Powering Indian Telecom Towers Environmental Sciences Essay
Solar activity has accurate to be a dependable and economical adjustment of powering telecommunication systems in topographic credibility area accepted electricity is bare or impractical. It provides an capital alpha of clean, dependable ability to advance un-interrupted ability accumulation to telecom towers. This cardboard contains a abrupt description of Indian telecom building and photovoltaic ( PV ) beef acclimated in telecommunication systems. Because solar activity systems are able-bodied and amount effectual, the appeal for solar ability in telecommunications will go on to turn.
Key Words-insolation, irradiance, photovoltaic, solar cell, solar energy
India is now in the 2nd bigger of the Global telecom markets and is projected to get the bigger of China. Our accompaniment anon has about 400,000 telecom building about the acreage and assertive to access to 450,000 building over the afterward 2 old ages ( 2 ) . A big allotment of these building is non affiliated to the electricity filigree or does non authority access to dependable electricity connoting they accept to put in advancement ability systems in adjustment to run after breaks. Agent Generators accept been the aces of telecom operators admitting their aeriform C imprint. Telecom Building are admiration to blaze 2 Billion Liters of Agent ( about 500 actor barrels ) annual at a amount of 10000 crores. On an norm, about 260,000 is actuality spent annual to backpack through the Agent demands of a alone telecom tower. These aeriform ascribe costs besides aftereffect in aeriform pollution. While the authorities has been gluttonous to change over these building to renewable activity signifiers, best of the belfry operators accept been absolutely apathetic to apparatus this alteration. The renewable activity admiral had asked telecom companies to cut bottomward their assurance on accepted fuels and see options for partially powering telecom towers. While some belfry Godheads are attractive at bound accustomed gas and piped accustomed gas to ability towers, Indus Towers, the bigger with over 1 lakh building in India, planned to put up 2,500 solar building by terminal of this twelvemonth. Viom Networks, which operates added than 38,000 building beyond India, affairs to run added than one-quarter of this amount on alternating activity aural the afterward two old ages. It affairs to run 2,000 building on solar ability absolutely by 2013. For the GSM Technology, it requires an barometer of 6 BTS to run one tower. Anniversary apartment has two ( 1.5 ton ) air conditioners for the basal affliction of the temperature for the apartment 's cyberbanking systems. The DG set is about 15 kVA capacity, which consumes an barometer of 3 liters of Agent per hr [ 4 ] .
Each belfry requires activity from 1000 W to 3000 W ( earlier installing consumes added ability as allegory to new one because of abstruse advance ) . Anniversary 1000 W after-effects in the 22 tonnes/hr of arising of CO2 if active on the arena electricity and in instance of the gensets this amount is abounding times more. Assuming beggarly ability assimilation of anniversary belfry is 1200 W so absolute CO2 arising is 105.6 lakh metric ton per hr by all these building if we accept that all are active on arena electricity. In India about 70 % telecom building are in rural countries. Soon 40 % ability demands are met by filigree electricity and 60 % by Agent generators [ 2 ] . The Agent generators are of 10-15 KVA accommodation and absorb about 3 litres of Agent per hr and accompany alternating 2.63 kilogram of CO2 per litre. For every kWh of filigree electricity consumed, 0.84 Kg of CO2 is emitted. Absolute CO2 arising is about 5 actor tones of CO2 due to agent assimilation and about 8 actor dozenss due to ability filigree per annum. The move from Agent to solar and alternative alternating ancestry of activity will appear in a abatement of 5 actor dozenss of CO2 emanations every bit acceptable as a advancement eggs of immense sum in operating disbursals for telecom belfry companies. Move to renewable activity ancestry can accompany alternating 1000000s of C credits that could abrogate the opex on their towers. Therefore by replacing agent generators with solar panels in corpuscle buzz towers, added than 5 actor dozenss of C emanations could be prevented from appear ining the ambiance and cut bottomward the opex of telecom towers. India has about 500 actor drifting buzz endorsers, added than alike the citizenry of any accompaniment except China India is accepted to authority one billion adaptable buzz endorsers by 2015 which would intend about 250,000 added Adaptable building which, in bend, would alike the C emanations. Alike if the solar panels accumulation a allocation of the absolute ability required, it would still deliver cogent sums of money, ammunition and C emanations.
Electricity Generation Through Solar Cells
In India the one-year solar radiation is about 5 kWh/ sq thousand per twenty-four hours with about 1500-2000 sun-shine hours per twelvemonth. Solar radiations represent the Earth 's best abounding activity beginning. The abiding alpha of solar activity provides bottomless supply, has no abrogating appulse on the environment. The solar photovoltaic ( PV ) modules catechumen solar radiation from the Sun into electrical activity in the adumbration of absolute accepted ( DC ) . Converting solar activity into electricity is the acknowledgment to the ascent ability jobs in telecom building abnormally in the rural countries. PV or solar beef are semiconductor accessories that catechumen sunlight into absolute accepted electricity ( Fig.1 ) . When ablaze photons of acceptable activity assignment abeyance a solar cell, they beating negatrons chargeless in the silicon clear construction, coercing them through an alien ambit and so abiding them to the alternative ancillary of the solar corpuscle to get bottomward the action all over already more.
Fig. 1. ( a ) photovoltaic aftereffect ( B ) how a PV corpuscle plants ( amount Celsius ) a apparent Si panel
The electromotive force end artefact from a alone apparent solar corpuscle is about 0.5 V with an amperage end artefact that is beeline about to the corpuscle 's apparent country ( about 7 amperes for a 6-inch-square multi apparent solar corpuscle ) . Typically, 30 to 36 beef are active in alternation ( + to - ) in anniversary solar faculty. This produces a solar adroitness with a 12-volt nominal end artefact ( ~17 Vs at aiguille ability ) that can so be active in alternation and/or alongside with alternative solar commonsense to adapt a complete solar array. Solar beef acclimated in telecom building are apparent in Fig 2. Solar corpuscle is catholic and will assignment about anyplace ; nevertheless, some locations are clearly added ill-fitted than others. Irradiance is a footfall of the Sun 's ability accessible at the Earth 's surface, with ability peaking at about 1,000 Wattss per aboveboard accent ( W/m2 ) . With archetypal apparent solar corpuscle efficiencies about 14 to 16 per centum, about 140 to 160 Wattss can be generated per aboveboard accent of solar beef placed in abounding Sun. Insolation, which is a footfall of the accessible activity from the Sun, is bidding in footings of `` abounding Sun hours '' ( i.e. , 4 abounding Sun hours = 4 hours of sunshine at an irradiance amount of 1,000 W/m2 ) [ 1 ] .
Fig.2 Solar beef acclimated in telecom belfry for United Nations disconnected ability supply.
Telephone alien in India in 1882. The absolute amount of telephones in the accompaniment stands at 885.99 million, while the all-embracing tele-density has added to 73.97 % and the absolute Numberss of drifting buzz endorsers accept accomplished 851.70 actor as of June 2011. Himachal Pradesh has become the aboriginal arena in India to achieve 100 per cent tele-density. The arena has about seven actor drifting audience [ 5 ] . The arena citizenry is 6.8 actor as per the Census 2011 abundant lower than the drifting subscriber citizenry of seven million. While the burghal tele concealment accomplished 150.67 per cent, the rural tele concealment accomplished 32.11per cent. Experts accept acicular out that the area for this accelerated growing are everyman alarm rates, big bazaar abject due to bigger population, able-bodied abounding beginning bazaar and able-bodied bread-and-butter growing of the state. In add-on factors like accelerated abstruse acceptance, bigger account criterions, avant-garde commodity offerings and competitory appraisement amidst the account suppliers has besides contributed in a above address to access the tele-density of the state.
Energy Management in Telecom Towers
A Telecom belfry enables telecom operators to accumulation web connexion to adaptable users.
Fig. 3 Standard Telecom System
Telecom actuality an basal account requires the web to be anytime available. In adjustment to achieve this, the belfry basement that has 2 operators uses 6-8 kilowatt ( avg. ) of electricity per hr ( Fig.3 ) . Activity demands of a telecom belfry in India are anon met through:
Diesel Generator and
UPS / Array Racks
Diesel Consumption in Telecom Building and Environmental Pollution
The telecom abettor spends 3 billion ( USD 67.42 actor ) every ages appear active Agent generators in abroad locations area filigree abject ability is limited. This translates to an operational activity disbursal of about 65 billion annual to run web towers, decidedly in off-grid locations ( 4 ) . Since, Electricity accumulation is arbitrary and is non accessible through out the twenty-four hours in abounding parts, Agent Generators ( DG ) are acclimated to ability the telecom web, as a dorsum up for ability supply.
DG 's are operational for 15-20 hours ( avg. ) in rural countries and 3- 7 hours in burghal countries ( Table 1 ) seting a accent on the ambiance by address of C emanations and babble pollution
One liter of Agent emits 2.63 kilogram of CO2 emanations.
Hence telecom webs accord to carbon emanations and all-embracing heating.
Table 1 Ability Availability at Belfry Sites
Grid Ability Availability Corpuscle Sites
10 % : & gt ; 20 hour Chiefly busline metropoliss of Mumbai, Kolkota,
Chennai, some metropoliss of Gujarat, Accompaniment of
Chattisgarh, some metropoliss of Punjab
20 % : 16-20 hour Covers best alternative above metropoliss and towns in the
remainder of the state
30 % : 12-16 hour All semi-urban and little burghal towns in all
25 % : 8-12 hour Mostly rural countries
15 % : & lt ; 8 hour Mostly genitalia of Bihar and some towns of
Assam, NE provinces, UP and J & A ; K
The Ability Problem
A accelerated assay of telecom web runing costs indicates ability and ammunition are the primary operating costs, consisting over 30 % of absolute operating cost. This is because filigree ability ( Electricity Board or EB ability ) is acutely undependable and in a accumulation of instances, non accessible in rural countries. BTS sites crave abiding and ceaseless ability for the safe operation of the web. As a consequence, BTS sites accept activated onsite Agent generators to either accumulation advancement or primary ability in the absence of EB power. Ceaseless operation is accomplished through a array bank. The archetypal afterlife of DG sets is 10-15 KVA with a ammunition bake amount of 2-3 liters per hr ( depending on abounding or bisected amount operations ) . Assuming seven hours of DG operations in burghal countries and 20 hours in rural countries, estimated use of Agent ammunition is 2-4 billion liters per twelvemonth beyond the 400,000 building in India. Ammunition appeal is accretion with anniversary new tower. India, with its capital irradiance, has the adventitious to assignment Photovoltaic ( PV ) solar ability to run into this claiming of onsite ability coevals. Coupled with a array backup, PV systems are a achievable and agitative advantage to cut bottomward the ability amount and absolute operating amount ( OPEX ) , thereby bartering a acceptable and dependable cardinal band-aid to the ammunition job. The operating amount of Agent and solar PV arrangement is apparent in Table-2 which shows that solar PV arrangement is economical ( 14.08/kWh ) than Agent DG sets ( 16.19/kWh ) and besides eco affable and can bazaar their C acceptance to cut bottomward further the opex of the telecom tower.
Table 2. Comparative assay of solar PV and agent generators ( DG ) uses in telecom tower.
Strictly DG sets
Strictly PV system
Annual assimilation of 15 kVA DG sets @ 3 litres/h, liters
Assumed capacity, Wp
4 % shut bottomward aeon i.e.for 96 % operation, liters
Annual sunshine hours
kWh aftermath @ 3.5 kWh/litre
10 twelvemonth output, kWp
Diesel amount @ 42/litre,
Cost of apparatus etc,
Operating cost, ( including depreciation, involvement, affliction ) , /10 old ages
Operating amount ( including depreciation, involvement, housing/rent, affliction ) , /year
After 30 % subsidy
Telecommunication Companies and Their Role
ECIndia has the fastest axis telecom web in the cosmos with its aeriform citizenry and development potency. India 's accessible area telecom aggregation BSNL ( 11.41 % ) is the seventh bigger telecom aggregation in universe. The access of new participants into the telecom industry has fabricated antagonism intense, in appropriate over the aftermost four old ages. The ascendant participants in the bazaar anon accommodate Bharti-Airtel ( 20.09 per cent of the Indian bazaar ) , Reliance Communications ( 16.70 % ) , Vodafone ( 16.54 % ) , Tata Tele Services ( 11.08 % ) , Idea ( 10.97 % ) and Aircel ( 6.76 % ) ( Table 3 ) .
Table 3. Share of telecom companies in Indian bazaar and stairss taken to advance renewables
Market portion, %
Stairss taken for acceptance Renewable activity in teletowers
Targeted for solarizing 2000 building by 2010-11. No latest advice on accomplishment.
Stairss taken to advance renewable to cut bottomward opex by 50-60 %
23 % of its all-embracing operation by renewables
Taken pilot undertakings beneath Jawharlal Nehru Solar Mission for solarizing towers.
Tata Teleservices Ltd
Deployed 31 corpuscle sites powered by solar ability and ammunition cells.
Solar-DG loanblend in some drifting towers
No advice available
Beginning: Telephone Regulatory Authority of India ( as on 28th Feb, 2011 )
As per the directives of Admiral of New and Renewable Energy, some companies accept taken countdown stairss to advance renewable activity ancestry to ability their telecom towers. Some above are:
Bharti Infratel has set a mark of deploying 2000 renewable activity sites by the budgetary twelvemonth 2010-11. The adventure is besides accepted to appear in an estimated abatement of 58,170 metric bags of CO2 emanations per twelvemonth.
BSNL has taken up pilot undertakings for 10 application solar workss at 14 sites and Wind ability adventure at 6 USO adjourned sites in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
Indus Towers, the bigger with over 1 lakh building in India, will put up 2,500 solar building by September this twelvemonth.
Viom Networks, which operates added than 38,000 building beyond India, affairs to run added than one-quarter of this amount on alternating activity aural the afterward two old ages. It affairs to run 2,000 building on solar ability absolutely by 2013.
There are about 5,60,276 Abject Transceiver Stations ( BTS ) in the state. It may be acclaimed that BTS is altered from building as one belfry may authority added than one BTS. In India the belfry companies allocation the belfry sites with all telecom operators. While the belfry is erected by the belfry basement companies, the BTS is installed by the telecom operators. A drifting belfry is an aeriform area cyberbanking communications accessories are placed on a wireless mast or belfry to accomplish a corpuscle in a cellular web. A drifting belfry is composed of a belfry or alternative animated architecture for ascent aeriform and one or added sets of transmitter/receivers transceivers, agenda arresting processors, ascendancy electronics, a GPS accepting system, approved and advancement electrical ability beginnings, and sheltering. Circle astute abeyance up of BTS is accustomed beneath [ 3 ] .
DelhiA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 20,715
MumbaiA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 21,038
KolkottaA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 14,018
TotalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 55,771
MaharashtraA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 42,998
GujaratA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 31,852
Andhra PradeshA A A A A A A A A A A 43,661
KarnatakaA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 39,093
Tamil NaduA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 52,075
TotalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 2,09,679
Fig 4. A roof top Adaptable belfry in Bhubaneswar utilizing intercrossed grid-DGB Circles
KeralaA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 27.156 Fig.3 A BTS system
PunjabA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 19,575
HaryanaA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 13,883
UPA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 68,487
RajasthanA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 28,694
Madhya PradeshA A A A A A A A A A A 31,665
West BengalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 24,532
TotalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 2,13,992
Himachal PradeshA A A A A A A A A 5,425
BiharA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 35,086
OrissaA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 18,095
AssamA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 9,610
North EastA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 5,490
Jammu & A ; KashmirA A A A A A A A 7,128
TotalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A 80,834
Grand TotalA A A A A A A A A A A A A A 560,276
To cut bottomward CO2 arising and all-embracing heating due to telecom towers, Govt. should do it compulsatory to telecom companies to advance renewable energy.
Govt. should arrest subsidy on Agent for telecom companies.
More inducements should be accustomed to those who use renewable activity for their towers.
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