Rail Way Ticket Reservation
Object Oriented Systems Assay and Design (OOSAD) 15. 3. 3 OOA of Railway Admission Catch Arrangement Accept that area assay is complete and DAD is accessible for reference. The analyst additionally has a fair ability of the arrangement and the arrangement environment. For the account of accessibility and to abate complication at this date in OOA, we are blank assertive conditions, constraints and appearance that the absolute arrangement may have. For example, we are not because abandoning of tickets as a requirement. We accept all cartage irrespective of their blazon (senior citizen, aggressive personnel, appropriate class cartage etc. are the same, and accordingly are answerable with the aforementioned fare. We activate with the account of claim of the system. u Arrangement Claim l The commuter has a above-mentioned ability of the catch and ticketing system. The commuter arrives at the railway admission adverse and interacts with the adverse agent aboriginal through an enquiry and again follows the action of anatomy filling, tendering, acquittal and accession the tickets. l Commuter accepts the admission or leaves the counter.
l Commuter seeks advice on fare, alternation timings and availability of tickets. Commuter can accept distinct admission or assorted tickets. l Adventure begins on a day and will be over with one breach in between. l Commuter is articular by name, age, sex and address. l Trains are articular by name and number. l No abandoning is issued for money transacted. l Output of the arrangement is ticket(s) with details. l The action is triggered through a anatomy abounding by the commuter account the requirements of tickets, train, date, etc. l A anatomy is acclimated for anniversary train. If the adventure requires use of assorted trains, abstracted forms are acclimated for anniversary train. Analyze the Actors The actors in the arrangement are the passenger, the adverse agent and the catch arrangement consisting of anatomy processing, reservation, book computation, admission processing, admission printing, accumulating of book bulk and announcement as sub-systems. The commuter is a acquiescent user–actor who initiates the action and obtains the ticket(s), a ambition of assessable value. The adverse agent is an alive user–actor, who triggers the arrangement and has the role of arising the tickets with the albatross of accession the actual book bulk from the passenger, which is a assessable value.
Predesigned and deployed admission catch arrangement at the aback end is a arrangement actor–user to ensure that admission processing is done accurately and altered arrangement statuses are adapted on arising of tickets. This amateur has an alive role and albatross at the aback end. u Advance Business Action Archetypal – Catch and Affair of Tickets Based on the arrangement ascertainment by the analyst, a high-level action diagram is fatigued clay the action of catch and affair of tickets to the passenger. The action diagram brings everybody anxious with the arrangement on the arena to a accepted compassionate of the arrangement as it functions.
Object Oriented Assay (OOA) +D=FJAH# ""' We use this action diagram of the action to advance use cases, which calm achieves the ambition of arising the ticket. Fig. 15. 3 Action Diagram of Catch and Affair of Tickets Commuter Comes to the Adverse Collects the Catch Anatomy ; Writes Capacity Agent Enters Anatomy Capacity on the Awning Triggers Admission Press Action Submits anatomy to the Adverse Agent Validates, Verifies Availability Not OK OK Triggers Book Process, Arrives at the Book Bulk Prints the Tickets Anatomy Modified Not OK
OK Issues Tickets *We do not see this as achievability in absolute world. Commuter may airing out of the arrangement Collects Book Bulk Not OK * Confirms OK with the Commuter Triggers Update Action Attends To Next Commuter u Analyze and Advance Use Cases In the admission catch systems, users are the passenger, the adverse agent and the Catch and Ticketing Arrangement (R;T System). Booty anniversary user and analyze the roles played, which would advance us to analyze the roles played, which, in turn, would advance us to an identification of use case. Table 15. shows the aftereffect of the action of anecdotic the use cases. The arrangement has three users, eight roles and eleven use cases. To allegorize the action of anecdotic the use cases, let us booty the commuter (a user of the system). A commuter as a user may comedy one or added of three roles. The roles are 1. Enquiring about the availability of tickets on accurate dates to a destination and the book per ticket. The role is enquiring. 2=HJ111 "# Object Oriented Systems Assay and Design (OOSAD) Table 15. 1 Users? Roles? Use Cases. User l Role l l l
Use case l l l l l l l l l Commuter Enquiry Catch and ticketing Abandoning Anatomy abstracts access Application processor Admission processor Abstracts administrator Arrangement server Enquire admission availability and alternative details. Reserve seats and berths, tickets Cancel tickets Enter Catch Application Anatomy Action application for booking Action admission to book Submits admission abstracts for updation Action catch data, action ticketing action abandoning Update the cachet by date, train, etc. l Adverse agent l l l l l Catch and ticketing arrangement l 2.
Reserving the ticket(s) on a accurate alternation on accurate date for a destination by requisitioning through a catch anatomy The role is reserving and booking tickets. 3. Cancelling the tickets afterwards arising and acquittal The role is cancelling. As explained in the case of passenger, the roles are use cases. Similarly, one can delving into the roles and use cases for adverse agent and catch and ticketing system. u Draw Alternation Diagrams Alternation diagrams are acclimated to appearance the interactions amid user/actor and the system. Use case is a book that develops through interaction.
Let us archetypal altered scenarios through alternation diagrams: Use Case: enquiring on admission availability 1. Commuter submits advice about the date and train, and claim of tickets to the adverse agent 2. Agent checks the availability of tickets on the date and train. 3. Communicates the availability cachet to the passenger. 4. If OK, the commuter gain to book the admission through a application form. 5. If not OK, the commuter changes the date or alternation and requests availability. 6. Accomplish 2 to 4 are repeated. Figure 15. 4 shows the accomplish in the action diagrams of use case enquiry to affair of Tickets. Object Oriented Assay (OOA) +D=FJAH# "# Fig. 15. 4 Enquiry to Affair of Tickets Commuter Tells Date Alternation and Tickets Abstracts Entered into R;T Arrangement Not Available Puts New Date and Alternation R;T Checks Availability Commuter Exits Available Fills Application Anatomy R;T Processes the Anatomy Prints Tickets Tickets Issued and Book Bulk Collected Let us draw use case scenarios in use case diagrams for amateur passenger. Use Case enquiry: Fig 15. 5. Here use case ambition is to aback the admission availability cachet to the commuter on the requested date and train.
If the cachet is ‘available’, the commuter gain to book the admission or may leave the counter. If the cachet is ‘not available’, the commuter may leave the adverse or seek availability for a new date or new train. l 2=HJ111 "# Object Oriented Systems Assay and Design (OOSAD) Fig. 15. 5 Use Case Enquiry Enquiries on Availability Enters Requested Abstracts in R&T Arrangement Commuter Uses R&T Arrangement to Check Catch Adverse Agent Informs the Cachet on Availability l Use Case: catch and ticketing: Fig. 15. 6. Writes Catch Application Anatomy & Submits
Fig. 15. 6 Use Case: Catch and Ticketing Commuter Anatomy Abstracts Entered Anatomy Processed for Catch & Ticketing Triggers Admission Press Collects Book Bulk and Issues Admission Uses R&T Arrangement Uses Uses Catch Adverse Agent Updates R&T Admission Cachet Accomplish complex in this use case are: 1. Commuter writes catch application form. 2. Submits to the adverse clerk. 3. Adverse agent calls ‘Form’ screen. 4. Adverse agent enters anatomy data. 5. Triggers R and T processing. 6. On OK processing, triggers admission printing. 7. Issues admission to passenger. . Update the arrangement status. So far we accept completed two of the best accepted and frequently acclimated use cases, i. e. enquiry and catch and ticketing. The afterward use cases can be modeled on agnate lines. l Abandoning l Action catch abstracts Object Oriented Assay (OOA) l l +D=FJAH# "#! Anatomy abstracts access l Action ticketing Anatomy processing l Action abandoning l Admission press l Cachet updation Back the analyst has completed all use cases in the system, s/he has declared and modeled the claim of catch and ticketing system.
It is accessible that in aboriginal go s/he may not be able to analyze actors and appropriately use cases. But s/ he will appear beyond their attendance in the clay exercise, and will again go aback and analyse added to acquaint added actors and use cases. OOA is an automatic process. Use case–driven OOA up till now has accustomed us ample arrangement requirements in agreement of use cases. The OOA archetypal application use cases is to be packaged to archetypal the system. Figure 15. 7 shows the packaging of use cases advised in the R and T system.
Fig. 15. 7 R and T Arrangement Packaging R;T Arrangement Enquiry Ticketing Admission Availability Processing and Press Catch Uses Uses Abandoning Reserving Seats Abandoning and Refund Action Realise that admitting there are eleven use cases, we accept aggregate them beneath four above use case groups, namely l Enquiry l Ticketing l Catch l Abandoning The actual use cases are sub-use cases, or, in alternative words, these four use cases are added addle to accompany accuracy to capital use case scenario.
How abounding case scenarios are all-important to represent the arrangement and again to spell out the requirement? There are no set rules or guidelines on this point. Added use cases may not necessarily accompany bigger compassionate or added clarity. A lot depends on users’ and developers’ akin of comfort. What is absolutely appropriate is a use case for anniversary above scenario: that is, for enquiry, reservation, ticketing and cancellation. Use cases for altered scenarios arising out of abate ascribe variations charge not be modeled.
For example, abandoning could be allotment of a journey, 2=HJ111 "#" Object Oriented Systems Assay and Design (OOSAD) bargain cardinal of tickets and so on. Amidst bristles recommended processes of analysis, use case–driven assay for ascertaining arrangement claim is advised best as it considers users’ angle of the system. Back the arrangement is modeled into altered case scenarios it not alone goes bottomward to the akin of action and features, but additionally reveals relationships and behaviours amidst altered arrangement components.
Each use case book is an instance in the arrangement that has accuracy apropos goals and how they are to be achieved. The arrangement can be addle from above use case at college akin activity bottomward to everyman level. This agency that lower akin use case scenarios calm body the above scenario. In use case–driven analysis, so far we accept alone accepted in accession to area knowledge. l Arrangement ambit (enquiry, reservation, ticketing and cancellation) l Arrangement players (users, actors) l Above functions and processes based as use case scenarios. Some abstraction on packaging arrangement apparatus for deployment. l Arrangement requirements at anatomic and action level. In short, so far in OOA, we accept accomplished to some admeasurement a bearings in which the claim assay fabricated so far can be put into a academic RDD document. We still accept not accomplished the blueprint level. This is accessible back we go further, anecdotic classes, their relationship, attributes and methods. Use case–driven analysis, displayed in use case models, is a base for affective into the footfall of anecdotic classes and designing classes.
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