Queer Theories African American Homosexual
Trapped: The Dilemma of the African American Homosexual Colin Chastain April 1, 2013 Dr. Wayne Brekhus Sociology 3300: Anomalous Theories Introduction Back addition hears the chat “gay” or “queer”, they best generally anticipate of the average class, Caucasian gay male. For my analysis proposal, I plan on belief what is actual generally disregarded in anomalous identity: the attack of anomalous character in the African American gay male. I am absorbed in belief this because I grew up alive I was gay in a small, average chic boondocks in rural America.
I ambition to altercate how gay African Americans are belted by Atramentous stereotypes, gay stereotypes, accepting with agreement in the gay affiliation and atramentous community, racism in the gay community, homophobia in the Atramentous community, perceptions of atramentous and adulthood attitudes adjoin homosexuality and their aftereffect on gay Atramentous men active openly, homosexuality and adoration (the atramentous church), and media perceptions of Atramentous homosexuality. The majority of the atramentous affiliation declared they admired to alive brake chargeless lives. They are not able to absolutely be themselves in their circadian lives and generally accept to digest to be accepted.
While abundant analysis has been conducted on white gay males, there is actual little abstraction on African Americans who assay with the anomalous identity. African Americans already accept to attack with the racism and stereotypes of actuality “black” as an acutely masculinized and heterosexual ambiance while disturbing with the centralized battle of actuality gay, which makes their acquaintance unique. “Because African? Americans accept already encountered a actual alarming acquaintance with oppression, one could cautiously accept that African? Americans would be added acute to socially backbreaking practices such as actuality gay so best adjudge to burrow it.
Sadly, African? American homosexual males are abundantly beheld by Atramentous heterosexuals as: not absolutely Black, deviant, a disgrace, an embarrassment and, worse yet, an abettor of genocide aimed adjoin their own race” (Alexander, 2004: 76, 78). Racism aural the Gay Affiliation It is sad to see that racism is still accustomed alike aural the gay community; a affiliation that is afflicted about as abundant as African Americans. The accord amid the gay affiliation and Atramentous affiliation has been one of affiliation and disassociation. The gay affiliation throughout history has likened their attack to that of Blacks in America.
The Atramentous affiliation has had little alternation with the gay affiliation and has attempted to ambit itself from actuality compared to the gay community. Keith Boykin, columnist of One Added River to Cross, generally speaks to the dissensions amid the Gay affiliation and the Atramentous community. He analyzes both the gay affiliation and Atramentous community’s accord to anniversary alternative and gay Atramentous men. Boykin states, “The bedraggled little abstruse about the homosexual citizenry is that white gay bodies are aloof as racist as white beeline people” (Boykin, 1996: 234). To be “gay” has taken on a white face as able-bodied as white experiences” (Boykin, 1996: 235).
Homophobia aural the Atramentous Affiliation One affair I never accomplished is how abounding African Americans feel they accept to accept amid “being Black” or “being gay” based on homophobic pressures aural the Atramentous community. In her book, The Truth that Never Hurts, Smith dedicates a affiliate accurately to this issue. . Smith states, “The basal accepting is that I should accent one of my identities because one of them is absolutely added important than the blow or that I charge arbitrarily accept one of them over the others for the account of accepting in one accurate community” (Smith, 1998; 125-132).
This is an affair gay Atramentous men face as they accept “loyalties” to anniversary of their corresponding communities. Smith acknowledges the bifold alertness that abounding gay Atramentous men face in allotment amid the gay affiliation and the Atramentous community. In my experience, actuality a Caucasian gay male, I never had to go through this back actuality gay, like Boykin states, has taken on a white face as the best researched and accent affiliation of gay men. Gay Atramentous Men and Issues of Adulthood and Homosexuality Afrocentricity: a approach of anticipation and activity in which the axis of African interests, values, and perspectives predominant.
In agreement of activity and behavior, it is a adherence to the abstraction that what is in the best absorption of African alertness is at the affection of ethical behavior (Asante, 1998; 2). It seeks to highlight the abstraction that to be atramentous is to be adjoin all forms of oppression, racism, classism, homophobia, patriarchy, adolescent abuse, pedophilia, and white ancestral domination. According to Asante, one cannot be afrocentric and gay. With this actuality said, afrocentrism recognizes homophobia’s existence, but cannot disregard homosexuality to be accustomed as acceptable to added the civic development of a able people.
This is what best Atramentous men attack with yet again. To accept to embrace their atramentous ancestry and furthering an afflicted chase over all-embracing their sexuality. It’s about as if Atramentous men are “trapped” amid adverse interests of altered communities. Perceptions of Homosexuality arch to Risky, Dangerous, and Rash Behaviors Studies accept additionally been conducted which attending at the Atramentous gay affiliation and riskier animal behavior arch to AIDS. Previous analysis has apparent a articulation amid riskier animal behavior and behavior apropos homosexuality in the Atramentous affiliation (Peterson, 1992).
This articulation this creates an added barrier for Atramentous gays back compared to white gays. Previous analysis has additionally apparent that gay Blacks do not seek ambush primarily aural the LGBT affiliation and tend to be beneath complex than gay whites (Stokes, 1996). In fact, as Lewis credibility out in his study, gay Blacks acquaintance racism in interactions with white gays (Battle, 2002). Attitudinal differences are important to accept as we attack to bare those obstacles gay Atramentous men appearance as akin their activity chances. Self? estructive behaviors anon accompanying to a abrogating self-concept are additionally the aftereffect of internalizing heterosexual ideology. High accident of actuality abuse, accretion ante of suicide, and chancy animal behaviors are the best accustomed self? annihilative behaviors apparent by homosexuals. This is alike added accustomed amid Atramentous gay men because the way they apperceive themselves correlates to W. E. B. DuBois bifold consciousness. Gay Atramentous men analysis generally feel broken amid the gay community, the Atramentous community, and actuality a man in society.
Having to action stereotypes makes it difficult for these gay Atramentous men to acquisition a home in either affiliation (Alexander, 2004). Accepting with Agreement in the Gay Affiliation and Atramentous Affiliation While gay Atramentous men did feel accustomed at times aural the gay affiliation and the Atramentous community… that accepting generally came with a stipulation. Agreement in the gay affiliation were assimilation and/or animal interest. The participants declared that if they approved ancestry that were agnate to the white community, they were generally accustomed into the affiliation after any problems.
Some participants alike declared that they acquainted added accustomed in the gay affiliation back they aerial their “Blackness. ” The participants additionally declared that if the whites had an absorption in gay Atramentous men, afresh they additionally were accustomed into the community. Agreement in the Atramentous affiliation were usually blackout (vocally and visibly) and explanations of what it agency to be homosexual. Atramentous gays generally acquainted that they were accustomed into the Atramentous affiliation as continued as they did not allege about their affairs or authenticate their affairs (i. e. captivation easily with addition man, kissing addition man, actuality baroque or effeminate, etc. . Abounding Atramentous gays affirmation to feel accustomed in the Atramentous affiliation already they get a adventitious to allocution to a Atramentous alone one on one to appearance them that not all gay bodies are what the media has portrayed. Ultimately, Atramentous gays, like abounding gays, accept to act “straight” and not accede any affection that they were homosexual. Homosexuality and Adoration (The Atramentous Church) The compassionate of homosexuality aural the branch of adoration is additionally important to accede because adoration has been a primary aspect of Atramentous liberation for centuries.
Homosexuality charcoal a above anathema in religious allocution which has prompted abounding advisers to assay why homophobic attitudes exist. In Delroy Constantine-Simms text, The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Atramentous Communities, the catechism is asked whether or not homosexuality is the greatest taboo? Constantine-Simms, E. Patrick Johnson, and Horace Griffin all accommodate accessories that assay the accord amid homosexuality and adoration (specifically the Atramentous church). All authors accede that the bible has been co-opted by the religious appropriate wings agreement a greater accent on break rather than integration.
The authors all analyze the homophobia that revolves about adoration to the racism and sexism that still today clouds religion. Constantine-Simms states, “With the analytic filigree provided by a appraisal of domination, we are able to clarify out the sexism, patriarchalism, violence, and homophobia that are actual abundant a allotment of the Bible, appropriately liberating it to accede to us in beginning agency the in breaking, in our time, of God’s domination-free order” (Constantine-Simms, 2000: 87).
In Keith Boykin’s book One Added River to Cross, he speaks of several ministers he’s interviewed apropos homosexuality and religion. The majority of reverends interviewed agreed that homosexuality is a sin generally commendation the Bible to reinforce their opinion. Boykin highlights one abbey in accurate who has targeted the gay affiliation as sinners. Boykin cites the Abbey James Sykes as one of best accepted opponents of homosexuality in the Atramentous church. Boykin quotes Sykes arresting a Klu Klux Klan meeting, “If I like pork chops and the Klan brand pork chops, cipher has annihilation to say.
But because the Klan agrees that homosexuality is wrong, and I accede that homosexuality is wrong, afresh all the abrupt I’m sleeping with the Klan” (Boykin, 1996: 127-128). This attitude adjoin homosexuality is alarming because Sykes is the pastor of a four hundred additional affiliate church. Boykin, forth with several alternative scholars, advance that the accent of adoration has been besmirched by appropriate addition moralists who appetite annihilation added than to eradicate homosexuality from the church. Media Perceptions of Atramentous Homosexuality Images of Atramentous homosexuality accept been predominately abrogating in accepted ability today.
Across the lath all individuals who accept researched this affair accede that gay Atramentous men are represented abnormally in accepted culture. Gay Atramentous men accept been portrayed as abandoned of masculinity, hyper-sexual, sassy, and flamboyant. Marlon T. Riggs, columnist of Atramentous Macho Revisited: Reflections of a Snap! Queen, discusses his acrimony appear the beeline men of the Atramentous community. Riggs states that he accepted the obstacles in activity from the White affiliation because of his race, but never accepted obstacles from his own brothers apropos his sexuality.
Riggs believes that they should accept what it is like to be oppressed, and accordingly should adios any angle of corruption back they accept to face a anatomy of it every day as well. Riggs cites several Atramentous men who accept done annihilation but participate in the abasement of the gay Atramentous male. His best archetype lies in a ball appearance that acclimated to air advantaged In Active Color, in which two beeline Atramentous men portrayed gay Atramentous men to analysis movies from a “man’s point of view. ” Riggs additionally brings the altercation up afresh apropos the ‘trap” of actuality gay and Black. I am a Negro Faggot, if I accept what movies, TV, and rap music say of me. Because of my sexuality, I cannot be Black. A strong, proud, “Afrocentric” Atramentous man is advisedly heterosexual, not alike bisexual. ” (Riggs, 1991: 389-394) Various video productions accept been produced that attack to accede the difficulties of actuality both gay and Black. Films such as Tongues Untied carefully deconstruct the acquaintance of the gay Atramentous male. Tongues Untied is directed and produced by Marlon Riggs.
The blur addresses the attack gay Atramentous men face silenced and broken amid both the gay and Atramentous communities. Riggs video encapsulates the pain, fear, and abhorrence gay Atramentous men accord with negotiating their identities aural a affiliation that does not admit their chase and a affiliation that rejects their sexuality. The blur presents a absolute bulletin for gay Atramentous men to adulation not alone themselves but their Atramentous brethren. Tongues Untied presents the best beheld representation of what it agency to be Atramentous and gay in America.
Current media is attempting to aggrandize cultural stereotypes. While some of those abrogating stereotypes that accept been able by accepted media still exist, these new forms are gluttonous to annihilate those accomplished stereotypes and appearance the apple that there isn’t aloof one angel of the African American gay man. Attitudes adjoin Homosexuality and their aftereffect on Gay Atramentous Men Active Aboveboard White and Atramentous attitudes adjoin homosexuality accept anon afflicted gay Atramentous men to a greater amount than gay White men. Previous studies accept yielded an arrangement of alloyed results.
Levitt and Klassen (1974) begin in their analysis that whites decidedly advance added abrogating attitudes adjoin homosexuality than Blacks. Years after Hudson and Ricketts (1980) and Schneider and Lewis (1984) begin the opposite. The best accustomed after-effects apropos Blacks and whites and their attitudes adjoin homosexuality displayed that Blacks were added acceptable to abutment anti-discrimination laws but Whites were about added accepting of the homosexual lifestyle. Gregory Lewis (2003) conducted analysis that measures Black-white differences in attitudes adjoin homosexuality and gay rights.
His commodity uses responses from about seven thousand Blacks and forty-three thousand whites in 31 surveys conducted back 1973 to accord added absolute answers on Black-white attitudinal differences and their demographic roots. Lewis’s allegation associate with the analysis of the accomplished announcement Blacks as “percentage credibility added acceptable than whites to adjudge homosexual relations as “always wrong” and allotment credibility added acceptable to see them warranting “God’s punishment” in the anatomy of AIDS, but no added like to favor criminalizing gay sex” (Lewis, 2003: 63).
Lewis additionally begin that while Black’s attitudes apropos homosexuality were predominantly negative; Blacks are allotment credibility added acceptable than whites to abutment laws prohibiting antigay job discrimination. Difference in attitudes amount because as Lewis states, “First, Atramentous lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) may await on same-race heterosexuals for accepting alike added than white LGBs do (Icard, 1986)” (Lewis, 2003: 61). Those aforementioned advisers assured that Blacks admiring to their own gender generally acquaintance added burden than whites to adumbrate their homosexual behavior, accept children, or ally (Icard, 1986).
This abhorrence of “coming out” represents a botheration aural the gay Atramentous affiliation and they become trapped which prevents them from active the lives they feel they care to be living. Conclusion The Atramentous gay macho attack absolutely is a asperous one. Compared to my adventures with homosexuality, it seems that Atramentous gay males accept abundant added burden on them to accommodate to the heterosexual amusing sanctions of society, their own atramentous community, and racism. I can absolutely chronicle to the actuality corruption and acting beeline (such as blame the thoughts out of my mind).
The way association angle all homosexuality needs to change, and is boring changing. Atramentous gay males should be paid a little added absorption to in the media, research, and alternative forms of advice so that the weight of these pressures may be aerial off of their shoulder. Alike alternative minorities such as Hipic, Asian, or Indian should be added looked aloft to accessible the nation’s eyes to the assortment and attack of all homosexuals, not aloof the white gay male. With this actuality said, I feel we are demography abundant strides with the LGBTQ affiliation to added the ambition to accommodate all who are struggling.
We aloof charge to acquisition a way to annihilate any prejudices that accomplish it alike harder for Atramentous gay males or any ethnicity/orientation to acquisition beatitude and acceptance. Works Cited Alexander, William H. (2004) "Homosexual and Ancestral Character Conflicts and Depression Amid African? American Gay Males," Trotter Review: Vol. 16: Iss. 1, Commodity 8. Available at: http://scholarworks. umb. edu/trotter_review/vol16/iss1/8 Bailey, Robert W. (1999) Gay Politics, Urban Politics: Character and Economics in the Urban Setting. Chichester - West Sussex, New York: Columbia University Press.
Boykin, Keith (1996). One Added River to Cross. Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. Anchor Books. Constantine-Simms, Delroy. , ed. The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Atramentous Communities. Alyson Publications. 2000. Hudson, Walter W. , and Wendell A. Ricketts. 1980. “A Strategy for the Measurement of Homophobia. ” Journal of Homosexuality 5(4):357-72 Icard, L. (1986). Atramentous gay men and adverse amusing identities: Animal acclimatization against ancestral identity. Journal of Amusing Work and Human Sexuality, 4, 83-93. Levitt, Eugene E. , and Albert D.
Klassen. 1974. “Public Attitudes adjoin Homosexuality: Allotment of the 1970 Nation Survey by the Institute for Sex Research. ” Journal of Homosexuality. 1(1):29-43. Lewis, Gregory B. Black-white differences in attitudes adjoin homosexuality and gay rights. Public Assessment Quarterly. Chicago: Spring 2003. Vol. 67, Iss. 1; pg. 59, 20 pgs. Peterson, J. L. (1992). “Black Men and Their Same-Sex Desires and Behaviors. ” In Gay Ability in America, edited by Gilbert Herdt. Boston: Beacon Press Riggs, Marlon T. Atramentous Macho Revisited: Reflections of a Snap! Queen.
Black American Literature Forum, Vol. 25, No. 2, Atramentous Blur Issue. (Summer, 1991), pp. 389- 394. Riggs, M. (director). Tongues Untied. 55 min. Frameline, Inc. , 1989. Available at: http://www. dailymotion. com/video/xe80ww_tvxs-gr-tongues-untied_people#. UWRkFE7n9Ms Smith, Barbara. The Truth that Never Hurts. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and London. 1998. Pgs 125-132. Stokes, Joseph P. , and John L. Peterson. 1998. “Homophobia, Self-Esteem, and Risk for HIV amid African American Men Who Accept Sex with Men. ” AIDS Education and Prevention 10(3):278-92
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