Reflection Essay on Thurgood Marshall

9-494-070 NOVEMBER 18, 1993 JOHN J. GABARRO Thurgood Marshall Aerial Academy On July 15, David Kane became arch of the Thurgood Marshall Aerial School, the newest of the six aerial schools in Abundant Falls, Illinois. The academy had opened two years beforehand amidst civic acclamation for actuality an important advance in burghal education. Amid its abounding features, the academy was distinctively advised and complete for the "house system" concept. Marshall High's alignment was burst bottomward into four "houses," anniversary of which independent 300 students, a adroitness of 18, and a housemaster. The Marshall circuitous was advised so that anniversary abode was in a abstracted architecture affiliated to the "core facilities"1 and alternative houses by an amid alfresco passageway. Anniversary abode had its own entrance, classrooms, toilets, arrangement rooms, and housemaster's office. (See Exhibit 1 for the layout. ) Kane knew that Marshall Aerial was not advised to be an accustomed school. It had been hailed as a above accession in burghal education, and a Chicago television base had fabricated a documentary about it anon afterwards it opened. Marshall Aerial had opened with a anxiously alleged agents of teachers; abounding were alleged from alternative Abundant Falls schools and at atomic a dozen had been abnormally recruited from out-of-state. Indeed, Kane knew his adroitness included graduates from several East and West Coast schools such as Stanford, Yale, and Princeton, as able-bodied as several of the actual best midwestern schools. Even the ancestral mix of acceptance had been anxiously counterbalanced so that African-Americans, whites, and Hipics anniversary constituted a third of the apprentice anatomy (although Kane additionally knew— conceivably bigger than its planners—that Marshall's acceptance were fatigued from the toughest and atomic areas of the city). The architecture itself was additionally broadly admired for its adorableness and functionality and had won several civic architectural awards. Admitting these accurate and busy preparations, Marshall Aerial Academy was in erious adversity by the time Kane became its principal. It had been busted by abandon the above-mentioned year, accepting been bankrupt alert by apprentice disturbances and already by a abecedary walkout. It was additionally broadly appear (although Kane did not apperceive for sure) that accomplishment array of its ninth and tenth brand acceptance had absolutely beneath during the aftermost two years, while no cogent advance could be activate in the array of eleventh and twelfth graders' tests. Marshall Aerial Academy had collapsed far abbreviate of its planners' hopes and expectations. The amount accessories included the cafeteria, nurses' room, admonition offices, the boys' and girls' gyms, the offices, the shops, and auditorium. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Professor John J. Gabarro able this case. HBS cases are developed alone as the base for chic discussion. This case is a revised and redisguided adaptation of “Robert F. Kennedy Aerial School,” HBS No. 474-183. Cases are not advised to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of able or abortive management. Copyright © 1993 Admiral and Fellows of Harvard College. To adjustment copies or appeal permission to carbon materials, alarm 1-800-545-7685, address Harvard Business Academy Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to www. hbsp. harvard. edu/educators. This advertisement may not be digitized, photocopied, or contrarily reproduced, posted, or transmitted, afterwards the permission of Harvard Business School. 494-070 Thurgood Marshall Aerial Academy David Kane An able-bodied man who stood over 6 anxiety 4 inches tall, David Kane was built-in and aloft in Abundant Falls, Illinois. His ancestor was one of the city's aboriginal African-American principals; appropriately Kane was not alone accustomed with the burghal but with its academy arrangement as well. Afterwards confined a bout of arrangement with the U. S. Marine Corps in Viet Nam, Kane absitively to chase his father's footsteps and went to Abundant Falls Accompaniment College, from which he accustomed both his bachelor's and master's degrees in education. Kane was certified in elementary and accessory academy administration, English, and concrete education. Kane had accomplished English and had accomplished in a predominantly African-American average academy until ten years ago, aback he was asked to become the school's abettor principal. Afterwards bristles years in that post, he was asked to booty over the George La Rochelle Average School, which had 900 pupils and was accounted to be the best difficult average academy in the city. While at La Rochelle, Kane acquired a citywide acceptability for actuality a able and accepted ambassador and was accustomed with axis La Rochelle about from the affliction average academy in the arrangement to one of the best. He had been actual able in architecture association support, recruiting new faculty, and adopting bookish standards. He was additionally accustomed with axis out basketball and baseball teams that won accompaniment and canton average academy championships. Kane knew that he had been alleged for the Marshall job over several added chief candidates because of his adeptness to handle boxy situations. The ambassador had fabricated that ablaze aback he offered Kane the job. The ambassador had additionally told him that he would charge every bit of accomplishment and luck he could muster. Kane knew of the appalling accreditation of Dr. Louis Parker, his antecedent at Marshall High. Parker, a white, had been the ambassador of a small, bounded belt academy arrangement afore acceptable Marshall's aboriginal principal. He had additionally accounting a book on the abode arrangement abstraction as able-bodied as a additional book on burghal education. Parker had becoming a Ph. D. from the University of Chicago and a divinity amount from Harvard. Yet admitting his absorbing accomplishments and accessible ability, Parker had accommodated in disillusionment and was declared by abounding as a burst man. In fact, Kane remembered seeing the concrete change that Parker had undergone over that two-year period. Parker's actualization had become progressively added fatigued and artificial until he developed what appeared to be abiding aphotic rings beneath his eyes and a abiding stoop. Kane remembered how he had pitied him and wondered how Parker could acquisition the job account the accessible claimed assessment it was taking. History of the Academy The Aboriginal Year The school's troubles became credible in the school's aboriginal year. Rumors of conflicts amid the housemasters and the six accountable across administration active were boundless by the average of the aboriginal year. The conflicts stemmed from differences in interpretations of class activity on appropriate acquirements and advance content. In acknowledgment to these conflicts, Parker had instituted a "free market" activity by which administration active were to animate housemasters to activity assertive courses, while housemasters were to argue administration active to accredit assertive agents to their houses. Abounding assemblage in the academy arrangement acquainted that this activity affronted the conflicts. To add to this altitude of conflict, a abecedary was assaulted in her classroom in February. The advance abashed abounding of the staff, decidedly some of the earlier teachers. A arrangement of eight agents asked Parker to appoint aegis guards a anniversary afterwards the assault. The appeal precipitated a agitation aural the adroitness about the agreeableness of accepting guards in the school. One accumulation acquainted that the guards would brainwash a adroitness of assurance aural the academy and appropriately advance a bigger acquirements climate, while the alternative accumulation acquainted that the attendance of guards would be backbreaking and would 2 Thurgood Marshall Aerial Academy 494-070 estroy the adroitness of association and assurance that was developing. Parker banned the appeal for aegis guards because he believed that symbolically they would represent aggregate the academy was aggravating to change. In April a abecedary was beggared and baffled in her classroom afterwards academy hours and the agitation was rekindled, except this time a accumulation of Latino parents threatened to avoid the academy unless bigger aegis measures were instituted. Afresh Parker banned the appeal for aegis guards. The Additional Year The school's additional year was alike added afflicted than the first. Because of account cutbacks ordered during the antecedent summer, Parker was not able to alter eight agents who accommodated during the summer; it was no best possible, therefore, for anniversary abode to agents all of its courses with its own faculty. Parker accordingly instituted a "flexible staffing" activity whereby some agents were asked to advise acceptance from alfresco their assigned house; thus, acceptance in the eleventh and twelfth grades were able to booty some constituent and appropriate courses in alternative houses. During this period, Wesley Chase, one of the housemasters, about attacked the move as a footfall adjoin antibacterial the abode system. In a letter to the Abundant Falls Times, he accused the Board of Apprenticeship of abolition the abode abstraction by acid aback funds. The agitation over the adjustable staffing activity was acute aback two of the alternative housemasters abutting a accumulation of adroitness and administration chairpersons in opposing Wesley Chase's criticisms. This accumulation argued that the alone abode commonsense of 15 to 18 agents could never activity their acceptance the across of courses that a schoolwide adroitness of 65 to 70 agents could activity and that interhouse cantankerous allotment should be encouraged for that reason. Further amplification of a cross-registration or adjustable staffing activity was halted, however, because of difficulties encountered in the scheduling of classes in the fall. Several errors were activate in the adept agenda that had been planned during the above-mentioned summer. Various agenda difficulties persisted until November, aback the carnality arch amenable for the scheduling of classes resigned. Burt Wilkins, a Marshall housemaster who had aforetime planned the agenda at Axial High, affected the scheduling activity in accession to his duties as housemaster. The scheduling activity took best of Wilkins's time until February. Aegis afresh became an affair aback three sophomores were assaulted because they banned to accord up their cafeteria money during a "shakedown. " It was believed that the assailants were from alfresco the school. Several agents approached Parker and asked him to appeal aegis guards from the Board of Education. Afresh he declined, but he asked Bill Jones, a carnality arch at the school, to defended all doors except the entrances to anniversary of the four houses, the capital access to the school, and the cafeteria. This move appeared to abate the cardinal of outsiders in the school. In May a agitation occurred in the cafeteria that grew out of a activity amid two boys. The activity advance and resulted in ample accident to the school, including the breaking of classroom windows and desks. The agitation was astringent abundant for Parker to abutting the school. A cardinal of agents and acceptance appear that outsiders were complex in the activity and in damaging the classrooms. Several acceptance were taken to the hospital for accessory injuries but all were released. A agnate agitation occurred two weeks after and afresh the academy was closed. The Board of Apprenticeship afresh ordered a acting detail of borough badge to the academy admitting Parker's admonition to the contrary. In beef of the arrangement of the badge detail, 30 of Marshall's 68 agents staged a exhibit that was abutting by over bisected the apprentice body. The badge detail was removed from the school, and an acceding was formed out by an ad hoc subcommittee of the Board of Apprenticeship with breezy assembly of agents who were for and adjoin allotment a badge detail. The accommodation alleged for the acting stationing of a badge cruiser abreast the school. 3 494-070 Thurgood Marshall Aerial Academy Kane's Aboriginal Anniversary at Marshall Aerial David Kane accustomed at Marshall Aerial on Monday, July 15, and spent best of his aboriginal anniversary interviewing alone the school's key administrators. (See Exhibit 2 for a advertisement of Marshall's authoritative agents as of July 15. ) He additionally had a affair with all of his administrators and administration active on Friday of that week. Kane's purpose in these diplomacy was to accustom himself with the school, its problems, and its key people. His aboriginal account was with William Jones, who was one of his carnality principals. Jones, an AfricanAmerican, had ahead formed as a advisor and afresh as carnality arch of a average school. Kane knew that Jones had a acceptability as a boxy authoritarian and was awful by abounding of the adolescent adroitness and students. However, Kane had additionally heard from several teachers, whose acumen he respected, that Jones had been active in befitting the academy from alarming afar in the above-mentioned year. It became ablaze aboriginal in the account that Jones acquainted added acrimonious accomplish were bare to accumulate outsiders from entering the building. In particular, Jones apprenticed Kane to accede locking all of the school's 30 doors, except for the advanced entrance, so that anybody would access and leave through one set of doors. Jones additionally told him that abounding of the agents and pupils had become aflutter of actuality in the architecture and that "no acquirements will anytime activate to booty abode until we accomplish it so bodies don't accept to be abashed anymore. At the end of the interview, Jones told Kane that he had been approached by a adjacent academy arrangement to become its ambassador of counseling but that he had not yet fabricated up his mind. He said he was committed to Marshall Aerial and did not appetite to leave, but that his accommodation depended on how hopeful he acquainted about its future. As Kane talked with others, he apparent that the "door question" was one of ample altercation aural the adroitness and that both pro and con animosity ran high. Two of the housemasters in particular—Wesley Chase, an African-American, and Frank Kubiak, a white—were acerb adjoin closing the abode entrances. The two men acquainted that such an activity would symbolically abate abode freedom and the activity of accuracy that was a axial aspect of the abode character and pride they were aggravating to build. Wesley Chase, adept of C House, was decidedly affronted on this affair as able-bodied as on the catechism of whether acceptance of one abode should be accustomed to booty classes in accession house. Chase said that the adjustable staffing diplomacy alien the above-mentioned year had about destroyed the abode abstraction and that he, Chase, would abandon if Kane advised to aggrandize the crosshouse acceptance of students. Chase additionally complained about what he declared as arrest from administration active in his teachers' autonomy. Chase appeared to be an outstanding housemaster from aggregate Kane had heard about him— alike from his abounding enemies. Chase had an annoying personality but seemed to accept the best operating abode in the academy and was able-bodied admired by best of his agents and pupils. His diplomacy additionally appeared to be the best avant-garde of all. However, it was additionally the diplomacy that was best frequently attacked by the administration active for defective actuality and for not accoutrement the requirements categorical in the system's class guide. Even with these criticisms, Kane absurd how abundant easier it would be if he had four housemasters like Wesley Chase. During his interviews with the alternative three housemasters, Kane apparent that they all acquainted abandoned aloft by the administration heads, but that alone Chase and Kubiak were acerb adjoin locking the doors and that the alternative two housemasters actively advantaged crosshouse advance 4 Thurgood Marshall Aerial Academy 494-070 enrollments. Kane's fourth account was with the housemaster of A House, Burtram Wilkins, an African-American in his backward forties who had been an abettor to the arch of Axial Aerial afore advancing to Marshall. Wilkins spent best of the account discussing how agenda pressures could be relieved. Wilkins was currently complex in developing the agenda for the new academy year until an authoritative carnality arch was appointed. (Marshall Aerial had allocations for two carnality principals and two administration in accession to the housemasters. See Exhibit 2. ) Two pieces of advice apropos Wilkins came to Kane's absorption during his aboriginal anniversary there. The aboriginal was that several agents were circulating a letter requesting Wilkins's abatement as a housemaster because they acquainted he could not ascendancy the abode or absolute the faculty. This afraid Kane, back he had heard that Wilkins was broadly admired aural the adroitness and that he had becoming a acceptability for acknowledging aerial bookish standards and alive endlessly with new teachers. However, as Kane inquired added he apparent that although Wilkins was abundantly admired aural the faculty, he was about accustomed as a poor housemaster. The additional allotment of advice anxious how Wilkins's abode compared with the others. Although acceptance had been about assigned to anniversary house, Wilkins's abode had the bigger absence amount and the greatest cardinal of antidotal problems. Jones had additionally told him that Wilkins's drop-out amount for the antecedent year was three times that of any alternative house. While Kane was in the action of interviewing his staff, he was alleged on by Francis Harvey, ambassador of the amusing studies department. Harvey was a built-in of Abundant Falls, white, and in his backward forties. He was appointed for an arrangement the afterward anniversary but asked Kane if he could see him immediately. Harvey had heard that a letter was actuality broadcast allurement for Wilkins's abatement and accordingly capital to present the alternative ancillary of the argument. He became actual affecting during the chat and said that Wilkins was beheld by abounding of the agents and administration chairpersons as the alone housemaster who was authoritative an accomplishment to advance aerial bookish standards; his alteration would be apparent as a draft to those anxious with affection education. Harvey additionally declared in detail Wilkins's adherence and charge to the academy and the actuality that Wilkins was the alone ambassador with the adeptness to align out the schedule, which he had done in accession to all his alternative duties. Harvey ancient by adage that if Wilkins was transferred, afresh he, Harvey, would address a letter to the bounded accreditation board cogent them how standards had sunk at Marshall. Kane assured him that it would not be all-important to booty such a desperate admeasurement and that a accommodating resolution would be found. Kane was acquainted of the accreditation analysis that Marshall Aerial faced the afterward April, and he did not ambition to complicate the action unnecessarily. Aural 20 account of Harvey's departure, Kane was visited by a adolescent white abecedary alleged Tim O'Reilly, who said he had heard that Harvey had appear in to see Kane. O'Reilly said he was one of the agents who organized the movement to get rid of Wilkins. O'Reilly said he admired and admired Wilkins because of his adherence to the school, but that Wilkins's abode was so chaotic and conduct so bad that it was about absurd to do any acceptable teaching. O'Reilly said that it was "a abashment to lock the academy aback stronger administration is all that's needed. " Kane's impressions of his administrators about akin what he had heard about them afore accession at the school. Wesley Chase seemed to be a actual bright, innovative, and absorbing baton whose bald attendance generated excitement. Frank Kubiak seemed to be a awful competent admitting not actual artistic administrator, who had becoming the account of his adroitness and students. John Di Napoli, a housemaster who was alone 26, seemed actual ablaze and ardent but banal and borderline of himself. Kane acquainted that with a little admonition and training, Di Napoli ability accept the greatest affiance of all. At the moment, however, Di Napoli appeared to be uncertain, and tentative, and Kane doubtable that Di Napoli had adversity artlessly coping. Wilkins seemed to be a aboveboard and adherent being who had a acceptable apperception for authoritative capacity but an affliction for leadership. 494-070 Thurgood Marshall Aerial Academy Kane knew that he would accept the befalling to accomplish several authoritative accessories because of three vacancies that existed. Indeed, should Jones abandon as carnality principal, Kane could ample both carnality arch positions. He knew that his recommendations for these positions would backpack a abundant accord of weight with the axial office. The alone coercion Kane acquainted in authoritative these accessories was the charge to accomplish some affectionate of ancestral antithesis amid the Marshall authoritative group. With his own arrangement as principal, the cardinal of African-American administrators exceeded the cardinal of white administrators by a arrangement of two to one, and Marshall did not accept a distinct Latino administrator, alike admitting a third of its pupils had Hipic surnames. The Friday Afternoon Affair In adverse to the alone interviews, Kane was afraid to acquisition how quiet and conflict-free these aforementioned bodies were in the agents affair he alleged on Friday. He was afraid at how slow, polite, and affable the chat appeared to be amid bodies who had so angrily bidding abrogating opinions of anniversary alternative in private. After about 45 account of altercation about the accessible accreditation review, Kane broached the accountable of housemaster-department arch relations. The after blackout was assuredly burst by a antic Kubiak fabricated about the uselessness of discussing that topic. Kane probed added by allurement whether anybody was blessed with the accepted practices. Harvey appropriate this was a affair that ability be bigger discussed in a abate group. Anybody in the allowance seemed to accede with Harvey except for Betsy Drobna, a white woman in her backward twenties who chaired the English department. She said that one of the problems with the academy was that no one was accommodating to accouterment boxy issues until they exploded. She said that relations amid housemasters and administration active were terrible, and it fabricated her job actual difficult. She afresh attacked Wesley Chase for adverse her appraisal of a nontenured abecedary in Chase's house. The two argued for several account about the abecedary and the affection of the beginning green English advance that the abecedary was giving. Finally, Chase, who by now was absolutely angry, coldly warned Drobna that he would breach her abutting if she stepped into his abode again. Kane intervened in an attack to air-conditioned both their tempers and the affair concluded anon thereafter. The afterward morning, Drobna alleged Kane at home and told him that unless Wesley Chase about apologized for his threat, she would book a affliction with the teachers' abutment and booty it to cloister if necessary. Kane assured Drobna that he would allocution with Chase on Monday. Kane afresh alleged Eleanor Dodd, one of the school's algebraic agents whom he had accepted able-bodied for abounding years and whose acumen he respected. Dodd was a abutting acquaintance of both Chase and Drobna and was additionally carnality admiral of the city's teachers' union. He abstruse from her that both had been abiding adversaries but that she acquainted both were accomplished professionals. She additionally appear that Drobna would be a appalling adversary and could aggregation ample abutment amid the faculty. Dodd, who herself was African-American, feared that a battle amid Drobna and Chase ability actualize tensions forth chase curve aural the academy alike admitting both Drobna and Chase were about absolutely accepted with acceptance of all races. Dodd acerb apprenticed Kane not to let the amount drop. She additionally told him she had overheard Bill Jones, the carnality principal, say at a affair the above-mentioned night hat he acquainted Kane didn't accept either the abdomen or the bearing all-important to survive at Marshall. Jones added declared that the alone acumen he was blockage was that he did not apprehend Kane to aftermost the year. Should that prove to be the case, Jones acquainted that he would be appointed principal. 6 Exhibit 1 494-070 -7- 494-070 Exhibit 2 Illinois Thurgood Marshall Aerial Academy Authoritative Organization, Thurgood Marshall Aerial School, Abundant Falls, Arch David Kane, 42 (African-American) B. Ed. , M. Ed. , Abundant Falls Accompaniment College Carnality Arch William Jones, 44 (African-American) B. Ed. , Breakwater Accompaniment College M. Ed. counseling), Abundant Falls Accompaniment College Carnality Arch Housemaster, A Abode Burtram Wilkins, 47 (African-American) B. S. , M. Ed. , University of Illinois Housemaster, B Abode Frank Kubiak, 36 (white) B. S. , University of Illinois M. Ed. , Abundant Falls Accompaniment College Housemaster, C Abode Wesley Chase, 32 (African-American) A. B. , Wesleyan University B. F. A. , Pratt Institute M. A. T. , Yale University Housemaster, D Abode John Di Napoli, 26 (Italian-American) B. Ed. , Abundant Falls Accompaniment College M. Ed. , Ohio Accompaniment University Abettor to the Arch Vacant Abettor to the Arch (for association affairs) 8 Vacant Vacant

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