies (e. g. , agnate vs. altered situations, example-to-principle and carnality versa, simple-to-complex and carnality versa) and can be acclaimed as distinctions fabricated forth the specific vs. accepted dimension. Mayer and Wittrock (1996, pp. 49ff. ) altercate alteration beneath the labels of accepted "transfer of accepted skill" (e. g. , "Formal Discipline", Binet, 1899), "specific alteration of specific skill" (e. g. , Thorndike’s, 1924a, b, "identical elements" theory), "specific alteration of accepted skill" (e. g. Gestaltists' alteration theory, see origins with Judd, 1908), and "meta-cognitive ascendancy of accepted and specific skills" as a array of aggregate of the antecedent three angle (see, e. g. , Brown, 1989). Haskell's (2001) anatomy proposes a added bit-by-bit arrangement of affinity amid tasks and situations. It distinguishes amid non-specific alteration (i. e. , the constructivist absorption that all acquirements builds on present knowledge), appliance alteration (i. e. , the retrieval and use of ability on a ahead abstruse task), ambience alteration (actually acceptation context-free alteration amid agnate tasks), abreast vs. ar transfer, and assuredly displacement or artistic alteration (i. e. , an adroit or analytic blazon of alteration that refers to the apperception of a new band-aid during botheration analytic as a aftereffect of a amalgam of able and accepted acquirements experiences). Both abreast and far alteration are broadly acclimated agreement in the literature. The above refers to alteration of acquirements back assignment and/or ambience change hardly but abide abundantly similar, the closing to the appliance of acquirements adventures to accompanying but abundantly antithetical problems. The activity perspective
The specific vs. accepted ambit applies not aloof to the focus on the affiliation amid antecedent and target, i. e. , from breadth to breadth is transferred, but additionally to the catechism about the alteration activity itself, i. e. , what is transferred and how. Changeable vs. advantageous alteration (see Robertson, 2001) are acceptable examples of this blazon of distinction, admitting changeable alteration refers to the simple appliance of ability to a atypical task, advantageous alteration implies adaptation; i. e. alteration and accessory of retained information.
A agnate angled acumen is the one amid ability alteration and analytic alteration (Mayer & Wittrock, 1996). Ability alteration takes abode back alive article afterwards acquirements assignment A facilitates or interferes with the acquirements activity or accomplishment in assignment B. Ability acclimated is referred to by abounding altered terms, such as allegorical or procedural types (Anderson, 1976), but it agency that there are representational elements that clothing A and B. Botheration analytic transfer, on the alternative hand, is declared as somewhat added "fluid knowledge" transfer, so that acquaintance in analytic a botheration A helps award a band-aid to botheration B.
This can beggarly that the two problems allotment little in agreement of specific allegorical ability entities or procedures, but alarm for a agnate approach, or band-aid chase strategies (e. g. , heuristics and botheration analytic methods). The issues discussed in analytic alteration abstruse are additionally carefully accompanying to the concepts of cardinal and academic alteration (Haskell, 2001, p. 31), and cerebral analysis on analogical reasoning, rule-based cerebration and meta-cognition.
Indeed, far alteration can be advised as the prototypal blazon of transfer, and it is carefully accompanying to the absorption of analogical acumen (see additionally Barnett & Ceci, 2002, for a anatomy of far transfer). Aural the analytic abstruse the acumen amid specific and accepted methods is fabricated mostly with advertence to Newell and Simon's (1972) able vs. anemic botheration analytic methods (Chi, Glaser & Farr, 1988; Ericsson & Smith, 1991; Singley & Anderson, 1989; Sternberg & Frensch, 1991). Accession affair that is frequently addressed in alteration taxonomies is the catechism of acquainted effort.
High-road vs. low-road alteration (Mayer & Wittrock, 1996; Salomon & Perkins, 1989) expresses a acumen amid such instances of alteration breadth alive retrieval, mapping, and inference processes booty place, as against to those instances that action rather spontaneously or automatically. Hence, low-road alteration apropos frequently alive brainy representations and automated, proceduralized knowledge, and occurs finer in abreast alteration settings. In contrast, high-road alteration is added conception-driven, and requires cerebral and meta-cognitive effort. Acceptable fields of alteration research
There are a about absolute cardinal of analysis fields that allotment some activated absorption into the absorption of transfer, as it pertains to acquirements in general. Three fields that contributed in best abundant means to the beforehand of alteration research, both from a apperception and empiric point of view, are the fields of apprenticeship science, linguistics, and human-computer alternation (HCI). In fact, best alteration analysis has been conducted in advertence to one of these activated settings, rather than in basal cerebral cerebral class conditions. Apprenticeship science: teaching for transfer
Due to their bulk affair with learning, educational science and convenance are the archetypal fields of absorption apropos alteration research, and apparently the prime ambition for the appliance of theories. Alteration of acquirements represents abundant of the actual abject of the educational purpose itself. What is abstruse axial one classroom about a assertive accountable should aid in the accomplishment of accompanying goals in alternative classroom settings, and above that it should be applicative to the student's adorning tasks alfresco the school; the charge for alteration becomes added accentuated.
This is because the apple educators advise in today is altered from the apple they themselves able as students, and differs appropriately from the one their acceptance will accept to cope with in the future. By attributes of their activated interest, educationalists' capital affair has been beneath with the catechism of how alteration takes place, and abundant added with beneath what conditions, or, that it happens at all. The basal confidence that student's acquirements and accomplishment levels depend primarily on acquirements and accomplishment prerequisites, has constituted a axial allotment in educational acquirements theories for absolutely some time (Gage & Berliner, 1983; Glaser, 984). The above focus in educational alteration studies has, therefore, been on what affectionate of antecedent acquirements enables consecutive transfer: teaching for transfer. Analysis on acquirements and alteration has articular key characteristics with implications for educational practice. From Formal Discipline to meta-cognition Educational alteration paradigms accept been alteration absolutely radically over the aftermost one hundred years.
According to the authoritarian behavior of the Formal Discipline (Binet, 1899) alteration was initially beheld as a affectionate of all-around beforehand of capabilities able by training basal brainy commonsense (e. g. , logic, attention, memory) in the exercise of acceptable subjects, such as Latin or geometry. With the about-face of the 20th century, learning, and accordingly alteration of learning, was added captured in behavioral and empiricist terms, as in the Connectionist and Associationist theories of Thorndike (e. g. , 1932), Guthrie (e. g. , 1935), Hull (e. g. , 1943), and Skinner (e. g. , 1938).
Thorndike (1923, 1924a and b) attacked the Formal Discipline empirically and apparently and alien the access of "identical elements", which is apparently still today the best affecting apperception about alteration (Thorndike, 1906; Thorndike & Woodworth, 1901a, b and c). Thorndike's acceptance that alteration of acquirements occurs back acquirements antecedent and acquirements ambition allotment accepted stimulus-response elements prompted calls for a hierarchical curricular anatomy in education. "Lower" and specific abilities should be abstruse afore added circuitous skills, which were accepted to abide abundantly of agreement of basal skills.
This small-to-large learning, additionally referred to as part-to-whole or vertical transfer, has been accepted with theories of acquirements hierarchies (Gagne, 1968). It has after been challenged from conceptualistic point of views, which altercate that acquirements is not aloof an accession of pieces of ability (i. e. , blueprint memorization), but rather a activity and artefact of alive architectonics of cerebral ability structures (Bruner, 1986; Bruner, Goodnow & Austin, 1956). Knowledge, from a constructivist perspective, was no added believed to be a simple alteration by generalization to all kinds of situations and tasks that accommodate agnate apparatus (i. . , stimulus-response patterns; see additionally Logan, 1988; Meyers & Fisk, 1987; Osgood, 1949; Pavlov, 1927). The analytical affair was the identification of similarities in accepted attempt and concepts abaft the facades of two antithetical problems; i. e. , alteration by insight. This absorption became accepted in the Gestaltists' appearance on alteration (e. g. , Katona, 1940), and, in aggregate with growing absorption in learners as cocky activated problem-solvers (Bruner, 1986), encouraged the chase for abstruse analytic methods and brainy schemata, which serve as analogy-enhancing transfer-bridges amid altered assignment situations.
Emerging from these developments, a new affair started to boss educationalists' analysis in transfer: meta-cognition (Brown, 1978; Brown & Campione, 1981; Campione & Brown, 1987; Flavell, 1976). In adverse to classical ability forms like allegorical and procedural knowledge, altered types of meta-knowledge and meta-cognitive abilities such as cardinal knowledge, heuristics, self-monitoring skills, and self-regulation bound became the alley to acquirements and transfer.
Characterized as affected administration and alignment of acquired ability (Brown, 1987) it is axiomatic that meta-cognitive acquaintance of assignment features, botheration structures, and band-aid methods makes relations amid altered situations cognitively salient: abandoned an abandoned who learns from learning, learns for approaching learning. Soini (1999) developed on the aforementioned bulk account an assay of the preconditions for alive transfer. Her accent is on the alive and self-reflected administration of ability to access its accessibility.
To some researchers, meta-cognition and alteration accept become so circuitous that the altercation was generated that abandoned the altitude of absolute alteration furnishings absolutely supports inferences that meta-cognitive acquirements has taken abode (e. g. MacLeod, Butler & Syer, 1996). The generality predicament: acknowledgment to the specificity appearance Ever back the addition of the meta-knowledge affair in apprenticeship science, alteration discussions accept been aquiver amid the position taken by those apery the meta-cognitive appearance and those who accent that all-encompassing ability forms abandoned do not acquiesce an able alteration of learning.
When ability stays "on the tip of the tongue", aloof alive that one knows a band-aid to a problem, afterwards actuality able to alteration specific allegorical ability (i. e. , know-what) or automatic procedural ability (i. e. , know-how), does not suffice. Specific teaching of the cerebral and behavioral requisites for alteration apparent in assumption a acknowledgment to the identical aspect view, and can be abbreviated with Dettermann's (1993) cessation that alteration does not about go above the belted boundaries of what has been accurately accomplished and learned.
The basal alteration paradigms in educational attitude accumulate replicating themselves, and axiological beforehand of alteration itself is apparent to be accessible through sensibilization of acceptance by creating a accepted ability and "a spirit of transfer" axial the classroom on the one hand, and by acceptance accurate acquirements from alteration models on the alternative (Haskell, 2001). Acquirements and transfer: implications for educational convenance A avant-garde appearance of alteration in the ambience of educational convenance shows little charge to assay amid the accepted and specific paradigms, acquainted the role of both identical elements and metacognition.
In this view, the assignment of Bransford, Brown and Cocking (1999) articular four key characteristics of acquirements as activated to transfer. They are: 1. The alarm of antecedent learning; 2. The accent of abstruse and contextual knowledge; 3. The apperception of acquirements as an alive and activating process; and 4. The angle that all acquirements is transfer. First, the alarm of antecedent acquirements for alteration specifies that bald acknowledgment or anamnesis is not learning; there charge be understanding.
Learning as compassionate takes time, such that ability with deep, organized ability improves transfer. Teaching that emphasizes how to use ability or that improves action should enhance transfer. Second, while ability anchored in ambience is important for antecedent learning, it is additionally adamant afterwards some akin of absorption that goes above the context. Practices to beforehand alteration accommodate accepting acceptance specify access above assorted contexts or accepting them beforehand accepted solutions and strategies that would administer above a single-context case.
Third, acquirements should be advised an alive and activating process, not a changeless product. Instead of one-shot tests that chase acquirements tasks, acceptance can beforehand alteration by agreeable in assessments that extend above accepted abilities. Improving alteration in this way requires adviser prompts to abetment acceptance – such as activating assessments – or apprentice development of metacognitive abilities afterwards prompting. Finally, the fourth appropriate defines all acquirements as transfer.
New acquirements builds on antecedent learning, which implies that agents can facilitate alteration by activating what acceptance apperceive and by authoritative their cerebration visible. This includes acclamation apprentice misconceptions and acquainted cultural behaviors that acceptance accompany to acquirements situations. A student-learning centered appearance of alteration embodies these four characteristics. With this conception, agents can advice acceptance alteration acquirements not aloof amid contexts in academics, but additionally to accepted home, work, or association environments. Inter-language transfer
Another acceptable acreage of activated analysis is inter-language transfer. Here, the axial questions were: how does acquirements one accent (L1) facilitate or baffle (Weinreich, 1953) with the accretion of and accomplishment in a additional accent (L2), and how does the training and use of L2, in turn, affect L1? Several variations of this apperception of inter-language alteration can be begin in the literature, additionally referred to as mother argot access or cantankerous accent arrest (Corder, 1983, 1994; Faerch & Kasper, 1987; Jiang & Kuehn, 2001; Odlin, 1989; O’Malley nd Chamot, 1990). What makes inter-language alteration a circuitous and admired analysis bulk is the actuality that accent ability abilities continuously develop. This is so for L1, as able-bodied as for L2, back abandoned bilingualism is considered, while alternately at atomic one of them is continuously in use. This has led to the development of actual altered models of how languages are mentally represented and managed, with L1 and L2 apparent as two absolute or free brainy systems (e. g. Genesee, 1989; Grosjean, 1989), as actuality represented in a audible unified arrangement (e. g.
Redlinger & Park, 1980; Swain, 1977), and as acclaim in a accepted underlying, multi-lingual conceptual abject (CUCB; see Kecskes & Papp, 2000). Human-Computer Interaction: designing for alteration A third analysis breadth that has produced a array of alteration models and empiric after-effects can be amid aural the acreage of Human-Computer Alternation (HCI). With the alpha of the user age in the 1980s, HCI and all kinds of basal environments have, in abounding ways, become article like cerebral micro-worlds for cerebral research. This is artlessly additionally reflected in the absorption of transfer.
Developments in favor of cerebral approaches to alteration analysis were abnormally accelerated by accelerated changes in avant-garde lifestyles, consistent in a basal beforehand of cerebral demands in alternation with technology. Thus, the alarm was on acutely domain-focused cerebral models to absorption the way users apprentice and accomplish back interacting with advice abstruse systems (Card, Moran & Newell, 1980a and b, 1983; Olson & Olson, 1990; Payne & Green, 1986; Polson, 1987, 1988). Alteration based on the user complication access Thorough investigations of cerebral abilities circuitous in HCI tasks accept their origins with the analysis on altercation alteration (e. . , Kieras & Polson, 1982, 1985; Singley & Anderson, 1985). The baby of this blazon of analysis were computational cerebral models and architectures of assorted degrees of sophistication, acceptable for all kinds of man-machine alternation studies, as able-bodied as studies alfresco of the HCI domain. The aboriginal examples for these accept become Kieras and Polson's (1985) user complication access (later rephrased as cerebral complication theory) and the GOMS ancestors (i. e. , Goals, Operators, Methods, Selection) rules based on the Model Animal Processor framework (Card et al. , 1980a and b, 1983; John & Kieras, 1996a and b).
All of these models accept their roots in the basal attempt of assembly systems and can be comprehended with the advice of ends-means-selections and If-Then-rules, accumulated with the all-important allegorical and procedural ability (Anderson, 1995; Newell & Simon, 1972). The acute angle for alteration became that of technology design. By applying cerebral models, scientists and practitioners aimed at aspersing the bulk and complication of new ability all-important to accept and accomplish tasks on a device, afterwards trading off too abundant account amount (Polson & Lewis, 1990).
A key albatross was accustomed to accomplishment and ability transfer. Due to the actuality that the cerebral complication access is a cerebral access of alteration activated to HCI (Bovair, Kieras, & Polson, 1990; Polson & Kieras, 1985), the axial catechism was how these models, affiliated beneath the GOMS umbrella, can be acclimated to explain and adumbrate alteration of learning. The basal transfer-relevant assumptions of the arising models were that assembly rules are cerebral units, they are all appropriately difficult to learn, and that abstruse rules can be transferred to a new assignment afterwards any cost.
Because acquirements time for any assignment is apparent as a action of the cardinal of new rules that the user charge learn, absolute acquirements time is anon bargain by admittance of productions the user is already accustomed with. The basal bulletin of the cerebral complication access is to anticipate and abet alteration from one arrangement to accession by action of aggregate assembly rules, which is a new estimation of Thorndike's (1923, 1924a and b) identical aspect apriorism and eventually echoed in Singley and Anderson's (1989) access of alteration (Bovair et al. 1990; Kieras & Bovair, 1986; Polson & Kieras, 1985; Polson, Muncher & Engelbeck, 1986). A activated association of the procedural communality assumption has been formulated by Lewis and Rieman (1993), who beforehand article like "transfer of design" on the ancillary of the industry: "You should acquisition absolute interfaces that assignment for users and again body account from those interfaces into your systems as abundant as about and accurately possible. " Emergence of holistic angle of use
Discouraged by the bedfast appearance of the GOMS-related alteration models, abounding analysis groups began to acceptation and beforehand new concepts, such as schemata attempt and accepted methods; a accepted development encouraged by the arising cerebral access to alteration that was additionally witnessed by alternative activated fields. Bhavnani and John (2000) analyzed altered computer applications and strived to assay such user strategies (i. e. , accepted methods to accomplish a assertive task), which generalize above three audible computer domains (word processor, spreadsheet, and CAD).
Their absolute altercation is that "strategy-conducive systems could facilitate the alteration of knowledge" (p. 338). Alternative analysis groups' authors that adjourned the questions about how bodies apprentice in alternation with advice systems, evaluated the account of metaphors and how these should be taken into application back designing for basic environments (e. g. Baecker, Grudin, Buxton, & Greenberg, 1995; Carroll & Mack, 1985, Condon, 1999).
As advisers became added absorbed in the affection of a user's ability representation (e. g. , Gott, Hall, Pokorny, Dibble, & Glaser, 1993), brainy models and adaptive expertise, as ability and abilities which generalizes above altered contexts of circuitous analytic tasks, became of ascendant affair (Gentner & Stevens, 1983; Gott, 1989; Kieras & Bovair, 1984). In adverse to the ability of strategies (Bhavnani & John, 2000), the accentuation confused appear cardinal ability (Gott et al. 1993). Gott et al. approved that apparent similarities amid altered abstruse domains abandoned did not about facilitate alteration of acquirements because they bound the user's adaptability in the adjustment process. In accordance with the account of schema-based and meta-cognitive transfer, the authors added formulated that "robust accomplishment is one in which procedural accomplish are not aloof naked, rule-based actions, but instead are accurate by explanations that accomplish like theories to accredit adaptiveness" (p. 60). Gott et al. (1993) assuredly acclaimed that brainy models ability be able instruments to assay similarities amid tasks as represented aural a formulated cerebral architecture. However, they do not explain what accurate similarities and differences are abundantly arresting from the individual's brainy point of appearance to affect alteration of learning, nor can they adumbrate motivational or affecting altitude of alteration that are capital requisites for every acquirements process.
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