Product Positioning in the Market

ISSN 1392-2785 ENGINEERING ECONOMICS. 2008. No 1 (56) COMMERCE OF ENGINEERING DECISIONS Abstract Aspects of Artefact Accession in the Bazaar R ta Ostasevi i t Kauno technologijos universitetas K. Donelai io g. 73, LT-44029, Kaunas The commodity consists of fourteen parts, starting with the addition area the novelty, the botheration of the research, the commodity of the research, the purpose of the assay and the assay methods are described. The purpose of the commodity is approach and absolute description of the ability and advice (found in a ample cardinal of sources) about the accession concept, its position in the STP model, articular description of the artefact accession action accomplish as recommendations for acknowledged artefact accession action accomplishment. It is accessible that to be acknowledged a artefact charge absorb an explicit, distinct, and able place, in the minds of abeyant and absolute consumers, about to alternative battling articles on the market. Artefact accession is the apparatus to accomplish the aloft mentioned result. The commodity analyses how the artefact should be positioned on the market. The additional allotment of the artic conceptions of artefact accession in the market. Those include: Etzel, Walker, Stanton (1997), Ries and Trout (1986), Kotler (2006), Armstrong (2006), Bhat (1998), Fill (2006), Ferrel (1997), Lamb, Hair, McDaniel (2004), Boone and Kurz (2001). The third allotment defines the basement of artefact afterward parts: segmentation, targeting and positioning. The fourth allotment describes artefact accession steps, interpreted by altered scholars. There are two samples of artefact accession action accustomed (by Hooley (2004) and Hutt, Spech (2004)) and a archetypal created by the authors of this article. The seventh part, identification and assay of aggressive articles in the market, describes the best agency how to assay aggressive products, altered levels of competition. The eighth part, identification of account attributes and barometer their acceptation to the user, reveals the techniques for alternative of account attributes and belief for acknowledged account attributes. The ninth part, identification of accepted position of the artefact and alternative aggressive articles according to account attributes, shows accessible agency of accustomed out this artefact accession action stage. The tenth part, agreement of the accession map, reveals the action of their conception and provides affidavit why it is such a able apparatus for analytical the positions of products. The eleventh part, the assurance of the acclimatized position of the product, speaks about the ideal position of a artefact and area companies appetite to position their articles (the acclimatized position). The twelfth paragraph, alleged the alternative of accession or repositioning strategy, reveals accessible accession strategies proposed by assorted authors, repositioning strategies, presented by Doyle, Stern (2006), accessible affidavit of bare positioning. The thirteenth part, conception of the accession statement, discusses the three models of conception of artefact accession statement: X-Y-Z model, I-D-U model, and a-b-e model. The aftermost allotment consists of abstracts on abstract studies of artefact accession process. Keywords: artefact positioning, artefact accession teps, account attributes, accession map, accession and repositioning strategy, accession statement. Addition There is no artefact in the apple that does not accept a position. Artefact accession is about afterimage and acceptance and what artefact represents for a buyer. In markets area the intensiveness of animosity and antagonism are accretion and buyers accept a greater built-in ethics become critical. An alms with a bright character and acclimatization to a needs will not alone be purchased, but can accreditation a beyond allowance through added added value. Numerous organizations are aggravating to administer their positions active by their articles and are application altered accession strategies to move to new positions in consumers minds and so accomplish an advantage over their competitors. Earlier accession was actual important in markets that are actual aggressive and area advancement barriers are about low. Nowadays these bazaar characteristics can be activated about to every industry or business, and to any economy. No product, of those which accept survived, can be absurd after clear, audible and accelerated positioning. It is vivid, that for a acknowledged artefact in the bazaar acceptable affection and able-bodied accepted cast are not enough. The artefact charge absorb an explicit, distinct, and able place, in the minds of abeyant and absolute consumers, about to alternative battling articles on the market. Extensive (or not reaching) that adorable position in the minds of consumers is the aftereffect of acknowledged (or not successful) positioning. The commodity analyses how the artefact should be positioned on the market. The commodity of the research: artefact accession in the market. Purpose of the research: to arrange and thoroughly call the ability and advice (found in a ample cardinal of sources) about the accession concept, its position in the STP model, coherently call the artefact accession action accomplish as recommendations for acknowledged artefact accession action accomplishment. Assay methods used: Conducting abstract studies of accession in the market, the adjustment of allusive assay and allocation of accurate abstract were used. Concept of artefact accession There is a abundant cardinal of altered definitions of accession in accurate abstract of marketing. The abstraction of accession seeks to abode a artefact in a assertive rspective buyers. Marketers offerings from those of competitors and to actualize promotions that acquaint the acclimatized position. Boone and Kurz (2001) Scientists Etzel, Walker and Stanton (1997) accredit to a artefact and to differentiate (position) it in a favorable way from agnate products. Ries and Trout (1986) assay from all alternative business theoretics, advertence that accession is not what is done to a product. Positioning is what you do to the apperception of the prospect. The aforementioned authors announce that accession starts with a product. A allotment of merchandise, a service, a company, an institution, or alike a person. However, Kotler (2006) defines accession as the act of designing the upies a audible and admired position in the ambition consumers mind. Advisers Kotler, Armstrong (2006) verify that bazaar accession is alignment for a artefact to absorb a clear, distinctive, and adorable place, in the minds of ambition consumers, about to aggressive products. Thus, marketers plan positions that assay their articles from aggressive articles and accord them the greatest cardinal advantage in their ambition markets. The purpose of accession is to actualize a different and favorable angel in the minds of ambition customers, Bhat (1998). The columnist Fill (2006) states, that positioning, therefore, is the accustomed cessation to the arrangement of activities that aggregate a bulk allotment of the business strategy. Bazaar assay and ambition business are prerequisites to acknowledged positioning. Product accession refers to the decisions and activities advised to actualize and advance a assertive abstraction 1997). Accession is developing a specific business mix to brand, artefact line, or alignment in accepted (Lamb, Hair, McDaniel 2004) perceptions of a articles attributes about to the attributes of aggressive products. Buyers accomplish a ample cardinal of acquirement decisions every day. To abstain connected reevaluation of abundant products, buyers tend to group, decisions. Rather than acceptance barter to position articles independently, marketers charge try to influence The accomplish of STP archetypal The foundation of accession approach is fabricated of one of the best important postulates of the science of marketing. acutely assorted and that a the advance it is simple to ascertain the aspect of the STP model: to present the artefact to those consumers, who appetite it and are able to access it. The aboriginal two accomplish of the STP archetypal serve to acquisition and ascertain the acclimatized consumer, and accession serves for agreement the artefact in the adorable position in the minds of ambition consumers. Scholars Grancutt, Leadley and Forsyth (2004) thoroughly call the STP archetypal accomplish in the table beneath Table 1 The STP archetypal accomplish Assay * Choose variables for segmenting bazaar * Build a contour of the segments (sub-segments) * Validate arising segments Targeting * Adjudge on targeting action * Assay which and how abounding segments should be targeted Accession * Understand chump perceptions * Position articles in the apperception of the chump * Design acclimatized business mix to acquaint accession Source: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004) Product accession accomplish Scholar Winner (2007) has a audible appearance on artefact accession decisions; he emphasizes chump accommodation authoritative action as the best important affair in artefact accession steps. According to the scientist, marketers accept to acknowledgment the afterward questions back accession the artefact What ambit do consumers use to appraise artefact offerings in the industry or category? How important is anniversary of these ambit is in the accommodation authoritative process? How do you and antagonism assay on the dimensions? What accommodation processes do the barter use? The columnist Hooley (2001) determines these stages of artefact accession process: Table 2 Artefact accession accomplish Identification of competitors Singling out accommodation authoritative attributes Evaluation out of accommodation authoritative aspect acceptation Assay the account attributes and admeasurement their acceptation to the user Artefact accession accomplish Assay and assay aggressive articles in the bazaar Table 4 Identification of adversary position according to the best important attributes Assay the accepted position of the artefact and alternative aggressive articles according to account attributes Identification of chump needs Preparation of a chump map Alternative of the acclimatized position Alternative of accession action Source: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004) Compose the accession map Actuate the acclimatized position of the artefact Baddest accession or repositioning action Actualize the accession account Scientists Hutt, Spech (2004) advance the afterward accomplish in the artefact accession process: Table 3 Artefact accession accomplish Assay the accordant set of aggressive articles Assay the set of account attributes that barter use to differentiate amid options and actuate the adopted choice Identification and assay of aggressive articles in the bazaar Drawing accession frames for a product, class associates should be bent first, i. e. alternative articles that attempt in the aforementioned bazaar and can serve as substitutes. The best advised agency for assurance is allows accession a ample bulk of advantageous data, which is calmly systemized, adapted, candy statistically. One of the capital advantages of chump assay is the anonymousness. Deep account can be additionally acclimated to actuate the battling articles in the market, but due to beyond time and banking costs is acclimated seldom. Scientists Hooley, Saunders, Piercy (2006) accompaniment that antagonism can booty abode in the afterward levels: Antagonism with articles with akin qualities Antagonism in the aforementioned artefact accumulation Antagonism with alternative articles that amuse the aforementioned or actual agnate chump address Antagonism in the aforementioned chump address akin As mentioned aloft it is awfully important not alone to actuate all articles on the aforementioned shelf, but additionally actuate the rivals to the accomplished shelf. Identification of account attributes and barometer their acceptation to the user Collect advice from a sample of absolute and abeyant barter apropos their ratings of anniversary artefact on the account attributes offerings for anniversary bazaar articulation Examine the fit amid preferences of bazaar segments and accepted position of artefact Baddest accession or repositioning action Source: Hutt, Spech (2004) Concentrating all discussed artefact accession models the authors of this commodity adduce the afterward algorithm of accession action steps. After the identification and assay of aggressive articles in the market, account attributes should be articular and their acceptation to the user should be measured. According to Aaker, (2005) account attributes ascertain not alone the articles allowances and bulk to the user, but additionally associations with the artefact arresting action and with the chump himself. The authors Hooley, Saunders, Piery (2006) accede a qualitative Assurance of the acclimatized position of the product Identification of the accepted position of the artefact and alternative aggressive articles according to account attributes Alternative of accession or repositioning action Agreement of the accession map It is important to mention, that the aloft mentioned strategies are not detached and usually are aloof pats of circuitous amalgam strategies, acclimated by marketers. Sometimes, changes in the aggressive ambiance force marketers to repositi position it holds in the minds of consumers about to the positions of aggressive products. Scientists Doyle, Stern (2006) advance the afterward repositioning options (the aboriginal two are absolute repositioning strategies, the blow can be advised psychological): Introduce a new cast Change absolute cast Alter behavior about the cast Alter behavior about aggressive brands Alter aspect accent weights Introduce new or alone attributes Acquisition a new bazaar articulation Not alone changes on the bazaar advance to a address for a new repositioning strategy. Very generally the artefact fails because of marketers antecedent accession mistakes. Brooke (1994) states that a artefact may be clumsily positioned for three reasons: The articulation in which it is targeted ability accept become airedale because it is too small, declining, too aggressive or contrarily unprofitable. Accession ability be bare because the affection and appearance that the artefact offers do not address to the articulation to which it is targeted. igh to acquiesce it to be priced competitively. Scientists Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004), Kotler (2006) announce four capital chancy artefact positions on the market: underpositioning, overpositioning, abashed accession and ambiguous positioning: Table 5 Chancy positions Abeyant accident Underpositioning Comment Some companies ascertain that buyers accept alone a ambiguous abstraction of the cast and the features/benefits of that brand. Customers may not be acquainted of annihilation decidedly appropriate about the cast Barter may accept too attenuated a appearance of the brand. Accordingly a chump ability anticipate that a accurate bottle company, for example, alone produces affluence items that retail at aerial prices. However, it may aftermath a array of cheaper accepted glassware. Barter could be abashed about the position of the cast aural the marketplace. This abashing may aftereffect from the aggregation authoritative too abounding accession too frequently. Customers may acquisition it adamantine to accept the claims fabricated by the aggregation about its cast in appearance of benefits, the amount and the name of the manufacturer. Source: Grancutt, Leadley, Forsyth (2004) This action is apparently the best arduous and difficult aspect accession accomplishing steps. Advisers Capon, Hulbert (2001) ascertain the conception of accession account as a complex, creative, and awful alternate process, generally involving abounding cut-and-try attempts, afore the satisfactory aftereffect is achieved. Clear accession statements accept above value. For example, one of the best accepted complaints announcement companies accomplish about their admirers is that they accept not antiseptic their strategies. Although accession statements are not announcement messages, they accommodate accomplished difficulty. According to Kalafatis, Tsogas, Blankson (2000) accession statements comedy a basic role in allowance to adviser rts in the marketplace, they are both acute internally and externally. Scientists Rossiter, Piercy (1997) ascertain the afterward models for artefact accession account creation: X-YZ macromodel I-D-U mezomodel A-b-e micromodel Creating accession account according to the X-YZ model, a banker should adjudge on the afterward issues: nded ambition admirers (Y) artefact class (X) what account (benefits) does the artefact accompany to chump (Z) Any affectionate of announcement attempts should emphasize: the account to the consumer, which should be different emotions. he emphasized account charge be important to the accomplished artefact class (I) not acknowledgment at all or admonish chump of accessible artefact weaknesses (D). Abstracts Having completed the abstract studies of artefact accession in the bazaar the afterward abstracts can be made: Accession plays a key role back extensive the acclimatized abode in the mindsets of abeyant and absolute consumers. Best scientists of the acreage of business ascertain artefact accession as arrange for a artefact to absorb a clear, distinctive, and adorable abode in the minds of ambition consumers, about to aggressive articles in the market. The position of a artefact is formed by articles attributes about to the attributes of aggressive articles Artefact accession is an inseparable and best important allotment of the STP model. If the aboriginal two accomplish (segmentation and targeting) accommodate flaws or are clumsily or clumsily performed, acknowledged artefact accession is bedevilled to fail. Summarizing the assessment of assorted scholars, it is accessible that artefact accession is a complex, Overpositioning Abashed accession Ambiguous positioning Creation of the accession account From the assay abstracts acquired in the aboriginal accomplish of artefact accession action and the business action developed, it is all-important to codify a accession account that is in tune with the promotional objectives. continuing and alternation process. While accession a artefact marketers should at atomic (there can be more) go through the afterward steps: 1. assay and assay aggressive articles in the market, 2. assay the account attributes and admeasurement their acceptation to the user, 3. baddest accession or repositioning strategy, 4. ompose the accession map, 5. actuate the acclimatized position of the product, 6. assay the accepted position of the artefact and alternative aggressive articles according to account attributes, 7. actualize accession statement. References 1. 2. Aaker, D. A. Cardinal Business Management. New York: The Free Press, 2005. Arora R. Artefact accession based on search, acquaintance and creedence attributes application aggregate assay // Journal of artefact and cast management, Nr. 5, 2006. Bhat, S. Symbolic and anatomic accession of brands / S. Bhat, S. Reddy //Journal of Chump Marketing, 1998, No 1, p. 2-43. Boone, L. Contemporary business 10th edition/ L. Boone, D. Kurtz. Harcourt, 2001. Brooksbank R. The analysis of accession strategy. // Business intelligence and planning. 1994, No. 4, Capon, N. Business Administration / N. Capon, J. M. Hulbert. Upper Saddle River, 2001. Dik ius, V. Marketingo tyrimai: teorija ir praktika. Vilnius, 2006. Doyle, P. Business administration and action Fourth edition. / P. Doyle, Ph. Stern, Harlow, 2006. Etzel, M. Business 11th copy / M. Etzel, B. Walker, W. Stanton. New Jersey, 1997. 24. intelligence and planning, No. 5, 2002. 25. Pranulis, V. Marketingo tyrimai / Vilnius, 1998. 26. Ries, A. Positioning: The Battle for Your Apperception / A. Ries, J. Trout. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986. 27. Rossiter, J. Announcement Communications and Promotion Administration / J. Rossiter, L. Piercy. New York: McGraw hill, 1997. 28. Sheinin, D. A. Accession cast extensions: implications for behavior and attitudes // Journal of Artefact & Cast Management, 1998, No 2. 29. Winer, R. S. Business Management. Third copy / Upper Saddle River, 2007. R ta Ostasevi i t Prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje teoriniai aspektai Santrauka Pasaulyje nerasime prek s, kuri netur t pozicijos. Prek s pozicija yra tai, kaip pirk jas suvokia prek pagal tam tikrus apsisprendimo tos pa ios kategorijos preki . Prek identitetu ir orientacija potenciali ar esam pirk j norus ne tik bus noriai perkama, bet ir gali garantuoti didesnius pelnus, kadangi yra sukuriama didesn prid tin vert . Dauguma organizacij bando valdyti savo preki vairias pozicionavimo strategijas, kad patekt naujas (norimas) pozicijas potenciali ar esam pirk j galvosenose ir taip susikurt ias prekes. Anks iau pozicionavimas buvo laba jimo barjer charakteristikos gali b verslui. N ti ir gana intensyvaus pozicionavimo. Tyrimo problema: savaime suprantama, kad s kmingai prekei rinkoje geros kokyb turi ir tinkam viet esam ir potenciali vartotoj galvosenoje. Norimos pozicijos vartotoj galvosenoje pasiekimas (arba nepasiekimas) yra s kmingo (ar nes kmingo) pozicionavimo rezultatas. tur t b ti pozicionuojama rinkoje. Tyrimo objektas: prek s pozicionavimas rinkoje. Tyrimo tikslas: iai informacij apie prek s pozicionavimo koncepcij viet s rinkoje, kaip rekomendacijas s kmingai gyvendinti prek s pozicionavim rinkoje. Tyrimo metodai: atliekant teorin prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje tyrim , naudota sistemin bei lyginamoji mokslin s literat ros analiz . Prek s pozicionavimo koncepcija: Mokslin je marketingo literat roje galima rasti labai daug littoral prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje apibr . Boone ir Kurtz (2001) pozicionavimo koncepcij apib dina kaip prek s traukim tam tikr viet potenciali pirk j galvose. Autoriai Etzel, Walker ir Stanton (1997) business apib dina kaip vadybinink sugeb jim atkreipti vartotoj d mes prek ir palankiai diferencijuoti (pozicionuoti) j tarp kit preki . Jungtini Amerikos Valstij mokslininkai Ries ir Trout (1986) kit marketingo teoretik , teigdami, kad pozicionavimas vertinti ir suprasti savo ir konkurent preki pozicij prek s rinkoje. Pozicionavimas n ra tai, k darome prekei, tai - kaip veikiate potencialaus pirk laiko ir k rybiniu s, paslaugos, mon s ar iau pozicionuojant nedaroma Tuo tarpu Kotler (2006) teigia pinimas, kad prek , atskir ir norim viet i preki tikslini vartotoj mintyse. Apibendrinant - prek s pozicija rinkoje yra vartotojo suvokimas apie prek s atributus, palyginant juos su konkuruojan ios prek s atributais. Kiekvienas pirk jas kasdien daro daug ir vairi apsisprendim pirkti. nuolatinio preki jai paprastai prekes grupuoja, arba pozicionuoja savo m stysenoje, tam, kad supaprastint ir sutrumpint savo sprendimo pirkti pri mimo proces . Kad pirk jai nepozicionuot preki bandyti veikti pirk j suvokim apie prek . 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Ferrel, P. Business 10th copy / Boston, 1997. 11. Fill, Ch. Business communications: engagement, strategies and convenance / Harlow, 2006. 12. Grancutt, J. Marketing: capital principles, new realities / J. Grancutt, P. Leadley, P. Forsyth. London, 2004. 13. Holley, G. Bazaar -Focused resources, aggressive accession and close achievement / G. Holley, G. Greenley, J. Fahy and J. Cadogan //Journal of Business Management,2001, No 5/6, p 503-520. 14. Hooley, G. Business action and aggressive accession / G. Hooley, J. Saunders, F. N. Piercy. Prentice Hall, 2005. 15. Hutt, M. D. Business business management. 8th copy /M. D. Hutt, T. W. Spech. Prentice Hall, 2004. 16. Janonis, V. Cast Angel Formation / V. Janonis, R. Virvilait // 78-90. 17. Kalafatis S. P. , Accession strategies in business markets / S. P. Kalafatis, M. H. Tsogas, C. Blankson // Journal of business and automated marketing. No 6, 2000 p. 416-437. 18. Knox S. Accession and branding your alignment // Journal of Artefact and Cast management, Nr. 2, 2004. 19. Kotler, Ph. Business administration 12th copy / Ph. Kotler, K. L. Keller. Upper Saddle River, 2006. 20. Kotler, Ph. Principles of marketing: 6th copy / Ph. Kotler, Armstrong, G. New Jersey, 1994. 21. Kotler, Ph. Rinkodaros principai / Ph. Kotler, G. Armstrong, J. Saunders, V. Wong. Kaunas, 2003. 22. Kotler, Ph. A framework for business management. Third edition. / Ph. Kotler, K. L. Keller. Upper Saddle River, 2007. 23. Lamb, W. Jr. Marketing. 7th copy / W. Lamb, Jr. , W. Hair. Jr. , C. McDaniel. Thompson south Western, 2004. Pozicionavimo pagrind postulat sudaro vienas svarbiausi marketingo s skirtingi, ir prek absoliu iai vardyti STP modelio naudojimo prasm potencialiai jo norintiems ir j galintiems vartotojams prek pasi lyti? Tam naudojami pirmieji du STP modelio s rinkos nustatymas. Tik po to prek gali b ti pozicionuojama - nustatoma jos pozicija tikslini vartotoj galvosenoje. tai nuomoni apie konkuruojan ias prekes (preki pozicij pasirinktos grup s asmen s mon je action (Pajuodis, 2000). stymo pozicionavimo strategijas, mon nustato savo viet rinkoje vartotoj ir konkurent sti d l vartotoj grupi (segment ), kurioms bandys daryti poveik , ir kartu d l savo veiklos profilio, kuris patenkint min t vartotoj articulation reikalavimus (tikslin s rinkos strategija). s irstomas etapais. Skirtingi autoriai pateikia littoral etap skai i , skiriasi ir j daugelio mokslinink si lomus prek straipsnio autor s pateikia tok j skai i konkuruojan i preki ; apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas ir j vertinimas; esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas; lapio suk rimas; norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas; pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas; pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. Konkuruojan i preki pozicionavimo r mus prekei, pirmiausia reikia nustatyti nario kategorij , kitas prekes, kurios konkuruoja su preke ir gali b ti jos pakaitalai. Geriausias b ias prekes yra kiekybinis tyrimo apklausa, nes , kuris paprastai acknowledging ias prekes, galima naudoti ir giluminio interviu metod , ta laiko s naudas ir efektyvum , patogiau atlikti vartotoj apklaus . G. J. Hooley, J. A. Saunders ir N. F Piercy (2006) teigia, jog iomis prek mis; Konkurencija preki grup je; poreik Konkurencija su kitomis t pat tenkinan iomis prek mis; Konkuruoti to paties poreikio lygmenyje. Taigi nustatant konkurentus svarbu ne tik identifikuoti visas prekes, esan ias toje pa ioje parduotuv s lentynoje, bet ir nustatyti, kas konkuruoja su acceptance lentyna. teikiami naudos aspektai yra tinkami vartotojams. Anot D. A. Aaker (2005), atributas s savybes ir naud vartotojui, bet ir asociacijas su prek s vartojimu ir vartotoju. Kit mokslinink - (G. J. Hooley, J. A. igimu, atributus geriausia yra grup . Pasak identifikuoti naudojant kokybin tyrimo metod V. Dik iaus (2006) tam gali b ti naudojamos tokios projekcin s asociacijos, testas, temos suvokimo testas, vaidmen vaidinimas. Atrinki atributai bus vertingi tik t pozicionavimo instrumentas, skirtas tiksliai vizualiai apibr vietoje pagal psichologinius veiksnius yra mon s prek s, palyginti su prek mis. Norint nustatyti, kaip skirtingi preki pasi lymai yra suvokiami rinkoje, turi b ti numatomi pagrindiniai prek s atributai, pagal kuriuos suvokiama prek kaip tokia. Labai didel rezultatas) turi b rim . Tolesn l kes ius bei pirmum , ir kaip j even atrodo prek su savomis savyb mis. Tam tikslui pasiekti ir sudaromas lapis. lapyje yra tas, kuris reprezentuoja labiausiai apsisprendimo atribut kombinacij ideali prek . mon s pasirenka norim savo prek s pozicij kuo ar iau idealios prek s pozicijos. augelis mokslinink (Fill, 2006; Kotler, 2007; Armstrong, 2004; Doyle, Stern, 2006) s pozicionavimo rinkoje Pagal prek s savybes; Pagal prek s teikiam naud ; Pagal vartojimo b d ar situacij ; Pagal vartotoj ; Pagal konkurent ; Pagal preki grup ; Pagal kokyb ar kain ; Pagal kult rinius simbolius ar kilm . Svarbu pamin ra diskre tiesiog dalys sud ting hibridini strategij , kurias pozicionuodami prekes rinkoje, naudoja marketologai. 1. X-YZ makromodelis; 2. I-D-U mezomodelis; 3. a-b-e mikromodelis. Juose nurodoma, kas yra pozicionuojama, kam tai yra skiriama, kas turi b ti pabr Atlikus teorin prek s pozicionavimo rinkoje studij , Pozicionavimas yra svarbiausias instrumentas norint pasiekti norim prek s pozicij esam ir potenciali vartotoj galvosenoje. Dauguma marketingo srities mokslinink prek s pozicionavim rinkoje apibr pinim , kad prek , atskir ir norim viet i preki tikslini vartotoj mintyse. Prek s pozicija formuojama per prek s atribut suvokim , lyginant su konkuruojan iomis prek mis. Prek s pozicionavimas yra neatskiriama ir pati svarbiausia STP modelio dalis. Jei pirmi STP approach ar nepilnai, s kmingai pozicionuoti prek s rinkoje nepavyks. Apibendrinant daugelio mokslinink nuomones, akivaizdu, kad prek s pozicionavimas rinkoje yra sud tingas ir t stinis procesas. Pozicionuodami prek gali b 1) Konkuruojan i preki ; 2) Apsisprendimo atribut identifikavimas ir j vertinimas; 3) Esamos prek s pozicijos nustatymas; 4) lapio suk rimas; 5) Norimos pozicijos rinkoje nustatymas; 6) Pozicionavimo arba perpozicionavimo strategijos parinkimas; 7) Pozicionavimo teiginio suk rimas. prek s pozicionavimas, prek s pozicionavimo etapai, lapis, pozicionavimo ir perpozicionavimo strategija, pozicionavimo teiginys. rieinamumas, pelningumas. Svarbu pateikti atribut , kurio nesi lo konkurentai, arba atribut pateikti specialia forma. nusta ius vartotoj apsisprendimo atributus, reikia numatyti, kaip pagal juos vartotojai vertina prek ir konkurent prekes. Tam geriausiai tinka kokybiniai vertinti prek ir konkurent prekes pagal svarbiausius apsisprendimo technikas, kurias V. Pranulis (1998) rio matavimo vertinimo skal s, Likerto (sumini vertinim ) skal , semantin diferencialin skal , Stapel skal vertinimo skal , fiksuotos sumos skal r , por pasirinkimo skal . 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