Race And Crime In The United States Criminology Essay

The accord amid chase and abomination in the United States has been a affair of accessible altercation and bookish agitation for added than a century.[1] Aback the 1980s, the agitation has centered about the causes of and accidental factors to the askew representation of ancestral minorities (particularly African Americans, appropriately “Black crime”) at all stages of the bent amends system, including arrests, prosecutions and incarcerations.[2]

Many theories of account accept been proposed, the best arresting of which accept predominantly amusing and/or ecology causes, admitting notable exceptions altercate for a reconsideration of the role of biology.[3] Sociologist Orlando Patterson has abbreviated the altercation as a altercation amid advanced and bourgeois criminologists in which both parties focus on a distinct aspect of the causal net, with liberals absorption on factors alien to the groups in catechism and conservatives absorption on centralized cultural and behavioral factors.[4]

History

Further information: Animal criminology

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W. E. B. Du Bois, one of the antecedents in the abstraction of chase and abomination in the United States.

The accord amid chase and abomination has been an breadth of abstraction for criminologists aback the actualization of animal criminology in the backward 19th century.[5] Cesare Lombroso, architect of the Italian academy of criminology, argued that bent behavior was the artefact of biological factors, including race. This biological angle was criticized by aboriginal 20th aeon scholars, including Frances Kellor, Johan Thorsten Sellin and William Du Bois, who argued that alternative circumstances, such as amusing and bread-and-butter conditions, were the axial factors which led to bent behavior, behindhand of race. Du Bois traced the causes of the askew representation of Blacks in the bent amends arrangement aback to the break handled capitalism of Atramentous disciplinarian in accepted and the captive leasing affairs in particular. In 1901, he wrote:

There are no reliable statistics to which one can cautiously address to admeasurement absolutely the advance of abomination amid the emancipated slaves. About seventy per cent of all prisoners in the South are black; this, however, is in allotment explained by the actuality that accused Negroes are still calmly bedevilled and get continued sentences, while whites still abide to escape the amends of abounding crimes alike amid themselves. And yet acceptance for all this, there can be no reasonable agnosticism but that there has arisen in the South aback the [civil] war a chic of atramentous criminals, loafers, and ne’er-do-wells who are a annoyance to their fellows, both atramentous and white.[6]

The agitation that ensued remained abundantly bookish until the backward 20th century, back the accord amid chase and abomination became a accustomed acreage of specialized abstraction in criminology. As Helen T. Greene and Shaun L. Gabbidon, assistant of bent amends at Pennsylvania State University, agenda in their afresh appear Encyclopedia of Chase and Abomination (2009), abounding criminology and bent amends programs now either crave or action constituent courses on the affair of the accord amid chase and crime.[7]

Crime amount statistics

Murder and non-negligent homicide

There were 14,180 victims and 16,277 perpetrators of annihilation and non-negligent assassination appear by law administration agencies to the FBI in 2008.[25] The afterward table presents the ancestral demographics of annihilation in the United States for 2008 (with ‘other’ including Asian American, Native American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander American):[26]

↓

Offenders↓

Victims↓

White victims↓

Black victims↓

Other victims↓

Unknown victims↓

White

32.8%

48.2%

83.3%

7.6%

30.0%

37.0%

Black

36.5%

47.8%

13.8%

90.0%

16.7%

29.0%

Other

1.7%

2.3%

1.2%

0.3%

52.0%

3.0%

Unknown

29.0%

1.7%

1.6%

2.1%

1.2%

31.0%

African Americans, basic about 12% of the accepted population, were decidedly overrepresented in the absolute arrests made. African Americans were additionally decidedly overrepresented in victimization, apery 47% of all annihilation victims. White Americans and individuals of Alternative chase were decidedly underrepresented in cases of annihilation and non-negligible assassination in 2008. Annihilation in White American and African American populations were overwhelmingly intraracial, with 83% of all White victims and 90% of all Atramentous victims accepting been murdered by individuals of the aforementioned race. The aforementioned was true, admitting to a bottom degree, for individuals of Alternative race, with 52% accepting been murdered by individuals additionally of Alternative race.

[edit] Non-lethal agitated crime

Law administration agencies fabricated 2,487 arrests for active rape, 27,476 arrests for robbery and 42,779 arrests for aggravated advance in 2008.[27] The afterward table presents the ancestral demographics of these non-lethal agitated crimes in the United States for 2008:

↓

Total↓

Rape↓

Robbery↓

Aggravated assault↓

White

58.3%

65.2%

41.7%

63.3%

Black

39.4%

32.2%

56.7%

34.2%

Native

1.2%

1.2%

0.7%

1.4%

Asian/Pacific Islander

1.1%

1.4%

0.9%

1.2%

White Americans were arrested added than any alternative chase for non-lethal agitated crimes in 2008, authoritative up 58% of all arrests. White Americans, constituted about 79% of the absolute population. This analysis does not accomplish a acumen amid non hispanic whites and hispanic whites. Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Americans, constituted about 4% of the absolute citizenry fabricated up alone 1% of absolute arrests. African Americans contituted about 12% of the population, and fabricated up 39% of all arrests for non-lethal agitated crimes in 2008.

The afterward table presents the ancestral and indigenous demographics of non-lethal agitated abomination abuse per 1000 bodies age 12 or earlier in 2008 (with ‘other’ including Asian American, Native American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander American):[28]

↓

Total↓

Rape↓

Robbery↓

Aggravated assault↓

Simple assault↓

White

18.1

0.6

1.6

3.0

12.8

Black

25.9

1.9

5.5

5.3

13.3

Hispanic

16.4

0.6

3.4

3.5

8.9

Other

15.2

0.9

3.0

2.8

8.5

Multi

51.6

1.9

6.8

6.8

36.1

Multiracial Americans appear actuality victimized by non-lethal agitated abomination at ante 2 to 3 times college than White Americans, African Americans, and individuals of Alternative race. Hispanic Americans appear actuality victimized by non-lethal agitated abomination at ante lower than that of non-Hispanic White Americans and African Americans. With the barring of simple assault, African Americans appear actuality victimized by non-lethal agitated abomination at ante decidedly college than those of White Americans, Hispanic Americans, and individuals of Alternative race.

[edit] Acreage crime

Law administration agencies fabricated 235,407 arrests for burglary, 979,145 arrests for larceny/theft, 74,881 arrests for motor agent annexation and 10,734 arrests for arson in 2008.[27] The afterward table presents the ancestral demographics of these acreage crimes in the United States for 2008:

↓

Total↓

Burglary↓

Larceny-theft↓

Motor agent theft↓

Arson↓

White

67.4%

66.8%

68.1%

59.7%

78.8%

Black

30.1%

31.4%

29.3%

38.1%

21.7%

Native

1.2%

0.9%

1.3%

1.1%

1.2%

Asian/Pacific Islander

1.3%

0.9%

1.4%

1.2%

1.2%

White Americans (including hispanics and non hispanics) were arrested added than any alternative chase for acreage crimes in 2008, authoritative up 67% of all arrests. With the barring of arson, White Americans were decidedly underrepresented in all acreage crimes, as were Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Americans. African Americans were decidedly overrepresented in all forms of acreage crime, authoritative up 30% of all arrests.

[edit] Racially motivated abhorrence crime

There were 3,870 incidents of racially motivated abhorrence abomination appear in 2007, with 4,724 alone offenses, 4,956 victims and 3,707 accepted offenders.[29] The afterward table presents the ancestral demographics of these hates crimes in the United States for 2007:[30]

↓

Offenders↓

Victims↓

Anti-White↓

Anti-Black↓

Anti-Native↓

Anti-Asian/Pac. Isl.↓

Anti-Multi↓

White

45.9%

18.3%

18.5%

54.1%

58.6%

41.5%

36.6%

Black

10.6%

69.2%

45.2%

2.4%

4.0%

8.2%

2.1%

Native

1.5%

1.1%

2.5%

0.6%

9.3%

0.5%

1.4%

Asian/Pacific Islander

0.4%

4.7%

0.7%

0.3%

0.0%

1.4%

0.0%

Multi

2.5%

6.1%

2.4%

2.0%

0.0%

5.0%

6.7%

Unknown race/Other

6.7%

0.5%

5.4%

7.1%

5.3%

6.0%

6.3%

Unknown offender

32.7%

25.2%

33.4%

22.7%

37.4%

46.8%

White Americans were articular as accepting committed the best racially motivated abhorrence crimes in 2007, authoritative up about 46% of all appear offenders. Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Americans were articular as accepting committed the atomic racially motivated abhorrence crimes, authoritative up beneath than 1% of all appear offenders. African Americans appear actuality victimized by racially motivated abhorrence abomination added frequently than any alternative race, authoritative up 69% of all victims.

[edit] White-collar crime

Law administration agencies fabricated 68,586 arrests for bogus and counterfeiting, 173,567 arrests for artifice and 16,314 arrests for abstraction in 2008.[27] The afterward table presents the ancestral demographics of these white-collar crimes in the United States for 2008:

↓

Total↓

Forgery-counterfeiting↓

Fraud↓

Embezzlement↓

White

67.4%

67.7%

67.5%

64.5%

Black

30.9%

30.7%

30.8%

33.4%

Native

0.7%

0.5%

0.8%

0.6%

Asian/Pacific Islander

0.9%

1.1%

0.8%

1.5%

White Americans (including hispanics and non hispanics) were arrested added than any alternative chase for these white-collar crimes in 2008, authoritative up 67% of all arrests. White Americans, basic about 79% of the absolute population, were decidedly underrepresented in the absolute arrests made, as were Asian Americans and Pacific Islander Americans. African Americans were decidedly overrepresented in forgery/counterfeiting, artifice and embezzlement, authoritative up about 31% of all arrests.

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