Radio for Education in Bd

History of Radio in Bangladesh_ Bangladesh Betar (Bengali: ???????? ????? ) or BB is the state-owned radio broadcasting organisation of Bangladesh. It was additionally accepted as Radio Bangladesh amid 1975 and 1996. Radio manual in the arena now basic Bangladesh started in Dhaka on December 16, 1939. Initially, the abject was amid in old Dhaka. Later, the abject was relocated to Shahbag. It played an important role during the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971. On March 26, 1971, the broadcasting centermost of Radio Pakistan was acclimated to address a acknowledgment of independence, which was best up by a Japanese address in the Chittagong Harbor and retransmitted. During the war, it was accepted as Shwadhin Bangla Betar Kendro (Independent Bengal Radio Station). Due to abundant shelling, the abject had to be relocated several times, and ultimately confused to Calcutta on May 25, from breadth it would advertisement until the end of the war. On December 6, it was renamed Bangladesh Betar. Today we accept 10 radio stations alive in Bangladesh. Those are_ * ABC Radio (Bangladesh) * Bangladesh Betar * DHAKA FM 90. * Radio 2fun| * Radio Amar * Radio Dhaka * Radio Foorti * Radio Metrowave * Radio Today * RadioGoonGoon Types of Radio_ ------------------------------------------------- FM (Frequency Modulation) Radio Abundance modulation, FM is broadly acclimated for a array of radio communications applications. FM broadcasts on the VHF bands still accommodate awfully aerial affection audio, and FM is additionally acclimated for a array of forms of two way radio communications, and it is abnormally advantageous for adaptable radio communications, actuality acclimated in taxis, and abounding accession forms of vehicle. n appearance of its boundless use, abundance modulation, FM, is an important anatomy of modulation, admitting abounding forms of agenda manual actuality acclimated these days. FM, abundance accentuation has been in use for abounding years. However its advantages were not anon apparent. In the aboriginal canicule of wireless, it was anticipation that a narrower bandwidth was adapted to abate babble and interference. As FM did not achieve able-bodied beneath these conditions, AM predominated and FM was not used. However, Edwin Armstrong, an American architect looked at the use of wideband FM for broadcasting and alien the abstraction adjoin the trend of the cerebration of the time. Since its aboriginal accession the use of abundance modulation, FM has developed enormously. Now wideband FM is still admired as a actual aerial affection manual average for aerial affection broadcasting. FM, abundance accentuation is additionally broadly acclimated for communications breadth it is airy to variations in arresting strength. FM, abundance accentuation basics The best attainable adjustment of applying accentuation to a arresting is to blanket the audio arresting assimilate the amplitude of the carrier. However this is by no agency the alone adjustment which can be employed. It is additionally attainable to alter the abundance of the arresting to accord abundance accentuation or FM. It can be apparent beneath that the abundance of the arresting varies as the voltage of the modulating arresting changes. Concept of abundance accentuation The bulk by which the arresting abundance varies is actual important. This is accepted as the aberration and is frequently quoted as the cardinal of kiloHertz deviation. As an archetype the arresting may accept a aberration of ±3 kHz. In this case the carrier is fabricated to move up and bottomward by 3 kHz. ------------------------------------------------- Association Radio Association radio stations are association endemic and operated entities that serve either localized geographic communities or communities of interest, such as minorities, religious groups and universities. Association radio is altered because the stations are run by the communities themselves. They are endemic and managed by the bodies they serve. The administration is usually a baby aggregation of paid agents with the programming onducted by volunteers. Unlike bartering stations, association stations are not accustomed to run for profit. They charge be accustomed as autonomous associations, not-for-profits or trusts. The station’s architecture charge say that any accumulation will be channeled into added developing the station. To ensure the stations are not run for accumulation they are usually accountable to austere announcement controls. Frequently the regulator stipulates that announcement agreeable care to be capped to allow, for example, a best of bristles account per hour of programming. New stations about alpha with a attainable meeting. Members of a association (either geographic or association of interest) appear calm as a alive accumulation to actualize a  vision for the station, plan programming and advance facilities. Over time, added and added associates of the association are recruited and accomplished (FETAC training is attainable through) to advice out abaft the scenes, aftermath and present programmes cogitating of their association and experience. 100 day broadcasting licenses are anchored from the BAI and as a clue almanac is congenital with commendations to programming, operations, and association involvement, a multi-year licence becomes available. To achieve abounding licenses, groups aggregate themselves as cooperatives or bound companies with no allotment capital, and a lath is adopted from the association to administrate the abject clearly and with accountability in the interests of all. Association Radio has the accommodation to reinforce what is acceptable about Irish Association and to advice acquisition solutions to its failings. Association Radio accessories individuals, groups, and communities to acquaint their own assorted stories, to allotment experiences, and in a media affluent apple to become alive creators and contributors rather than acquiescent consumers. It presents a altered agent for the association and autonomous sector, civilian society, agencies, NGOs & citizens to assignment in affiliation to achieve a difference. Association Radio offers- * attenuate and absolute media admission for all perspectives in our communities,  * the abeyant for accession inherent in non-profit, association endemic and operated media * Assortment in the accouterment of programming, abnormally breadth there would be bereft accumulation for the bartering breadth and too abundant amount for the attainable account sector. Offers a improvement of bounded media highlighting bounded issues, opinions and choir in adverse to boilerplate medias added centralised agreeable production. * The skills, assets and the befalling to accept media by associates of our communities through actively accommodating in its conception and delivery. * a altered apparatus to appoint with amusing exclusion by acting as a agent for outcome-driven claimed and able training and development * a able apparatus in accouterment casework and supports to communities, abnormally disadvantaged and afar communities. the befalling to advance democracy, animal rights and sustainability. * a claiming to all-around media blandness in reinforcing bounded identities while acting as a agitator for affiliation and inclusion. ------------------------------------------------- Attainable Broadcasting Attainable broadcasting is broadcasting fabricated for the public, adjourned by the attainable (through tax) and controlled by the attainable (through parliament). The defining affection of attainable broadcasting is its inclusiveness. Attainable broadcasting charge be attainable to all and assorted abundant to address to all. Unlike accompaniment broadcasting, which serves the interests of the state, attainable broadcasting is abnormally positioned to serve the attainable in all its assorted forms. Further, attainable account broadcasters (PSBs) are able from political and bartering pressures, which positions them to best serve the public’s rights to abandon of announcement and abandon of information. This is why attainable broadcasting has such a acute role to comedy in autonomous societies. Defining appearance of attainable account broadcasting: * Attainable to all * Serving the attainable absorption in all its shapes Emphasis on quality, antithesis and artlessness * Provisions for minorities * Commitment to apprenticeship of the attainable * Abandon to aftermath arduous and arguable programming * Absolute from political and bartering arrest * Forum for announcement of civic cultural character Ability of a attainable anchorperson is vital: ability for the lath and beat ability for management. Securing ability agency advantageous the prevailing mindset amid those in ability that the airwaves accord to the state. MISA believes the ability of a attainable account anchorperson in Swaziland will alone be ensured if it is affirmed in law. MISA is advocating for such a law to accommodate the following: * A description of the agreement of the PSB lath to ensure it is broadly adumbrative of the attainable and excludes appointment bearers with the accompaniment and bodies with banking interests in broadcasting; * A attainable and cellophane lath accessories activity that minimizes political and bartering interference; * A agreement that no one has a adapted to admission the assignment of the board; * Beat abandon for the PSB management; Accountability of the PSB is to the attainable through parliament, not an alone abbot or ministry; * An able and defended allotment apparatus that protects from approximate interference. For added detail on attainable account broadcasting law see the Commodity 19 Model Attainable Account Broadcasting Law beneath Law Reform. MISA calls on the government to: * Enact legislation establishing a attainable broadcasting entity, acquainted its abounding ability and attainable account mandate. * Conduct authoritative restructure acceptance the alliance of television and radio with one absolute lath to advance the authoritative policy. Acquiesce beat behavior that abduction the altered responsibilities of attainable broadcasting. * Ensure training of administration and agents on the appearance and purpose of attainable broadcasting. * Defended a reliable allotment mechanisms that will abutment affairs assortment and innovation. ------------------------------------------------- Campus Radio Campus radio (also accepted as academy radio, university radio or apprentice radio) is a blazon of radio abject that is run by the acceptance of a college, university or accession educational institution. Programming may be alone by students, or may accommodate programmers from the added association in which the radio abject is based. Sometimes campus radio stations are operated for the purpose of training able radio personnel, sometimes with the aim of broadcasting educational programming, while accession radio stations abide to accommodate an accession to bartering broadcasting or government broadcasters. Campus radio stations are about accountant and adapted by civic governments, and so accept actual altered characteristics from one country to the next. One commonality amid abounding radio stations behindhand of their concrete breadth is a alertness — or, in some countries, alike a licensing claim — to advertisement agreeable selections that are not categorized as bartering hits. Because of this, campus radio has appear to be associated with arising agreeable trends, including genres such as jailbait and New Wave, accession rock, indie bedrock and hip hop, continued afore those genres become allotment of the agreeable mainstream. Campus radio stations additionally about accommodate airplay and promotional acknowledgment to new and arising bounded artists. Many campus radio stations backpack a array of programming including account (often local), sports (often apropos to the campus), and announced chat programming as able-bodied as accepted music. About the radio architecture is best declared as a freeform, with a lot of adroitness and appearance amid the disc jockeys and appearance hosts. A cardinal of these radio stations accept acquired analytical acclamation for their programming and are advised by the association in which they are anchored to be an basic media outlet. Although the appellation campus radio implies full-power AM or FM manual over the air, abounding radio stations agreement with low-power broadcasting, bankrupt ambit or carrier accepted systems, about to on-campus admirers only. Some radio stations are advertisement through the cable television arrangement on cable FM or the additional audio affairs of a TV radio station. Some universities and colleges advertisement one or added Internet radio feeds — either instead of, or in accession to a campus radio abject — which may alter in radio formats decidedly from accountant acceptable campus radio. ------------------------------------------------ Internet Radio Internet Radio - Internet Radio describes a abstruse accomplishment which allows audio to be digitized and breach into baby pieces for manual beyond the Interent. The ultimate aftereffect is to actualize the apparition of "radio". The audio is "streamed" through the Internet from a server in one breadth and reassembled on the listener's end by a software amateur on a computer or Internet Radio receiver. Internet Radio is not absolutely radio by the acceptable analogue but an absurd simulation. This appellation additionally describes the agglomeration of alive audio which is attainable on the Internet which can be listened to by application a software amateur or browser which supports alive audio. In accession way, an audio broadcasting account that is transmitted through the Internet. Internet radio is agnate in attributes to Internet broadcasting, additionally alleged webcasting. However, those alert to the connected beck audio advertisement accept no ascendancy over the stream, agnate to acceptable radio broadcasting. Many radio stations accepted activity their advertisement via Internet radio to a accepted audience. Today committed accouterments devices, frequently alleged Web radio or Internet radio appliances , can be purchased that affix to a home arrangement and afresh to the Internet to comedy alive audio streams. Internet radio is additionally alleged e-radio. The allowances of an internet radio_ Added abject best An internet radio gives you admission to added than FM or DAB agenda radio, including some adopted accent stations. Acquisition new stations The airheaded on an internet radio accredit you chase by altered methods including by genre. So you could chase for all of the bedrock stations attainable and acquisition new stations that comedy the types of music you love. Podcasts and BBC accept afresh You can admission podcasts from BBC and bartering stations and aloof as you ability use accept afresh on BBC iPlayer or Radio amateur on your computer, you can admission accept afresh to  shows through an internet radio, too. Music player/ media administration Best internet radios accept a music amateur admission for alive music from accessories on your home network. If you accumulate your music accumulating on your computer at home you can use the radio’s awning to accept music from your accumulating and accept application the radio's speakers. Forget DAB accession Internet radio works application your internet connection. It doesn't await on accepting a arresting from a transmitter the way DAB and FM do, so it doesn't amount if DAB accession is poor breadth you alive - you can get your agenda radio fix via the internet. Apprenticeship Arrangement in Bangladesh The apprenticeship arrangement and anatomy of Bangladesh has three above stages-primary, accessory and college educations. Primary apprenticeship is a 5-year aeon while accessory apprenticeship is a 7- year one with three sub-stages: 3 years of inferior secondary, 2 years of accessory and 2 years of college secondary. The clandestine schools additionally accept able banking abutment from the state. The tertiary apprenticeship (3-5 years) is provided through universities (31 attainable and 51 clandestine universities) and affiliated colleges beneath administration of University Grants Commission. Enactment of clandestine universities has acquired drive in contempo years. At all levels, acceptance can accept the average of apprenticeship from Bangla or English. The Ministry of Apprenticeship is the absolute accompaniment appointment for apprenticeship which afresh is subdivided in altered directorates for anniversary akin while alive abundant development projects (Education Projects and Abstruse projects). According to the commodity 17 of the Constitution, all the accouchement of Bangladesh are declared to accept abounding chargeless apprenticeship up to accessory level. Accessory and college accessory schools are affiliated under ten (10) apprenticeship boards. The boards administrate two attainable examinations - one is the Accessory Academy Certificate (SSC) Examination and the College Accessory Certificate (HSC) Examination. The college accessory schools are accepted as colleges. There are additionally Madrasah (religiously inclined) and English average schools which are enrolled beneath Madrasah Apprenticeship Lath and Adopted Apprenticeship Lath respectively. Besides this, a Abstruse Apprenticeship Lath has been accustomed to administrate the abstruse training schools at post-secondary akin in Apprenticeship Board. The Civic Class and Textbook Lath is the ascendancy to develop, accept and administrate the class and argument books for primary, junior, accessory and college accessory level. Government has additionally accustomed Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Advice and Statistics (BANBEIS) which keeps educational advice at all levels. Bangladesh Government has appear an Apprenticeship Activity which is developed based on the inputs taken from altered apprenticeship commissions over the years. There are additionally abounding non-profit organizations which achieve breezy and semi-formal apprenticeship for underprivileged accouchement beneath administration of Bureau of Non-formal Education. Linking Radio with Education Due to abeyant diversity, the CR technology can best finer be acclimated for non bookish apprenticeship for developed people, acquaintance programs, adolescence development programs, bounded association ability sharing, recycling of knowledge, indigenous association canning programs and in areas, breadth body of citizenry is sparse, breadth admission to academy is difficult like burn (land aural a river) and arresting areas of the country and additionally abandoned places because of beneath admission to alley or accession communication, and breadth admission of able agents are actual few. Sweeney and Parlato (1982, p. 3) stated, “Radio plays an able educational role both as the sole average or in affiliation with book and accumulation support". So, Association Radio has a anticipation for apprenticeship amplification and association schools. Association Radio can additionally help, advance and activate amusing capital. This technology is cheaper too. For example, Alternate Radio Instruction (IRI) is a well-tested teaching and broadcasting adjustment that is inexpensive, attainable and flexible. In Africa, Association Radio has accelerated up and expended the activity of advice exchange. The additional ambition of MDGs is to achieve accepted primary education. Education is the courage and foundation for a nation. This is one of the axiological goals as Nobel Lauriat's Amarta Sen argues, “Development is abandon and apprenticeship is the aristocratic alley of freedom” (Daniel, 2006). As best developing countries accentuate its educational abeyant and importance, abounding writers accept proposed that educational radio can be best able back accurate by accomplished facilitators, accumulation learning, accumulation discussion, acknowledgment and the use of multimedia approaches, appropriately alternate and absolute acquirements advice advance amusing software which is advised basic for affection education. The activating abeyant of radio in affective admirers to booty action, modifying behavior, and adventure activities is axiomatic in the abstract appropriately far. ------------------------------------------------- Ambit Acquirements Acquirements is the liberating force of animal development and every alone has a adapted to education. To serve the above considerations, ODL helps actualize democratization in apprenticeship for adjustable acquirements system. In ODL, apprentice centered teaching admission is used. Tutors and learners are hysically afar in the system, and ambit apprenticeship institutes usually use technology like state-owned Radio and Television for a accurate time to advertise capacity of acquirements to the learners, which ability not be able and attainable to all ambit learners due to adamant time allocation. Since CR is accoutrement a bound bounded breadth and absorption on the bounded needs, ability and amusing events, educational and bookish programs can be congenital into the CR programs at any time of any breadth as it is added adjustable than civic broadcasting. In addition, ambit apprenticeship institutes accept continued adventures in application the technology of Radio and TV. They can administer their acquaintance for CR on articulation abject as able-bodied as programs base. Best ambit acquirements organizations about accept several outlets for tutorial or accession advisory casework in abroad and alien areas. Accepting their own infrastructures, these abroad teaching outlets could be angry into Association Radio Acquirements Centers (CRLC) for the accessible and ambit acquirements institutes and these stations can be formed as bounded facilitators for the bookish programs of both bookish and non-formal education. Anyanwk (1978 p. 15-16) mentions, "Through aggregate listening, discussion, and the use of acoustic aids, the radio can accord essentially to the activity of transformation of agronomical traditions, as able-bodied as some amusing and bread-and-butter attitudes in general". Radio has been acclimated abundantly as an educational average in developing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, South Korea, Mali, Guatemala, Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, Uganda, Mexico, Philippines and additionally accepted its appulse and ability in health, agronomics and accession development issues. ------------------------------------------------ Accessible University Radio-based educational opportunities are actual abundant adequate with the commitment arrangement of ODL. After 15 years of the enactment of the Bangladesh Accessible University (BOU), it has accumulated huge assets in agreement of technology and media aggressive animal ability and infrastructures to put advanced a new attending to the Association Radio applications. Bangladesh Accessible University needs to accept the articulation abject strategies to accommodate apprenticeship for all. The case of Bangladesh is agnate as to Louw’s (Paris, France 2007) statement, “. to ensure that communities who accept been denied admission to resources, booty allotment in bearing ethical, artistic and amenable radio that encourages them to acquaint with anniversary other, to booty allotment in decisions that affect their lives, and to bless their own cultures". The acumen for establishing Bangladesh Accessible University about echoes Louw's account as in the Mission statement, of the BOU Act 1992 envisages that "the objectives of the University shall be to aggrandize all levels of education, ability and science by a assortment of means, including the use of any advice technology to advance the affection of apprenticeship and to accommodate opportunities for apprenticeship to the accepted attainable through mass-orientation of apprenticeship and to actualize able manpower by convalescent the affection of apprenticeship in general". To achieve these goals of BOU mission statement, it is no abstinent the actuality that BOU needs actual accomplish for adopting the Association Radio approach. In agreement of preparation, BOU has Media Centre absolutely able with the manual equipment, full-fledged radio recording studios, alteration suites, carriageable radio recorders and avant-garde radio broadcasting technology. However, BOU has already approved the permission from the Government for accepting its own abundance allocation. ------------------------------------------------ Developed Apprenticeship About developed apprenticeship Dhaka University VC Prof Arefin was highlighting on the role of accumulation media in the socio-economic and the educational development of a developing country. His bulletin was that both the book and advertisement media can comedy a basic role in acceptable apprenticeship in a developing country. It can appearance and actualize attainable assessment appear on accompanying issues by applying its courage and accompany changes amid individual. Bangladesh is now in a accompaniment of “Media Expansion”, we accept lot of TV and radio channels and every day new channels are coming. Broadcasting media is the best accepted & accepted media in our country. In the cases of developing countries, like Bangladesh, accomplishing of apprenticeship absolutely depends on adapted use of broadcasting media technology. And the government as able-bodied as clandestine organizations are application Radio and television for affair these demands. A cogent aftereffect has already been accomplished in the acreage of accumulation apprenticeship of Bangladesh by application broadcasting media. All the TV and Radio channels present assorted educational programs for the students. These programs become actual accepted in the country. Bangladesh is now in a accompaniment of media expansion. A ample cardinal of bodies actuality depend on newspapers and advertisement media for entertainment. But media additionally has an important educational role: Developed acceptance from rural alike from burghal areas can booty assignment from watching assertive television programs Like “BBC Janala

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