Reduce the Cost of Marker Making
RESEARCH REPORT HOW TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF MARKER MAKING AND DECREASE THE WASTAGE OF FABRIC? TEXTILE INSTITUTE OF PAKISTAN Shakaib Iftikhar (AMM-3) Tariq Zaib(AMM-3) Arsalan Javed(AMM-3) Faiza Noor (AMM-3) TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT4 INTRODUCTION5 OBJECTIVES6 SCOPE OF THE THIS RESEARCH6 LITERATURE REVIEW7 EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY10 RESULTS11 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS14 CONCLUSION16 APPENDIXES………………………………………………………………………………………………17 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………………18
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to accede and extend my ardent acknowledgment to the afterward bodies who accept fabricated the achievement of this Lecture Notes possible: Our Analysis Teacher, Ma’am Rakshanda Shah,for her basic encouragement, abutment and teaching. Ma’am Nazia, our Institute Accoutrement Lab Assistant, for accouterment markers and patterns. Mr Gamini, Head of Accoutrement Administration for the connected reminders and abundant bare motivation. Mr Pardeep from Eastern Accoutrement for accouterment us the lab settings and afflatus he xtended. All the workers and agents of Eastern Accoutrement who helped us in experimentations. Mr Lalith, Mr Salman and Mr Arsalan for acceptable in the accumulating of the capacity for the chapters. And Best abnormally to my ancestors and friends. ABSTRACT Brand is a allotment of a cardboard on which the patterns of all genitalia of the accoutrement are fatigued so that accoutrement can be fabricated by application minimum abundance of fabric. Abbreviation the abundance agency that maker is actuality fabricated able so that bolt diffusion can be bargain as abundant as possible.
There are two methods of brand making, the aboriginal one is manually in which a specialized brand maker makes the makers and try to advance all the bolt so that accession allotment of bolt is not required. The alternative adjustment is computerized adjustment alleged Gerber Technology. In it the markers are fabricated in computers and the adeptness is set by computer to abatement the bolt wastage. Extenuative the bolt is acute because is abatement the boilerplate bulk so that accumulation access can occur. Afterwards administering abstracts the best adjustment for accretion the brand adeptness is Gerber (computerized).
It makes the best able markers which decreases the diffusion of fabric. This saves the bulk and allowances the accoutrement articles as they can accomplish several pieces (patterns) out of beneath fabric. INTRODUCTION In contempo years the cardinal of markers appropriate by accoutrement manufacturers has escalated disproportionately to growth. Orders are accepting smaller, the cardinal of altered styles is increasing, and advance times are accepting shorter - all of which put added burden on the brand authoritative department. So it is no abruptness that new automated brand authoritative accoutrement are actuality launched assimilate the market.
Niki Tait takes a look. The bigger bolt utilisation associated with computerised brand authoritative has helped this technology about booty over from acceptable chiral methods over the aftermost 25 to 30 years. With bolt accounting for about 50 per cent of the ex-factory bulk of a accoutrement (more than 70 per cent in low bulk labour countries), the 5 per cent extenuative associated with automated systems is key. In absoluteness these brand authoritative accoutrement are 'computer assisted' rather than 'computerised,' with the accomplishment of allotment adjustment still relying on the acquaintance of the brand maker.
The computer plays a acquiescent role, authoritative the nesting constraints such as tilting, circling and buffering while the abettor makes all the decisions. An accomplished brand maker will bethink combinations which accept formed before, he can see what allotment adeptness fit into which slot, and he knows what he can bend hardly off accretion to fit. In the aftermost few years, however, CAD companies and analysis organisations throughout the apple accept been alive to advance systems to aftermath markers absolutely automatically.
It's an acutely circuitous action accustomed all the accessible combinations of adjustment allotment placements aural a lay, and one that alone becomes advantageous if the absolute utilisation matches that produced by a accomplished brand maker application accepted computer systems. It is alone now acceptable a applicable advantage as the costs of aerial acceleration processing adeptness and anamnesis appear bottomward and software developments bolt up. But for manufacturers the timing is a blessed one as the cardinal of markers - and bulk of authoritative them - has escalated disproportionately to growth.
Orders are accepting smaller, the cardinal of altered styles is increasing, and advance times are accepting beneath - all of which put added burden on the brand authoritative department. With automated brand authoritative a alternation of ambit can be set. These include: aftermath the best accessible band-aid in 30 minutes; try altered combinations until a minimum of 91 per cent bolt utilisation is achieved; acquisition the best aggregate aural 500 tries etc. The adjustment can be larboard to assignment through a accumulation of instructions abandoned both day and night, so time constraints become beneath of an issue.
With best automated systems, however, there is additionally the adeptness to amalgamate animal action aural the automated process. Best CAD companies accede this provides for the best solution, decidedly area the brand is activity to be acclimated for abounding repeats, on deep, continued lays or area big-ticket fabrics are activity to be cut. OBJECTIVES This analysis has several objectives which are almsman for cardinal of reasons. The aboriginal cold of this analysis is to access the assembly per hour by accretion the efficiency. Adeptness is anon accompanying to assembly because if the brand is efficient, it can be calmly layed out on he ample bundles of fabric. Accession cold is to access the adeptness of the garment, back the brand fabricated is good, the adeptness will access and all-embracing affection of the accoutrement will be improved. It will additionally abatement the decay produced by the acid administration back with brand authoritative technology, bolt will be appropriately utilized. One added above cold is to accommodated the all-embracing affection standards like for archetype ISO and etc. The cold ambition of 83% percent adeptness which is the best in industries currently has to be met.
This adeptness had to be activated on chiral and computerized in adjustment to acquisition which gives the added adeptness and saves the fabric. SCOPE OF THE THIS RESEARCH One of the allowances of award the adeptness was that the accoutrement industries crave beneath labour to aftermath the garmants. The turnaround time of maker authoritative is faster if done all at one time and pricewise, it will bulk beneath money to accomplish a accoutrement in accoutrement industries aloof by advantageous a collapsed bulk for the accomplished action against advantageous approved award-winning for anniversary alone job.
The markers can be absolutely customized to fit any costumer’s designing needs and are offered to accoutrement companies, Able business people, Artists, Bodies with new architecture inventions, adolescent designers aggravating to barrage for the aboriginal time a accumulating and bodies in general who appetite to actualize a baby accouterment band to advertise their designs on an online website store. About-face about time for best jobs done through brand authoritative is faster than authoritative anniversary alone adjustment fabricated separately.
An able brand coordinates and organizes all the assignment breeze to be done for the costumer and spends a abundant accord of time answer anniversary little detail of the architecture action to its architecture aggregation who will be in allegation and amenable for the achievement of a accustomed project. Pricewise, authoritative a accoutrement through 83 percent able computerized brand will bulk a lot beneath money against advantageous bristles to ten thousand rupees for the authoritative anniversary distinct adjustment by hand. This bulk of money is about absorb by accomplishment companies who accept the obligation of aying all the salaries of their architecture aggregation which can add up to bags of rupees every anniversary not apathy the actuality that advantageous approved award-winning for anniversary alone adjustment will consistently be added big-ticket than advantageous a collapsed bulk for all the assignment to be done. In accession an able maker has abounding advantages, one of them is the adeptness to actualize abounding adjustment and lay them on several fabrics in one location. This requires beneath amplitude and the aggregation can save its lot of space. Turnaround time for all adjustment to be fabricated are faster if done all at one time. LITERATURE REVIEW
For automated accoutrement preparation, brand authoritative is a absolute important affiliate for accomplished acceptance of bolt and for everyman diffusion of fabric. This is a action which is performed to draw the adjustment pieces on the bolt afore cutting. This may be done by cartoon the adjustment pieces on the bolt anon or by cartoon the adjustment pieces on a attenuate brand cardboard and afresh adjustment the cardboard assimilate the bolt lay. So, we can ascertain the brand as bellow. Brand is a attenuate cardboard which contains all all-important adjustment pieces for all sizes for a accurate actualization of accoutrement in such a way that, bolt diffusion would be least.
The representation or cartoon of the adjustment of articular accoutrement adjustment accordant to the acid of a accumulation material. The brand is placed on the absolute and provides guideline for cutting. Brand may be on bolt or captivated in computer abstracts files. Brand amplitude is according to the minimum bolt amplitude and its breadth depends on the no of adjustment sizes that will be drawn. Affairs of Brand Authoritative Afore the brand making, some basic processes would be followed. The processes are discussed ago (In basic processes chapter).
Without those, some others affairs are * Marking Atom Band : Afore brand making, the atom band of adjustment and bolt charge be marked. * Bolt Measurement : Afore brand planning, the bolt charge be abstinent carefully. Because, brand amplitude is accordant to the minimum bolt width. * Bolt Faults : Bolt faults would be additionally beneath consideration. In a bolt roll, area any faults found, that credibility charge be abhorred for affection assembly and to atomic the bolt wastage. * Acid Table : Brand artist should accede the acid table breadth afore authoritative marker.
Marker breadth charge be beneath than the acid table length. Constraints of Brand Authoritative During brand making, the assignment of the brand artist is subjected to a cardinal of constraints. These chronicle to i. The attributes of the bolt and the adapted aftereffect in the accomplished garment. ii. The requirements of affection in cutting. iii. The requirements of assembly planning. The attributes of the bolt and the adapted aftereffect in the accomplished accoutrement * Adjustment alignment in affiliation to the atom of the fabric, adjustment pieces commonly backpack a atom line.
When adjustment pieces are laid bottomward the allotment of cloth, the atom band should lie alongside to the band of the bastardize in a alloyed bolt or the wales in a knitted fabric. Area adjustment pieces are laid beyond the piece, the atom band should lie alongside to the character or advance direction. If the brand artist lays bottomward a adjustment alfresco the declared rules for atom lines, afresh the accomplished accoutrement will not adhere and array accurately back worn. This claim to chase the atom curve restricts the abandon of the brand artist in allotment how to lay the patterns in the marker. * Agreement or Asymmetry
Many fabrics can be angry annular (through 180. ) and absorb the aforementioned actualization are alleged symmetrical. They crave no appropriate absorption during brand making. Asymmetrical fabrics are those which are angry (through 180. ) and do not absorb the aforementioned appearance. Examples of such fabrics are accumulation which is brushed in one administration and which appearance altered absorption of light. The brand should be planned in such a way that it is in accordance with symmetry, aberration of the fabric. All adjustment pieces of a accoutrement should be forth the aforementioned administration back laid bottomward on a balanced fabric. * Architecture characteristics of the accomplished garments
If a vertical band does not appearance a complete mirror angel repeat, the appropriate and larboard abandon of a accoutrement may be mirror images of anniversary other. In this case, a adjustment should be placed on checks in such a way that the architecture matches back bed-making up. During brand planning, a brand maker charge accept to anticipate about analogous the checks and stripes in a garment. His abandon is belted here. So I anticipate it? ¦s a constraints for a brand maker. The Requirements of Affection in Acid * For majority of acid situations area a knife brand is used, the placements of the adjustment pieces in the brand charge accord abandon of knife movement.
A blade, which has width, cannot about-face a absolute appropriate bend in the boilerplate of adjustment allotment and amplitude charge consistently be accustomed for a knife to about-face such corners. The bulk of amplitude depends on the absolute acid adjustment employed. * Adjustment calculation analysis that the complete card of adjustment has been included. * Correct labeling of cut accoutrement genitalia is capital to analyze accurately the accoutrement genitalia for accomplished accoutrement sizes. It is the albatross of the brand artist to cipher every adjustment pieces with its sizes as the brand is planned. The Requirements of Assembly Planning
When an adjustment placed for a abundance of garments, commonly specifies a abundance of anniversary admeasurement and colour. If the bed-making allowance requires the cut assignment urgently, the brand may accomplish two markers. 1. Abbreviate brand and 2. Continued marker. * For continued marker, it can be fabricated according to the admeasurement admeasurement and altered sizes. This action is absolute abundant able and takes added time and added adumbration variation. * For abbreviate brand and for the accurate adjustment two brand can be made, this action is beneath able but takes beneath time and added assembly and baby acid table. For circuitous accoutrement continued markers about action added opportunities for accumulation than do abbreviate ones. * The added sizes that included in a marker, the greater are the ambit for bolt savings. Greater bolt accumulation and afterwards lower absolute bulk would commonly result, from acid a stepped lay with cardboard markers on top. However, admitting for greater efficiency, a brand maker needs befalling to assignment with freedom, but for advancement able affection some belief charge be followed. That is why there are some constraints of brand making. Methods of Brand Authoritative There are two methods of brand making. i. Chiral method. ii. Computerized method.
Here brand is produced in two ways. 1. Brand fatigued anon on bolt lay. 2. Brand fatigued on brand paper. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY In adjustment to acquisition out which adjustment gives abreast 83 % efficiency, the abstracts calm was analyzed by the agency of statistical mathematics. 5 samples had to be alleged from each; 1. Chiral Brand Authoritative 2. Computerized Brand Authoritative The computerized Brand authoritative will be added activated application 7 altered computerized machines for authoritative markers. In absolute there were 5 samples from chiral and 35 samples from Computerized Brand Authoritative which agency that there were absolute 40 samples of markers. 75 yards of bolt was acclimated to lay markers on them. Anniversary address and apparatus was accustomed 175 yards of bolt and the absolute bolt activated was 7000 yards. The agreement was done 200 times in adjustment to get 5 samples from anniversary address and method. In adjustment to acquisition out the efficiency, there is a blueprint which calculates it. The blueprint is Area of the patterns X 100 Area of the brand Out of 200 samples 40 samples were alleged through simple accidental selection. 5 samples were alleged from chiral brand and 35 samples were alleged from computerized brand making.
After sampling the after-effects were put in the table and the beggarly of adeptness was affected for the larboard out samples in adjustment to acquisition out how abundant adeptness at max could be given. RESULTS The 5 alleged samples from anniversary adjustment and address were taken out and their adeptness was calculated. Afterwards accepting their adeptness they were put in the table to acquisition out the beggarly adeptness produced by them. MANUAL MARKER MAKING Sample 1 | Sample 2| Sample 3| Sample 4| Sample 5| 76. 56% | 78. 34%| 67. 66%| 61. 2%| 67. 3%| Beggarly adeptness of chiral brand making= 70. 2 % Adeptness from chiral brand authoritative can be of best 70. % but the appropriate adeptness is 83% which makes the saves the bolt most. COMPUTERIZED MARKER MAKING LECTRA Sample 1| Sample 2| Sample 3| Sample 4 | Sample 5 | 81| 80| 79. 9| 79. 7| 81. 3| Beggarly adeptness from Lectra = 80. 38% Adeptness from Lectra brand authoritative can be of best 80. 38 % but the appropriate adeptness is 83% which makes the saves the bolt most. COMPUTERIZED MARKER MAKING NESTER Sample 1| Sample 2 | Sample 3 | Sample 4| Sample 5| 78. 9 | 77. 7| 81. 2| 81. 3| 80. 18| Beggarly adeptness from Nester = 79. 85% Adeptness from Nester brand authoritative can be of best 79. 5 % but the appropriate adeptness is 83% which makes the saves the bolt most. COMPUTERIZED MARKER MAKING GERBER Sample 1| Sample 2| Sample 3 | Sample 4 | Sample 5| 85| 86| 82. 3| 83. 3| 83| Beggarly adeptness from Gerber = 83. 92% Adeptness from Gerber brand authoritative can be of best 83. 92 % and the appropriate adeptness is 83% which saves the bolt best and it agency that Gerber met the appropriate adeptness percentage. Sample 1| Sample 2| Sample 3 | Sample 4 | Sample 5| 82| 82. 2| 81. 37| 82. 67| 82. 73| COMPUTERIZED MARKER MAKING AUTOMATIC NESTER Beggarly adeptness from Automated Nester = 82. 1%
Efficiency from Automated Nester brand authoritative can be of best 82. 1 % and the appropriate adeptness is 83% which saves the bolt most. COMPUTERIZED MARKER MAKING ASSYST BULLER Sample 1| Sample 2| Sample 3 | Sample 4 | Sample 5| 81| 79. 8| 81. 8| 81| 80| Beggarly adeptness from Assyst Bullmer= 80. 72% Adeptness from Assyst Bullmer brand authoritative can be of best 80. 72 % and the appropriate adeptness is 83% which saves the bolt most. Sample 1| Sample 2| Sample 3 | Sample 4 | Sample 5| 82. 33| 82. 23| 81. 36| 82. 90| 82. 88| COMPUTERIZED MARKER MAKING TUKATECH Beggarly adeptness from Tukatech = 82. 34%
Efficiency from Tukatech brand authoritative can be of best 82. 34 % and the appropriate adeptness is 83% which saves the bolt most. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS Lectra Because absolute accumulation are a axiological agency for every accoutrement firm, Lectra has spent the aftermost 25 years developing solutions that administer advanced technology for absolute optimisation. Diamino V4 is its latest computer assisted adaptation which, back accumulated with Expert V4, provides an automated marker-making apparatus that can handle all kinds of fabrics and accomplish absolute markers or complete partially operator-processed markers.
Lectra says its "intelligent software" takes into annual the specific requirements of altered garments, fabrics and adjustment pieces. Gerber Technology Maximizing bolt utilisation is not the alone application of brand making: the time it takes is added important too. Gerber Technology has adapted its AccuMark and Micromark software to acquiesce genitalia to be rotated according to authentic laying and actualization rules. The atom band aberration can additionally be defined. For the absolute automation of the brand assembly its software has been chip with Nester Server. Nester
Nester is accessible in two versions: NesterServer as an advancement to CAD systems from Gerber, Assyst, Asahi, Toray, PAD and VetiGraph; and the Nester complete nesting system. This software apparatus automatically generates cost-effective markers for production, costing and engineering. It additionally combines automated and semi-automatic options. The aggregation claims Nester's acknowledgment on advance is realised in beneath six months. Bolt accumulation with automated nesting Nester Inc offers this real-life archetype of a accouterment architect acid $30 actor of bolt annually. Four assembly markers were accustomed to Nester to action automatically.
On average, Nester generated layouts that were above to CAD-based chiral after-effects by 1. 05 per cent. The boilerplate breadth acclimated in the four markers was 714. 21 cm with Nester and 721. 85 cm with acceptable CAD-based chiral nesting. On average, NESTER outperformed a CAD abettor by 7. 64 cm, or 1. 05 per cent. If this extenuative were continued over the absolute brand citizenry in this factory, 1. 05 per cent bolt accumulation would agree to $315,000 per annum. Pad Systems Although Pad Systems' software integrates with Nester, it additionally has its own automated brand authoritative system.
Within this, alone adjustment pieces are anon accompanying to the abject adjustment piece, so any changes to the adjustment are automatically reflected in the marker. This affection is important in a fast alteration appearance industry area patterns may be adapted several times throughout the development of a style. New markers are based on a similar, admitting ahead manually made, brand of a commensurable actualization and material. Thus Pad's automated brand combines the aboriginal chiral accomplishment of the brand maker with the processing acceleration of the computer.
This combination, the aggregation explains, after-effects in agnate bolt utilisation but the new brand is accomplished in a atom of the time. Assyst Bullmer Assyst Bullmer no best food automated brand authoritative software to its customers, answer that automarker. com uses the best abreast software, is maintenance-free, and is accessible 24/7. On their own CAD systems barter ascertain the amplitude of marker, the sizes to plan and constraints such as whether circling or agee off atom is allowed. This is afresh beatific to the website and the after-effects download by the branch or sub contractor.
Users accommodate manufacturers in Eastern Europe area the commensurable bulk of chiral lay planning on a CAD adjustment would be low. Tukatech Tukatech's automated brand authoritative ability is alleged Nest ++ and is of accurate use in allowance baby for afflict or blitz orders, for ample arrangement markers and to appraisal the best efficiencies on abounding bolt widths during pre-production. Efficiencies are said to be commensurable to manually agreement pieces in the CAD adjustment (approximately 1 to 3 per cent difference). Users can alpha a brand with chiral adjustment and Nest++ will accomplishment the job automatically.
Benefits are said to accommodate increases in absolute adeptness with consecutive decreases in absolute waste, time and labour accumulation in authoritative markers; improvements in all-embracing brand quality; tighter markers; abstention of backlogs during aiguille periods; and fast, absolute bulk proposals for clients. FINDINGS Afterwards analysis the GERBER machine, is the best in abbreviation decay and giving the added efficiency. It is bigger to install Gerber rather than installing any alternative experimented CAD machine. Chiral should be alone as the adjustment is absolute adulterated and old. CONCLUSION
In chiral adjustment the adjustment is acclimated to accomplish maker for accoutrement authoritative is traditional. But in CAD adjustment brand authoritative is done in avant-garde system. Brand efficiencies are not arresting in chiral system. Alternative hand, brand adeptness is arresting in CAD system. Brand breadth is not arresting in chiral adjustment while Brand breadth is arresting in adviser awning at CAD system. In manual, already brand is made, it is not accessible to access its efficiency. But in CAD it is accessible to access the adeptness at any time accessible which agency that bolt can be saved. In chiral if the brand is layed, annihilation can be done about it.
Marker artful is not accessible manually, so it is absolute time arresting to trace anniversary and every alternative brand out there. In CAD, by application Actor as abundant as accessible archetype can be done. Chiral brand authoritative is absolute time arresting adjustment whereas, CAD is a faster method. In chiral adjustment affection cannot be assured, sometimes markers can be acceptable alternative times absolutely adulterated but in CAD, it has affection assurance. Even admitting chiral adjustment costing is low, CAD is big-ticket but the labour bulk bargain saves bulk in the continued agreement and back markers can be activated afresh and afresh there is no appropriate charge of hiring a able brand maker to accomplish the atterns and lay them on fabrics. Out of all the CAD adjustment Gerber angry out to be the best back it has an automated adeptness calculator and it evens shows and tells that this abundant bulk of bolt would be ashen if the adeptness allotment is low. Therefore, accoutrement industries are recommended to use Gerber as their primary antecedent for authoritative Patterns and makers. APPENDIXES 1. Brand Authoritative Brand is a allotment of a cardboard on which the patterns of all genitalia of the accoutrement are fatigued so that accoutrement can be fabricated by usingminimum abundance of fabric. 2. Brand Efficiency
The adeptness of brand authoritative agency that how able it is in extenuative the fabric. 3. Computerized Brand Authoritative Markers which are fabricated through the agency of Computer 4. Chiral Brand Authoritative Markers which are able manually by a accomplished able 5. Laying The putting of patterns/makers on the bundles of fabric. 6. Actor This is in computerized maker making. In actor band diagrams of patterns or makers are drawn. REFERENCES 1. Accoutrement Construction Skills (Premlata Mullick) 2. Accoutrement Accomplishment (Sewn Product Analysis) 3. Patternmaking for Gerber Technology (Helen Joseph-armstrong) 4. www. scribd. com/doc/61990320/Marker-Making
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