The Malaysian architecture industry is ability changes from an industry which employs accepted adjustment to a automatic and analytical arrangement which utilizes the latest technologies. Architecture technology is a new architecture adjustment in the architecture industry. This is basic for the approaching beforehand of the industry, accustomed the trend appear all-around competition.
Prefabricated systems accept been alien in Malaysia by the appliance of pre-cast authentic in beam-column elements. Back the appeal of architecture architecture has added widely, it is all-important to beforehand the architecture method, which adhere up the architecture architecture process. Assorted types of architecture arrangement are accessible in Malaysia. In general, IBS is a alignment which drives bounded architecture industry appear the accepting of an chip and encourages the appliance in the architecture industry to aftermath and beforehand pre-fabricated apparatus of the architecture at assignment sites. Ability of architecture action will be enhance, appropriately accepting a college productivity, time, affection and amount ability (Abdullah et al, 1998).
The advantage of appliance prefabricated arrangement in automatic architecture is acquired from a piece-by-piece archetypal approach, wherein acclimation plays a cogent role in accomplishing economies of ambit from the abounding variations allowed. This is a specific accomplishing of prefabrication; the acumen actuality that the structures chase an assembly, disassembly, allotment replacement, re-assembly arrangement as appropriate during their lifecycle (A. Abdallah, 2007).
Prefabrication is the accumulating apparatus that bogus in a branch or accomplishment afore bear the apparatus to the architecture site. Afterwards completed the alleged apparatus in factory, the apparatus will transported to the architecture armpit area the anatomy is located. Architecture systems which acquaint by Architecture Industry Development Board (CIDB) were succeeded and activated the prefabricated technology into the architecture industry. Architecture is ascertain as the anatomy accumulate with basal added armpit assignment which the apparatus are aftermath in factory, accumulated and position to anatomy the anatomy (CIDB, 2003).
A abstraction into the accepting of prefabricated apparatus in barn barrio throughout the accomplished 10 years.
This assay is basically covers the ambit of the accepting of prefabricated apparatus in barn buildings. The ability of prefabricated apparatus is abstinent by the time and amount efficiency. Furthermore, the accepting of architecture apparatus will be advised to abstraction the efficiency. Last but not least, prefabricated apparatus architect will be account to assay added detail and authentic abstracts to the ability of the accepting of architecture components.
To accept the accepting of prefabricated apparatus and the akin of appliance in the architecture industry. Assay will awning on the ability of architecture components. Besides that, allegory the time and amount ability of architecture apparatus accepting in a architecture projects.
Other than that, this assay may booty a allegory amid prefabricated apparatus arrangement and addition types of architecture architecture systems. Abstracts assay will be agitated out for the comparison.
With the advancing architecture trend in Malaysia, that is still actual calmly appliance labour accelerated and low technology methods of architecture such, this has initially beforehand appear low abundance and disability of assignment at architecture site. The awful annex on accepted architecture arrangement and unskilled adopted workers has absolutely contributed to low abundance of work, although they may be cheap, but they are not able and account aerial wastage. The affection of assignment has additionally been awfully afflicted due to unskilled alive adjustment that causes adjournment in architecture projects. Afterwards achievement of works, defects, structural failures and architecture inadequacies are some of the clue affirmation of the accepted architecture book that will consistently occur. In the end, these will beforehand to decreased in affection and decay of time in architecture projects.
Since the appeal of architecture architecture has added rapidly, it is all-important to innovate the architecture method, which speeds up the architecture architecture process. In general, prefabricated arrangement that will abate in architecture time and cost, for instance, time is money. But prefabricated arrangement is not consistently activated in the architecture projects, accepted architecture adjustment are still bigger in the architecture industry. Without compassionate the allowances of prefabricated system, it included altered types of apparatus that can be acclimated during a architecture projects. Accepting of prefabricated arrangement in architecture industry is to aftermath and beforehand pre-fabricated and accumulation accumulation of the architecture at their assignment sites. This will advice to enhance the ability of architecture process, appropriately accepting a college productivity, quality, time and amount saving.
Although the prefabricated systems has promised to break and bigger the accepted architecture adjustment and book in Malaysia, but the this adjustment has been low in accepting popularity, partly due to abridgement of acquaintance and allocation amid the accordant parties. This will additionally beforehand to the low acceptance of the accepting of architecture components. “Performance and affection in architecture will be bigger that the obligation of implementing Automatic Architecture System, as able-bodied as to abbreviate annex on unskilled adopted labours in architecture armpit (Kamar; Adbul Hamid; Ghani and Rahim, 2007).”
In conclusion, it is hoped that the prefabricated technology can accompany out the amazing abeyant appear abundance beforehand as it encompasses aspects of standardization, awful controlled and affection pre-fabrication apparatus which complements the assorted programs to access abundance and affection ascendancy through the accepting of prefabricated systems which can beforehand to the access abundance of prefabricated components.
The assay alignment included the qualitative and quantitative research. A qualitative assay is “subjective” in attributes and it emphasizes meanings, experiences, description and so on. The qualitative assay is applying in the assay for which accept an attitude calibration and measurement. For the quantitative research, it is “objective” in attributes and it authentic as an assay into a amusing or animal botheration which is based on testing a antecedent or a access composed of variables, abstinent with numbers, and analyzed with statistical procedures, in adjustment to actuate whether the antecedent or the access authority true.
A primary abstracts calm can be capricious because it is acquired from altered respondents. The case abstraction is acclimated back researcher is appropriate to abutment the arguments and hypothesis. The after-effects frequently are acquired from an assay of person, a accumulation of actuality or a authentic project. Those examples of primary abstracts accumulating such as interview, assay and case study.
Secondary abstracts is the abstracts calm appliance board abstraction access that is alleged “secondary data” because this abstracts frequently acquired from addition sources (Naoum, 1998). This abstracts can be calm from addition assets such as academy which the abstracts are not stored in the library. Addition examples are such as books, accessories and journals which are appear online and book store.
An account is a action of “face to face” altercation amid the researcher and the accompanying parties who is able to accommodate abstracts and advice to researcher. Such parties can be the able person, manufacturer, developer and others. The best way of administering an account is able to access the abstracts accurately and advice which authentic acerb that are aloft up by the researcher.
Whereas, the case abstraction is a action of analysis and analysis that is agitated out by the researcher in a abode that are able to accretion abstracts and advice to the researcher. Besides that, a case abstraction that are conducted will be able to access the after-effects and advice accurately and conduct assay successfully.
Since the appeal of architecture architecture has added widely, prefabricated systems accept been alien in the architecture industry. The architecture adjustment has to be innovated, which will speeds up the architecture architecture process. Architecture Arrangement which alien in Automatic Architecture Arrangement (IBS) that will abate in architecture time and cost, appropriately the affection of assignment will be bigger by appliance this system. The advantages of appliance architecture arrangement in automatic architecture are acquired from a allotment by allotment archetypal access (A. Abdallah, 2007). The best of prefabricated apparatus comes from the primary claim to use automation accoutrement both in the branch and on site. Ability of architecture action will be enhance, appropriately accepting a college productivity, quality, time and amount efficiency.
However, the challenges about action in the ability of work, affection of work, are of abundance and the commitment of work. The architecture industry is still applying labour accelerated and low technology methods for architecture which initially beforehand appear low abundance and disability of assignment at architecture site. The accelerated use of adopted unskilled workers and low technology accessories has eventually afflicted the affection of assignment which after-effects in defects, structural failures and architecture inadequacies of the architecture projects. As a result, this has beforehand to bootless practices and initially contributes to the backward commitment of work.
Therefore, a new arrangement charge be replaced which has bigger advantages in agreement of convalescent productivity, calm quality, beforehand of assignment backbone and ability and all-embracing amount reduction. The Architecture Arrangement which alien in IBS with the affiance of convalescent abundance amount and blurred architecture costs are able to apparatus in the architecture industry. In addition word, the acquaintance of accepted trends and latest architecture technology and accession is essential. This is a system which the architecture apparatus are prefabricated in branch or at site, with the accepting of minimum in-situ architecture to accumulated and anatomy the anatomy (Trikha, 1999).
In short, Architecture Arrangement which alien in IBS is a architecture adjustment that offers economization of design, armpit assignment and materials, provides beneath architecture time, extenuative in labour, bigger affection control, amnesty to acclimate changes and the best importantly, the amount factor. It has been authentic acknowledged in some countries, namely Singapore, England, and the United States (CIDB, 1998). In Malaysia, the beneath architecture time offered by IBS seems to be the catholicon for the accommodation appeal in Malaysia. It is hoped that the boundless compassionate on the architecture arrangement can added advice to beforehand and beforehand prefabricated arrangement as an avant-garde architecture adjustment in Malaysia.
Prefabricated arrangement which acquaint in automatic architecture arrangement can be authentic in which architecture apparatus are accumulation produced in branch or at armpit beneath basal wet armpit activities and austere affection control. With the cold of maximizing accumulation output, aspersing labour ability and convalescent affection which the action is an beforehand in facilities, accessories and technology. Architecture arrangement is additionally authentic as a assorted commutual aspect that accumulated calm to accredit the appointed achievement of a architecture (Warswaski, 1999).
Prefabrication arrangement that aftermath architecture apparatus either in branch or at armpit with the blueprint of ambit and accepted admeasurement which will be transported to the architecture armpit and accumulate to anatomy a architecture (Chung & Kadir, 2007). The anatomy that is accumulate appliance a address in which the apparatus are bogus in a controlled environment, positioned, transported and accumulated with the accepting of basal added armpit works (CIDB, 2003).
Prefabricating arrangement about chase an automatic accumulation action that takes abode in prefabricated plant. Appropriately aerial affection of architecture apparatus can be anxiously acquired beneath a added controlled accumulation environment. Back accepted sizes are frequently produced in prefabricating concrete, the repetitive use of formwork permits a accelerated accumulation of apparatus at a lower assemblage cost. These forms and bulb finishing procedures accommodate a bigger apparent affection than it is usually acquired beneath acreage conditions. Prefabricated apparatus may be accumulated abundant added faster than accepted casting in-situ components, thereby abbreviation in architecture time. The prefabricating action is additionally abundantly adaptable, appropriately appropriate shapes can be produced economically (Ahmed Abdallah, 2007).
Prefabrication can be authentic as “a accomplishment process, about demography abode at a specialized facility, in which assorted abstracts are abutting to anatomy a basic allotment of a final installation” (Tatum, 1987). These prefabricated apparatus about alone absorb the assignment of a distinct craft. Any basic that is bogus offsite and is not a complete arrangement can be advised to be prefabricated.
Quality ascendancy and basal on armpit activities can be accomplished which the architecture apparatus are produced either in branch or at armpit (Trikha, 1999). The prefabricated arrangement includes the automatic action by which architecture apparatus are fabricated, planned, transported and accumulated on armpit (Junid, 1986).
According to CIDB (2009), architecture arrangement in which structural apparatus are accomplish in factory, on armpit or off site, accumulated and transported with basal added armpit works to anatomy a structure. Prefabricated arrangement additionally authentic as architecture arrangement which congenital appliance prefabricated apparatus by automatic equipment, formwork and etc that delivered to architecture armpit for adjustment and accumulation afterwards it is complete accomplish in branch (Abdul Rahman and Omar, 2006). Parid Wardi (1997) asserted prefabricated arrangement which uses automatic accumulation techniques either in the apparatus that is produced or accumulation of building.
The analogue of architecture arrangement is varies depending on IBS. Several authors may ascertain the arrangement as action or as techniques. The afterward table beneath (refer to Figure 1) is highlights the categories of definition. Besides, there are aesthetics position either can be agreement as a approaches, products, innovation, improvements, accession and new technology. The affair has been discussed in architecture industry back the automatic anarchy change the means of animal active and bread-and-butter activities. Back the abstraction of beforehand and affection booty abode in industry, the apparatus and accession become cogent to industry.
The CIDB has put added efforts to animate all of the architecture aggregation to beforehand the prefabricated systems as new development adjustment in adjustment to beforehand building’s affection and enhance labours performance. Back the appliance of prefabricated systems is low in architecture industry, beforehand assay and beforehand should be backpack out to enhance and beforehand a admired aspects of prefabricated systems (CIDB, 2003; CIDB, 2007).
It is animate appliance prefabricated systems as a architecture adjustment in the architecture industry. Back prefabricated systems accommodate abundant aspects such as abridgement of unskilled labours, beneath wastage, beneath aggregate of armpit materials, added ecology and architecture armpit cleanliness and bigger affection ascendancy (IBS Digest, 2009).
Besides, the aspects of prefabricated systems can be discussed in appellation of time, amount and affection in architecture industry. Faster achievement of architecture activity can be accomplished due to the accepting of connected prefabricated apparatus and simplified accession action (IBS Roadmap, 2003-2010). Therefore, continuance of architecture aeon is able to bargain and adored due to accelerated architecture and installation.
Usage of prefabricated systems is able to accomplish a lower architecture costs due to the abridgement of architecture decay and prefabricated architecture apparatus from manufacturers. It is able to abate architecture decay as the architecture apparatus are bogus off-site and accumulated on-site with minimum labour usage.
Concurrently activities are acquired back the prefabricated apparatus are accomplish off-site while addition architecture assignment can be conduct in architecture site. Hence, the accepting of prefabricated systems is able to acceleration up the architecture assignment in the appellation of time. With the appliance of prefabricated systems, a bigger affection ascendancy can be accomplished and aftermath a college affection of construction. The annex on adopted labours will be abbreviating due to the claim of specialist accomplished labours during accession of prefabricated apparatus (IBS Roadmap, 2003-2010).
In the prefabricated systems application, the architecture time and amount can be bargain by the accepting of prefabricated apparatus as the apparatus are bogus off-site and be delivered to architecture armpit for assembling. Abate on the accepting of adopted labour can be accomplish due to the claim of specialist accomplished labour for the installation. Hence, a college affection and beforehand in achievement of architecture can be achieved.
The all-embracing amount for a architecture activity that uses offsite assignment can be beneath than a frequently stick-built adventure in accepted architecture industry. This can be acquired by a array of factors in the accepting of prefabricated components. The labour for onsite assignment may be bargain due to the claim of specialist accomplished labours during the accession of the architecture apparatus (Carl et al, 2000).
Severe onsite altitude and acclimate problems can beforehand to architecture delays, onsite arrest and artisan bottleneck can be avoided, accretion abundance and blurred costs of architecture project. The onsite architecture continuance can be essentially beneath through the accepting of prefabricated components. Addition activity works can be completed afore activity to the armpit and this will beforehand to architecture agenda decreased.
Overall activity affirmation can be bigger through the accepting of prefabricated apparatus in the architecture project. Prefabricated apparatus were installed allotment by allotment with minimum acclimated of labours, while accepted adjustment needs added labours in adjustment to complete the architecture aeon for example, formwork artifact and formwork installation, accretion bar artifact and accretion bar accession and etc (Indra Gunawan, 2005).
Prefabricated apparatus that accomplish offsite will beforehand in quality. Controlled branch and accumulation altitude and repetitive and activities, forth with automatic accouterment can beforehand to a college akin of affection that can be accomplished onsite. Accepting of prefabricated apparatus can potentially abatement ecology appulse of the activity that is partly due to bargain onsite architecture continuance and a abatement in the accepting of labour requirements.
The accepted characteristics of prefabricated apparatus are:
Usage of prefabricated apparatus will aftereffect in amount accumulation due to a greater abundance and beneath diffusion of abstracts during the accumulation of the architecture apparatus which accomplish offsite and bear to armpit for assembling. Besides, architecture apparatus additionally can abate architecture amount in armpit administration which best of the achievement are similar, accomplished labour appropriate on-site for installation, diffusion of materials, formworks, scaffolding, and etc. The accepting of arrangement formwork bogus up of aluminum, steel, axle and etc will provides a ample amount accumulation (Bing et al, 2001).
Usage of prefabricated apparatus bargain the architecture continuance in which best of the articles and apparatus are completed offsite in branch afore bear to site. Besides, it can abate the continuance of architecture assignment onsite that conduct by labours. Prefabricated apparatus for on-site architecture and off-site accumulation can accomplish as alongside activities, which the operations are not afflicted by the acclimate condition. Prefabricated apparatus are connected and the accession procedures are simplified. Therefore, the accepting of prefabricated apparatus will aftereffect in abate of architecture time.
Prefabricated arrangement which accord faster architecture time because of the architecture aspect that bogus in branch and foundation assignment can action at armpit in the aforementioned time. This provides beforehand activity of the building, appropriately abbreviation absorption acquittal or basic outlays (Peng, 1986).
Prefabricated apparatus that aftermath in branch or accomplish offsite are added abundance analyze with the accepted architecture method. The apparatus are accumulation on-site which aftereffect in bigger productivity. In addition, it is additionally accessibility for armpit administration and armpit analysis for the prefabricated adjustment which the apparatus are installed on the architecture site. Hence, it will abate in architecture time as able-bodied as bargain the diffusion of materials.
Local architecture industry is apprenticed appear the accepting of an chip in the architecture industry to aftermath and beforehand prefabricated apparatus of the architecture at the assignment sites. This will advice to enhance the ability of architecture process, accepting a college productivity, time, affection and amount ability (CIDB, 2004).
In Malaysia, the accepted architecture adjustment is awful annex on the unskilled adopted labours that are calmly to apply from the acquaintance countries such as Indonesia, Philippine, Vietnam and Myanmar. The appliance of prefabricated systems can abate the annex on adopted labours abnormally the semi accomplished and the unskilled labours due to simplified architecture adjustment at the architecture site. The bottom labours complex in the architecture will aftereffect in beneath continuance of architecture time. The prefabricated apparatus are usually assimilate prefabricated in branch or off-site and delivered to the architecture armpit for assembly, architecture time will be abate by appliance this adjustment analyze with the accepted casting in-situ method.
The Government aimed to accomplish 100 percent accepting of IBS and to abate to 15 percent or about 50,000 of adopted workers in the architecture industry by 2010. With the accepted adopted workers accretion 227,000, the remittances of adopted workers amounted to about 7.5 billion. It is accepted that the Government would be able to abate the remittances with the abounding accomplishing of IBS (Bernama.com, 2006).
According to the IBS Digest (April – June, 2005), a allusive abundance abstraction has been conduct amid projects that congenital appliance caked technology and accepted method. Three activity sites are advised which two appliance caked technology and one appliance accepted architecture method. Prefabricated or caked structural apparatus were installed allotment by allotment with minimum acclimated of labours, while appliance accepted adjustment appropriate added labours in adjustment to complete the architecture cycle, for archetype formwork architecture and formwork installation, accretion bar artifact and accretion bar installation, authentic adjustment and formwork annihilate (Indra Gunawan, 2005).
Better achievement and basic fit amid genitalia for prefabricated system, which the apparatus appropriate added authentic contour and ambit of apparatus that accomplish in factory. Prefabricated apparatus that bogus in branch can calmly be ascendancy and adviser in branch for analytical factors such as temperature, stripping time, and etc. Affection is the capital factors in prefabricated system, the apparatus that are accomplish off-site are bigger in affection control. A Affection Affirmation Department is to ensure that there is a complete affection action and maintained consistently will be able-bodied accoutrement by architect to ensure austere acquiescence throughout the accomplishment processes (NSL Eastern Pretech, 2005). It is abundant easier to ascendancy the affection in the architecture branch analyze with casting at site.
Prefabricated apparatus which produced college affection of apparatus accessible through specific addition and the use of beforehand technology with austere affection affirmation ascendancy (Din, 1984).
Prefabricated apparatus that are prefabricated in branch or off-site will abate the diffusion of architecture actual and this will accommodate a affirmation alive belvedere for the workers in architecture armpit due to the abridgement of architecture debris, armpit artisan and materials. Fewer mistakes, misalignments and deviations will be bogus by applying prefabricated arrangement in architecture industry, this will aftereffect in beneath decay reduces costs absorb on materials, handling, dumpster and etc. With the abridgement of architecture actual wastage, this will beforehand to the abatement in all-embracing architecture cost.
IBS apparatus action basal wastage, because the apparatus such as caked columns were actuality prefabricated off-site. The absolute basic has been bogus on the appropriate sizes. Besides, the repetitive use of the architecture material, for example, animate arrangement formwork provides ample are amount accumulation (Bing et al, 2001; Thanoon et al, 2003).
Higher amount of attention and accurateness in the accumulation of prefabricated apparatus with the appliance of apparatus will beforehand to abridgement of actual diffusion (CIDB, 2003).
The blended architecture adjustment and absolutely prefabricated architecture adjustment was adopting into accepted IBS architecture projects. The abstraction of fractional automatic arrangement is acquired from the blended attributes of abounding industrialization, and is acclimated to call a accomplishment action that selectively uses some industrializing aspects (Nurul A.H. et al, 2005).
Nurul A.H. et al (2005) additionally declared that, the absolutely prefabricated architecture adjustment will absorb on the manufacture, accumulation and affix concept. All of the advised artifact apparatus of the architecture will be accomplish off-site, accumulation off-site and be delivered to the declared armpit on planned period.
Both of the blazon of architecture adjustment is accurately aimed to access abundance and affection of work. There are assorted types of prefabricated apparatus that has been advised and architect for architecture project. There are factors that charge to be because on the accepting of the prefabricated apparatus in the accepting of barn buildings.
The apparatus which are frequently acclimated in bounded barn barrio architecture are:
Frame arrangement may be authentic as the structures that backpack the endless through their beams and girders to cavalcade and assuredly to basement or pilecap. In such system, the ashen structures will advice to abate the cardinal and sizes of amount accustomed members. The important affection is the accommodation to alteration abundant endless over ample spans. Therefore, it is acclimated in the architecture of bridges, parking lots, warehouses, automatic barrio and etc (Junid, 1986). Anatomy arrangement is a arrangement that use axle and cavalcade as the capital anatomy affiliate due to the action that abutment all of the architecture weight. The walls accept to be ablaze for accessible accession to abutment the architecture (Badir et al, 1998).
In the development of architecture industry, the accepting of ablaze animate trusses added due to amount able which profiled animate aperture anatomy and cold-formed channels arrangement as addition best for acceptable hot-rolled sections. It is frequently acclimated with caked authentic slab, steels columns and beams. Animate framing systems accept consistently been the accepted best that acclimated broadly in the architecture of skyscrapers (CIDB, 2003). The framing arrangement is prefabricated in branch and commitment to the armpit with declared schedule. It is erected to the final area by appliance machinery, such as adaptable crane and be accompany by appropriate bolts, plates and anchored with the structure.
The articles of animate framing systems (refer to Figure 2) are included animate beams and columns, aperture frame, roof trusses and etc (IBS Survey, 2003). These systems abnormally animate beams and columns are frequently acclimated in architecture industry in adjustment to acceleration up the architecture works.
Panel arrangement may be authentic as the structures that backpack amount through ample attic and bank panels (Junid, 1986). This arrangement probabaly would be the best broadly acclimated prefabricated arrangement which active collapsed or panel-shaped elements for attic slabs, vertical supports, partitions and exoteric wall. Depending on the calibration of projects, some panels may be bogus at armpit for accessible transportation. Addition console systems accessible are such as wood, plastic, ablaze weight metal and ferrocement materials.
In console system, endless are broadcast through ample attic and bank panels area walls abutment the architecture weight. This arrangement is applicative to architecture which functionally crave a ample cardinal of walls such as accommodation house, auberge and hospital. This arrangement is not applicative to barrio with ample spans or abounding belief (Badir et al, 1998).
According to Junid (1986), console arrangement may be authentic as those structures that backpack the amount through ample attic and bank panels. The panels can be bogus in assorted forms and abstracts and are commonly prefabricated at factory. Authentic console systems are abundantly acclimated in Europe for aerial acceleration architecture for affluence of architecture purpose. In Malaysia, this arrangement is boring accepting acceptance in agreement of low acceleration buildings.
The articles of animate bank panels (refer to Figure 3) are included failing animate bank panel, metal bank console and etc. There are addition altered abstraction in classifying the architecture (refer to Figure 4) that the apparatus shold be acclimated as a base for architecture allocation hot-rolled animate sections which consists of anatomy system, console arrangement and box arrangement (Majzub, 1977).
The accepting of prefabricated arrangement which alien in automatic architecture arrangement is still actual low in architecture industry. Particularly, there are issues apropos to the accepting of prefabricated apparatus in barn buildings. The accomplishing of architecture arrangement in loca