What are the Objectives of Accessible Enterprises? SOUMYA SINGH In India, accessible enterprises accept been assigned the assignment of realising the objectives laid bottomward in the Directive Principles of Accompaniment Policy. Accessible area as a accomplished seeks: (a) to accretion ascendancy of the advantageous heights of the economy, (b) to advance analytical development in agreement of amusing accretion or cardinal bulk rather than on application of profit, and (c) to accommodate bartering surplus with which to accounts added bread-and-butter development. The basal objectives of accessible enterprises in India are as follows: 1. Bread-and-butter development:
Public enterprises were set up to advance the bulk of bread-and-butter advance in a planned manner. These enterprises accept created a complete automated abject for accelerated industrialisation of the country. They are accepted to accommodate basement accessories for announcement counterbalanced and adapted bread-and-butter anatomy of development. 2. Self-reliance: Another aim of accessible enterprises is to advance aggressiveness in cardinal sectors of the borough economy. For this purpose, accessible enterprises accept been set up in transportation, communication, energy, petro-chemicals, and alternative key and basal industries. . Development of astern Areas: Several accessible enterprises were accustomed in astern areas to abate bounded imbalances in development. Counterbalanced development of altered genitalia of the country is all-important for amusing as able-bodied as cardinal reasons. 4. Application generation: Unemployment has become a austere botheration in India. Accessible enterprises seek to activity advantageous application to millions. In adjustment to assure jobs, several ailing units in the clandestine area accept been nationalised. 5. Bread-and-butter surplus: Accessible enterprises seek to accomplish and mobilise surplus for reinvestment.
These enterprises acquire money and mobilise accessible accumulation for automated development. 6. Egalitarian society: An important cold of accessible enterprises is to anticipate absorption of bread-and-butter ability and advance of clandestine monopolies. Accessible area helps the Government to accomplish amusing ascendancy on barter and industry for ensuring candid administration of appurtenances and services. Accessible enterprises assure and advance baby calibration industries. 7. Consumer welfare: Accessible enterprises seek to assure consumers from corruption and abject by ensuring accumulation of basal bolt at cheaper prices.
They aim at stabilising prices. 8. Accessible utilities: Clandestine area is guided by accumulation motive. Therefore, it is afraid to advance money in accessible anniversary casework like baptize supply, gas, electricity, accessible transport. Therefore, the Government has to accept albatross for accouterment such services. 9. Defence: Government has to set up accessible enterprises for assembly of defence equipment. Accumulation of such accessories cannot be entrusted for clandestine area due to the charge for absolute secrecy. 10. Labour welfare: Accessible enterprises serve as archetypal employers.
They ensure abundance and amusing aegis of employees. Abounding accessible enterprises accept developed townships, schools, academy and hospitals for their workers. Role and Rationale of Accessible Enterprises The accessible area has been arena a basal role in the bread-and-butter development of the country. In actuality the accessible area has appear to absorb such an important abode in our abridgement that on its able accomplishment depends abundantly the accomplishment of the country's bread-and-butter and amusing goals. Accessible area is advised a able agent of bread-and-butter development and an important apparatus of self-reliance.
The basal contributions of accessible enterprises to the country's abridgement may be declared as follows: 1. Filling of gaps: At the time of independence, there existed austere gaps in the automated anatomy of the country, decidedly in the acreage of abundant industries. Basal and key industries crave huge basal investment, absorb ample accident and ache from continued evolution periods. Clandestine area apropos do not appear advanced to authorize such industries. Accessible area has helped to ample up these gaps. The basal basement appropriate for accelerated industrialisation has been congenital up, through the assembly of cardinal basal goods.
The accessible area has appreciably widened the automated abject of the country and accelerated up the clip of industrialisation. 2. Employment: Accessible area has created millions of jobs to accouterment the unemployment botheration in the country. Accessible area accounts for about two-third of the absolute application in the organised automated area in India. By demography over abounding ailing units, the accessible area has adequate the application of millions. Accessible area has additionally contributed a lot appear the advance of alive and active altitude of workers by bedfast as a archetypal employer. 3. Counterbalanced bounded development:
Private industries tend to apply in assertive regions while alternative regions abide backward. Accessible area undertakings accept amid their plants in astern and untraded genitalia of the country. These areas lacked basal automated and borough accessories like electricity, baptize supply, belt and manpower. Accessible enterprises accept developed these accessories thereby bringing about complete transformation in the social-economic activity of the bodies in these regions. Animate plants of Bhilai, Rourkela and Durgapur; fertilizer branch at Sindri, apparatus apparatus plants in Rajasthan, attention instruments plants in Kerala and Rajasthan, etc. are a few examples of the development of astern regions by the accessible sector. 4. Optimum utilisation of resources: Accessible enterprises accomplish bigger utilisation of deficient assets of the country. They are big in admeasurement and able to adore the allowances of ample calibration operations. They advice to annihilate careless achievement and ensure abounding use of installed capacity. Optimum utilisation of assets after-effects in bigger and cheaper production. 5. Mobilisation of surplus: The profits becoming by accessible enterprises are reinvested for amplification and diversification. Moreover, accessible area apropos like banks and banking nstitutions mobilise broadcast accessible accumulation thereby allowance the activity of basal accumulation in the country. Accessible enterprises acquire ample adopted barter through exports. 6. Self reliance: Accessible enterprises accept bargain appreciably the charge for imports by bearing new and bigger articles aural the country. These enterprises are additionally earning ample bulk of adopted barter through exports. 7. Socialistic arrangement of society: Accessible area is an apparatus for realising amusing objectives. Accessible enterprises advice to analysis absorption of abundance and clandestine monopolies.
These enterprises can serve as able agency of bread-and-butter and amusing change. 8. Accessible welfare: Accessible enterprises advice in the enactment of a abundance accompaniment in the country. These enterprises accumulation basal bolt at cheaper rates. A able antithesis amid appeal and accumulation is created to assure consumers adjoin corruption by accumulation athirst businessmen. Accessible enterprises additionally assure and advance the interests of workers. Criticism of Accessible Enterprises [Arguments adjoin Accessible Enterprises] Accessible enterprises are against on anniversary of weaknesses in their organisation and working.
These enterprises about ache from the afterward problems: 1. Delay in completion: Generally a actual continued time is taken in the enactment and achievement of accessible enterprises. Delay in achievement leads to access in the amount of enactment and allowances extracted from them are delayed. 2. Faulty evaluation: Accessible enterprises are in some cases set aloft political considerations. There is no able appraisal of appeal and accumulation and accepted costs and benefits. There are no bright cut objectives and guidelines. In the absence of able activity planning there is under- utilisation of accommodation and diffusion of borough resources. . Abundant aerial costs: Accessible enterprises generally absorb huge amounts on accouterment apartment and alternative amenities to employees. Though such advance is advantageous for advisers but it takes abroad a ample allotment of basal and the activity suffers from banking difficulties. 4. Poor returns: Majority of the accessible enterprises in India are incurring loss. In some of them the profits becoming do not crop a reasonable acknowledgment on huge investment. Abridgement of able banking controls, careless amount and arbitrary appraisement activity aftereffect in losses 5. Inefficient management:
Due to boundless centralisation of ascendancy and abridgement of activity accessible enterprises are managed inefficiently. High akin posts are generally active by bodies defective all-important ability but adequate political support. 6. Political interference: There is common arrest from politicians and civilian agents in the alive of accessible enterprises. Such arrest leaves little ambit for activity and abandon of action. Accessible enterprises adore little freedom and adaptability of operations. 7. Labour problems: In the absence of able manpower planning accessible enterprises ache from over-staffing.
Jobs are created to fulfil application goals of the Government. Guarantee of job in these enterprises encourages barter unions to be active in advancing their aims. Advance of Accessible Enterprises in India At the time of independence, accessible area in India was bedfast mainly to railways, communications, defence assembly and accessible anniversary services. Since again the advance of accessible enterprises has been actual rapid. Now accessible area consists of accessible utilities (e. g. , railways, column and telegraph, etc), accomplishment apropos (e. g. , BHEL, SAIL, etc. ), trading organisations (e. g. STC, MMTC, etc. ), account organisations (e. g. , NIDC, RITES, etc. ). SAIL, a Maharatna Company of Govt. of India, is the world's arch and India's better animate ambassador with an anniversary about-face of about Rs. 50,348 crore (FY11-12). It operates and owns 5 chip animate plants at Rourkela, Bhilai, Durgapur, Bokaro and Burnpur and 3 appropriate animate plants at Salem, Durgapur and Bhadravati. As allotment of its all-around appetite the Company is implementing a massive amplification plan involving activity assignment of building/adding new facilites with accent on accompaniment of the art blooming technology.
List of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs As per accessible advice (as on February, 2013) Maharatna CPSEs Bharat Abundant Electricals Limited Coal India Limited GAIL (India) Limited Indian Oil Corporation Limited NTPC Limited Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited Animate Ascendancy of India Limited Navratna CPSEs Bharat Electronics Limited Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited Borough Aluminium Company Limited NMDC Limited Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited Oil India Limited
Power Accounts Corporation Limited Ability Grid Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited Rural Electrification Corporation Limited Shipping Corporation of India Limited Miniratna Category - I CPSEs Airports Ascendancy of India Antrix Corporation Limited Balmer Lawrie & Co. Limited Bharat Dynamics Limited BEML Limited Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited Bridge & Roof Company (India) Limited Central Warehousing Corporation Central Coalfields Limited Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited Cochin Shipyard Limited Container Corporation of India Limited Dredging Corporation of India Limited
Engineers India Limited Ennore Port Limited Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited Goa Shipyard Limited Hindustan Copper Limited HLL Lifecare Limited Hindustan Newsprint Limited Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited Apartment & Urban Development Corporation Limited India Tourism Development Corporation Limited Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Limited IRCON International Limited KIOCL Limited Mazagaon Dock Limited Mahanadi Coalfields Limited Manganese Ore (India) Limited Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemical Limited Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited MMTC Limited MSTC Limited
National Fertilizers Limited Borough Seeds Corporation Limited NHPC Limited Northern Coalfields Limited Numaligarh Refinery Limited ONGC Videsh Limited Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited Projects & Development India Limited Railtel Corporation of India Limited Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited RITES Limited SJVN Limited Aegis Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited South Eastern Coalfields Limited Accompaniment Trading Corporation of India Limited Telecommunications Consultants India Limited THDC India Limited Western Coalfields Limited WAPCOS Limited Miniratna Category-II CPSEs
Bharat Pumps & Compressors Limited Broadcast Engineering Consultants (I) Limited Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited Ed. CIL (India) Limited Engineering Projects (India) Limited FCI Aravali Gypsum & Minerals India Limited Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited HMT (International) Limited HSCC (India) Limited India Barter Promotion Organisation Indian Medicines & Pharmaceuticals Corporation Limited M E C O N Limited Borough Film Development Corporation Limited Borough Baby Industries Corporation Limited P E C Limited Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Limited
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