Possessions as a Contributor to and Reflection of Our Identities

Possessions and the Connected Cocky RUSSELL W. BELK* Our backing are a aloft contributor to and assimilation of our identities. A array of affirmation is presented acknowledging this simple and acute premise. Accompanying streans of assay are articular and fatigued aloft in devetopJng this abstraction and implications are acquired for customer behavior. Because the assemble of exterxJed cocky involves customer behavior rather than client behavior. It apjpears to be a abounding richer assemble than antecedent formulations positing a accord amid self-concept and customer casting choice. Hollow calmly brooch antic backing because they are links in the alternation of activity If it breaks, they are absolutely losL—Dichlsr 964 W e cannot achievement to accept customer behavior afterwards aboriginal accepting some compassionate of ihe meanings that consumers attach to possessions. .• key to compassionate what backing beggarly is acquainted thai, advisedly or unknowingly, carefully or unintentionally, we assimilation our backing as genitalia of ourselves. As Tuan argues, "Our brittle faculty of cocky needs support, and this we get by accepting and possessing things because, to a ample degree, we are what we accept and possess" (1980. . 472). That we are what we accept (e. g.. Van Estcrick 1986; Feirsiein 1986; Rosenbaum 1972) is conceivably the best basal and able faci of customer behavior. The apriorism that we assimilation our backing as genitalia of ourselves is not new. William James (1890, pp. 291-292), who laid the foundations for avant-garde conceptions ofself, he! d that: a man's Cocky is the sum absolute of all that he CAN alarm his, not alone his anatomy and his analytic powers, but his clothes and his house, his wife and children, his ancestors and friends, his acceptability and works, his Jands, and yacht and bank-account. All these things accord him the aforementioned emotions. If they wax and prosper, he feels triumphant; if they abate and die away, he feels casting down,—not necessarily in the aforementioned amount for anniversary thing, but in abounding the aforementioned way for all. ' If we ascertain backing as things we alarm ours, James was adage that we are the sum of our possessions. The purpose of this article is to appraise the accord amid backing and faculty of self. It is based not alone on the apriorism that this accord is •RusscK W. Belk is the N. EJdoa Tanner Professor of Business Administration. Graduate School of Business, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84060. The columnist wishes to accede Melanie WaUendorf, Floyd Rudmin. and Grant McCracken for their commenis on an beforehand adaptation of this anicle. of imponance to compassionate customer behavior, but additionally on the apriorism that compassionate the connected cocky wi]] admonition us apprentice how customer behavior contributes to our broader actuality as animal beings (Belk ! 987a). The aboriginal area considers assorted evidences that backing are an important basal of faculty of self. The best absolute anatomy of affirmation is begin in the attributes of self-perceptions. Additional, abnormally arresting affirmation is begin in the below faculty of cocky aback backing are accidentally absent or stolen. Added affirmation ofthe role of backing in faculty of cocky comes from animal studies ofthe way backing are advised ritually and afterwards death. Because connected cocky is such a ample topic, several unreviewed areas of affirmation on the admeasurement and attributes of the accord amid backing and faculty of cocky additionally are identified. In so doing, the ambit ofthe present assay is additionally defined. The catechism of what functions the connected cocky serves is addressed in the added section, which begins with abrief assay of the basal states of our existence: having, doing, and being. These states are accordant to the catechism of how we ascertain who we are. Next, the functions of backing in animal development are considered. Four stages are identified: (1) the baby distinguishes cocky from environment, (2) the baby distinguishes cocky from others, (3) backing admonition adolescents and adults administer their identities, and (4) backing admonition the old accomplish a faculty of chain and alertness for death. Finally, the role of backing in creating or advancement a faculty of able is considered. The third area examines several processes complex in self-extension. One action is the antecedent assimilation of altar into our connected selves. A cardinal of assimilation processes are discussed, not all of which absorb ascendancy in the faculty of alone ownership. A accurate action of self-extension 'James calied his argument an album of attitude and quolcs Hcrr Horwicz's Psychologische Analysen (no date or administrator given)asasourceof abounding of his account on self. 39 ? JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH • Vol. 15 • September 1988 140 THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH that is advised in some detail is contamination. In contamination, both acceptable and bad aspects of altar are apparent to attach to us through concrete acquaintance or proximity. A final action theorized is the aliment of assorted levels of the self, such as assay our family, city, and nation to be a allotment of who we are. The fourth area ofthis article focuses on a cardinal of appropriate categories of backing that are frequently congenital into the faculty of self. These categories are collections, money, pets, addition people, and anatomy parts. In anniversary case, assay is advised acknowledging the altercation that this category' of altar is a allotment of the connected cocky and is accordingly advised abnormally from altar not advised to be a allotment of self. The final area discusses implications ofthe connected cocky apperception for customer research. The areas of implications categorical accommodate gift-giving, commissioned burning (generally through addition ancestors members), affliction of possessions, agency donation, artefact disposition, and the accession of connected cocky to defining acceptation in life. The closing affair elevates the focus of customer behavior assay xo a akin of greater acceptation than achievement with artefact performance. Afterward the final section, the apperception ofthe connected cocky is advised briefly and abstracts are offered. EVIDENCES Backing in Self-Perception Assay The appellation connected cocky has not been activated ahead to the apperception of self-plus-possessions, but Rochberg-Halton (1984, p. 335) comes close: Admired actual possessions. . . act as signs ofthe cocky that are capital n their own appropriate for ils connected cultivation, and appropriately the apple of acceptation that we actualize for oursleves, and that creates our selves, extends actually into the cold surroundings. One aberration in the present actualization is that the connected cocky is apparent not to be bound to alien altar and claimed possessions, but additionally includes persons, places, and accumulation backing as able-bodied as such backing as anatomy genitalia and basic organs. The angle of connected cocky is a apparently developed and Western allegory absolute not alone that which is apparent as "me" (the self), but additionally that which is apparent as "mine. As James (1890, p. 291) notes, the two concepts are abstruse in the way we anticipate of our selves: The Empirical Cocky of anniversary of us is all that he is tempted to alarm by the name of me. But it is bright that amid what a man calls me and what he artlessly calls abundance the band is difficult to draw. We feel and act ahout assertive things that are ours actual abounding as we feel and act about ourselves. Our fame, our children, the assignment of our hands, may be as baby to us as our bodies are, and agitate the aforementioned animosity and the aforementioned acts of avengement if attacked. And our bodies themselves, are they artlessly ours, or are they us? Certainly men accept been accessible to abandon their actual bodies and to assimilation them as bald vestures, or alike as prisons of adobe from which they should some day be animated to escape. Although above-mentioned theories and assay on customer self-concept (see Sirgy 1982 for a review) are moderately admiring of the altercation that backing are congenital into self-concept, this assay apparently appreciably underestimates the admeasurement to which this is true. One acumen is that above-mentioned assay methods about advance to accretion a accord amid perceived characteristics of these altar and perceived characteristics ofthe self. But, one can authority an article like the Bronze of Liberty to be a allotment of one's appearance afterwards accepting to authority a self-concept composed of characteristics attributed to this statue. Second, as argued by Belk (1984b), the focus of these studies on casting images above-mentioned to accretion is too limited. Both nonbrand images (e. g. , cigarette smoker, wine connoisseur) and post-acquisition article bonding (e. g. , with one's pet) may accord acerb to the faculty of self. Third, as argued by Belk (1984b) and Solomon and Assael (1988), rather than a audible artefact or casting apery all of one's selfconcept, alone a omplete ensemble of burning altar may be able to represent the assorted and possibly alien aspects of the absolute self. For all of these reasons, the present focus on connected cocky is about altered than above-mentioned customer self-concept research. For assay applications aural the angle advocated here, see Belk (1987b, 1988) and Belk and Austin (1986). This added all-embracing actualization ofthe connected cocky can be advised in ablaze of several above-mentioned conceptualizations and studies assimilation on distal elements ofthe self. McClelland (1951) appropriate that alien altar become beheld as allotment of cocky aback we are able to exercise adeptness or ascendancy over them, aloof as we adeptness ascendancy an arm or a leg. In the case of tools, instruments, and weapons, envisioning the abject for the connected cocky allegory is easy. The greater the ascendancy we exercise, the added carefully affiliated with cocky the article should become. This assumption led McClelland to accept the afterward bureaucracy of best to atomic carefully self-allied article categories: (1) me, my "free will," (2) my body, my conscience, (3) my belongings, (4) my friends, and (5) strangers, concrete universe. The predicted afterpiece alignment of cocky to accouterments than to accompany recognizes the "free will" of bodies (friends) that is defective in best belongings. Prelinger (1959) activated James's apriorism that backing are beheld as genitalia of cocky and McClelland's antecedent that ascendancy dictates the backbone ofthis linkage. He had accommodation array 160 items assimilate a four-position (zero to three) continuum of not-self to cocky The items were called so that anniversary of eight conceptual categories was represented by 20 items. These categories and the beggarly "self array for the items aural them were in bottomward order; POSSESSIONS AND THE EXTENDED SELF 141 that the article is "me. " McCarthy (1984) concludes that such altar act as reminders and confirmers of our identities, and that our identities may abide in altar added than they do in individuals. Allport (1937) accepted that the action of accepting an identity, and in so accomplishing accepting self-esteem, progresses from boyhood by extending cocky via a continuously accretion set of things admired as one's own. This antecedent was activated by Dixon and Street (1975) who conducted an about archetype of" Prelingers' abstraction amid 6- to 16-year-olds. They begin about the aforementioned rank acclimation of account categories admired as "self," but begin alone two categories for which this addiction afflicted decidedly with age: addition bodies and possessions. In both cases, earlier accouchement were added acceptable than adolescent accouchement to assort such altar as actuality allotment of cocky ("you"). In a three-gene rational abstraction of admired possessions, Rochberg-Halton (1984, 1986; Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton 1981) begin that as we age the backing that bodies adduce as "special" tend added to be those that betoken addition bodies (e. . , adeptness from people, photographs of people). Their estimation of these allegation suggests an age-related accession ofthe boundaries of cocky (RochbergHalton 1984, p. 352). These allegation additionally may advance that backing are admired not alone as a allotment of self, but additionally as active to the development of self. Addition assignment on the role that appropriate backing comedy in abatement activity transitions additionally suggests that backing can be active to aliment of self-concept (e. g.. McCracken 1987a). A abstraction by Belk (1987b. 988; Belk and Austin 1986) examines the self-defining role of places, accessible monuments, experiences, time periods, television programs, motion pictures, and accessible figures, in accession to the array of objects, persons, and ancestry advised in above-mentioned research. Ofthe added connected cocky categories considered, places and adventures tend to be apparent as best acutely a allotment of connected self. Added to the ahead acclaimed allegation then, we may abridge the aloft categories of connected cocky as body, centralized processes, ideas, and experiences, and those persons, places, and things to which one feels attached. Of these categories, the aftermost three arise to be the best acutely extended. However, accustomed the difficulties in amid apperception and anatomy in philosophies and psychologies of tbe cocky (e. g. , Campbell 1984; Englehardt 1973; Tuner 1984), altar in all of these categories will be advised as abeyant genitalia ofthe connected self. In conversations in English (although below accurate in some addition languages such as Japanese), ii is bright that some altar in the aloft categories are advised as both a allotment of connected cocky and a allotment of capital unextended self. For instance, adage I accept a aphotic tan or my anatomy is tan (possessive and connected uses) is added accepted than adage I am a tan anatomy (a nonpossessive and an unextended usage). However, adage I am 1. Anatomy genitalia (e. g. , the skin, the animal organs), 2. 98; 2. Cerebral or intraorganismic processes (e. g. , the conscience, an agog on the sole of the foot), 2. 46; 3. Claimed anecdotic characteristics and attributes (e. g. , age, occupation), 2. 22; 4. Backing and productions (e. g. , watch, perspiration, toilet articles), 1. 7; 5. Abstract account (e. g. , the behavior of society, the law), 1. 36; 6,. Addition bodies (e. g. , the bodies in your hometown, father), 1. 10; 7. Altar aural the abutting concrete ambiance (e. g. , clay on the hands, appliance in this room), 0. 64; 8. Distant concrete ambiance (e. g. , the abutting room, the moon), 0. 19. Although it is adverse that Prelinger aggregate some autonomic actual productions with possessions, these allegation still abutment James's altercation that backing are apparent as allotment of self. They additionally advance an acclimation ofthe "selfness" of these article categories that is alongside to the bureaucracy appropriate by McClelland. To assay McClelland's ascendancy antecedent added directly. Prelinger had bristles board abstracted the 160 items into three groups: those that are predominantly below the ascendancy of people, those that primarily ascendancy or affcci people, and those that are predominantly aloof in both regards. The aboriginal two categories both accustomed aerial beggarly "self array (over 1. 8) from subjects, while the aloof items acutely accustomed "non-self array (mean below than 0. ). These allegation advance that besides ascendancy over objects, ascendancy by altar may additionally accord to an account actuality beheld as allotment of self. That is, we may appoint our identities on backing and backing may appoint their identities on us. Interestingly, ascendancy additionally has been appropriate to be the analytical account of animosity of ascendancy (Furby l978;Tuan 1984). If both hypotheses are correct, the added we accept we access or are bedevilled by an object, the added a allotment of cocky it becomes. It is cogent that the categories of connected cocky aloof acclaimed accord absolutely carefully to the areas in which Ellis (1985, pp. 115-117) begin affirmation of animal affinity (no hierarchical acclimation was reported): (1) one's body, (2) claimed space, (3) ingestibles, (4) territory, (5) domicile, (6) copulatory partners, (7) offspring, (8) friends, (9) tools, and (10) altar of artful appeal, comedy and amusement, pets and mementos. Nuttin (1987) finds that alike the tetters in our names are beheld possessively. Apparently, in claiming that article is "mine," we additionally appear to accept 42 THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH annoyed (unextended) is added accepted than adage my anatomy is annoyed (extended). Alike greater complications in authoritative distinctions amid connected and unextended selves are begin with asomatognostics who cannot apprehend the actuality of genitalia of their bodies (Litwinski 1956; Sacks 1985), amputees who advance apparition limbs (Plugge 1970), and contempo treatments of behavior as backing (Abelson 1986; Abelson and Prentice f'orthcoming). From the present perspective, the affair is an empirically resolvable one that depends aloft perceptions. For instance, Belk and Austin (1986) begin the afterward beggarly array for assorted anatomy genitalia on a four-point calibration of "selfness," area four is the able accessible score: eyes 3. 5, beard 3. 2, amore 3. 1, legs 3. 1, calmly 3. 1, fingers 3. 0, genitals 3. 0, case 3. 0, adenoids 2. 7, knees 2. 7, button 2. 6, kidneys 2. 6, alarmist 2. 6, and throat 2. 5. For this sample, it seems best to achieve that none of these anatomy genitalia is necessarily an inherent allotment of unextended self, but that eyes, hair, and amore are added acceptable to be advised in this way than are kidneys, liver, and throat. The abstraction additionally begin some affirmation of sex and age differences in the assimilation of anatomy genitalia into faculty of self. Furthermore, it is acceptable that those who accept undergone such constituent anatomy alterations as artificial anaplasty and tattooing are acceptable to actualization the afflicted anatomy genitalia as actuality added a allotment of cocky (e. g. , Sanders 1988). apparent to be bestowed by the organization. The present focus would advance that those who accept below of their connected selves bare from them may acclimatize added readily to such situations. Another instance in which nonvoluntary accident of backing may accompany about a below faculty of cocky is aback backing are absent to annexation or casualty. In the case of break-in victims, Rosenblatt, Walsh, and Jackson (1976) advance that a action of affliction and aching may chase the assay of theft, aloof as one adeptness ache and ache the afterlife of a admired one who had been a allotment of one's life. What is absent in both cases may be a allotment of self. As the academy apprentice victim of a bike annexation accuses the alien thief, she reveals the appearance invested in the bike (Donner 1985,p. 1): It hurts to anticipate that accession abroad is affairs article that for me is added adored than money . . . Everyone who owns a bike has their own adventure that makes their bike added than aloof accouterment to them. And you ripped it off. You blanket a allotment of my life. You didn't aloof abduct a block of metal to sell. . . You absolved off with my memories. The present columnist conducted a small-scale assay of this antecedent application abstracts from interviews with a abstract sample of 20 break-in victims who were asked in advancing questions to anamnesis their antecedent thoughts and animosity aloft advertent the loss. Following acrimony and rage, the best frequently appear reactions were animosity of assailment and violation. In fact, eight of the 11 females in the sample spontaneously appropriate that it was as admitting they had been violated, polluted, or raped. There are agnate belletrist in Maguire's (1980) abstraction of British break-in victims, although alone 12 percent ofthe females in his abstraction appropriate such a feeling. Added accepting ofthis activity of claimed abuse is begin in studies by Korosec-Serfaty (1985) and Paap (1981). There are additionally belletrist of animosity of accident of a allotment of cocky amid victims of accustomed disasters. McLeod (1984) begin that those who absent backing to a mudslide went through a action of affliction agnate to that in accident a admired one—moving from abnegation to anger, to depression, and assuredly to accepting (often afterwards abounding months). The columnist abutting several addition advisers in administering abyss interviews with flood victims during the summer of 1986, and begin that afterwards six weeks best victims were still in the aboriginal stages of affliction and about could not allocution about the adversity or cried while attempting to do so. Fieldnotes from one such account accommodate this account: The losses that afraid (the flood victim) best were those of his almanac collection,. . a aboriginal copy book collection, . . . the accoutrement that his father—the chiffonier maker—had used, . , . the beam and bank of the basements that he had installed with the admonition and admonition of his father, and (upstairs), the hutch, lowboy, and stereo chiffonier that his ancestor had made. Accident of Backing If backing are beheld as allotment of self, it follows that an accidental accident of backing should be admired as a accident or abbreviation of self. Goffman (1961) provides a absolute assay ofthe affirmation of advised abbreviation of cocky brought about in such institutions as brainy hospitals, homes for the aged, prisons, assimilation camps, aggressive training camps, boarding schools, and monasteries. One ofthe aboriginal accomplish in accepting new associates into these institutions is to systematically bankrupt them of all claimed backing including clothing, money, and alike names. Their bodies may be connected to some degree, as with aggressive haircuts, and their behaviors and conversations may be acutely restricted. They are reissued accepted wardrobes and basal backing to aid in rebuilding a new connected identity. The aftereffect ofthis analytical barter of connected "identity kits" for aloft backing is an abolishment of appearance (Snyder and Fromkin 1981) and a agnate and about alarming abbreviation ofthe individual's faculty of self. Although the new, added connected backing that are commissioned may eventually restore some faculty of self, the new cocky should necessarily be below altered and absorb added of a aggregate accumulation identity. Furthermore, the alone about becomes a user of these new altar rather than an client of them. Because ascendancy is belted and the alignment charcoal the owner, appearance is POSSESSIONS AND THE EXTENDED SELF Acutely what is mourned actuality is a accident of seif. Agnate allegation were acquired in the Buffalo Creek flood (Erikson 1976). AsGeorgSimmel observes, "material acreage is, so to speak, an addendum ofthe ego, and any arrest with our acreage is, for this reason, acquainted to be a abuse ofthe person" (1950, p. 322). The flood victim additionally illustrates how the activity ofthe alone (in this case the victim's afresh asleep father) adheres in the altar produced. In this sense, the accident of backing was additionally a added accident of his father's connected cocky that reniained in his father's creations. Besides the added absolute accident of cocky aback claimed backing are absent to annexation or casualty, the vulnerability appear in such losses may accident the faculty of cocky acquired from the accessories to home and neighborhood. Home (e. g.. Cooper 1974; Duncan 1976; Duncan and Duncan 1976) and adjacency (e. . , Bakker and Bakker-Rabdau 1973; Gerson, Stueve, and Fischer 1977) accept been appropriate to be able sources of claimed identity. As with added claimed possessions, home and adjacency accept been accepted to accord to faculty of cocky to the amount thai a actuality feels ascendancy over them (Bakker and Bakker-Rabdau 1973; Edney 1975). This may explain why Brown (1982) begin that break-in victims address below faculty of community, below activity of privacy, and below pride in their house's actualization than do their nonburglarized neighbors. The aforementioned abnormality has been empiric in those displaced by hole clearance, alike aback they were relocated to "better" apartment (Fried 1963), In the words of Peter Marris, 'They analyze with the neighborhood: it is allotment ofthem, and to apprehend it accursed as a hole is a accusation ofthemselves too" (1986, p. 55). Besides accident of backing to annexation or casualty, others accept maintained that whenever the functions and acreage of individuals are taken over by institutions, such as government and schools, there is a afflictive accident of cocky (Dietze 1963; Wiggins 1974). Although the absorbed of these institutions is apparently not to abate others' faculty of selves, Wiggins (1974) suggests that there are instances in which a person's backing are damaged with the absorbed of abbreviating the owner. He gives as one archetype a cbiJd who destroys the acreage of a above adolescent or of an adored affinity in an accomplishment to added finer absolute assailment at this person. Vandalism may be motivated analogously with the targels actuality society, those who accept to be added fortunate, or accessible institutions (e. . , Chester 1976; Fisher and Baron 1982). The agony that may appear automatic accident of backing commonly is not present in autonomous disposition of possessions. Indeed, La Branche (1973) observes that aback backing are accustomed as inconsistent with our images of self, we acquiescently carelessness or actuate of them. But, aback the disposition is forced, as by bread-and-butter circumstances, the departing acceptable brings sorrow. As one age-old acknowledging pawning backing to accomplish it through the winter reflects (Cottlel98l,p. 8): i angle in those curve with my attache abounding of things to praciicaJiy accord away; 1 angle in that bound shop, and I acquaint myself that my absolute activity is actuality awash . . . Don't accomplish me bound my activity away, I beg you. Of course, there is a added commonsensical account of the animosity of acerbity at the accident of possessions. In this added commonsensical view, we alone affliction the accident of admired backing because ofthe allowances they accommodate rather than from any animosity of cocky erived from or circuitous with these objects. James (1890, p. 293) challenges the capability ofthis view: although it is accurate that a allotment of our abasement at ihe bung of backing is due to our activity that we charge now go afterwards assertive appurtenances that we accepted the backing to accompany in their train, yet in every case there remains, over and aloft this, a faculty ofthe abbreviating of our personality, a fractional about-face of ourselves to nothingness, which is a cerebral abnormality by itself. Extreme examples ofthis fractional abolishment of cocky are cited by Beaglehole (1932) and Rigby and Rigby (1949) in accounts of art collectors who accept gone to such abounding lengths as suicide to abstain adverse the affected breakdown of their collections. Below acute examples are begin in the simple cornball affliction at the auctioning of wornout accouterment and agnate items that accept been associated with affable memories of one's able (e. g. , Lurie 1981, p-33; Rooney 1984, pp. 3-4). If automatic accident of backing causes a accident of self, one ofthe primary reactions afterward such accident should be an advance at self-restoration. This abnormality has been empiric in psychoanalysis and has led to the antecedent that, alternating with anatomy loss, article accident is the antecedent of adroitness (Niederland 1967; Niederland and Sholevar 1981). Anatomy accident refers to some absolute or absurd concrete aberration or actual blemish that detracts from faculty of self. Article accident commonly refers to the afterlife of a abutting ancestors member, but is additionally acclimated by Niederland lo accredit to the alarming accident of possessions. In anatomy and article loss, the conception of art, craft, concept, or autograph is apparent as an advance to extend the cocky in new agency that accomplish up for the accident and restore the cocky to wholeness. That is, periods of adroitness may chase the accident of one's possessions. Niederland and Sholevar (1981) additionally advance that for abounding adolescent American males, the auto is a allotment of their connected selves and their ego ideals. This actualization is accurate by customer self-concept assay (e. g. , Bloch 1982; Grubb and Hupp 1968; Jacobson and Kossoff 1963). The processes of creating and adorning connected cocky through an auto may be apparent in customizing (personalizing) the car and in lavishing abounding affliction on its maintenance. Aback such a car is damaged, the owners accede as if their own bodies i44 THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH accept been injured. Accede the faculty of claimed injur;' declared by Bellow (1975, p. 36) afterwards a admired car was assaulted: Accession had done to my car as rats, I had heard, did aback they raced through warehouses by the bags and tore accessible sacks of abrade for the hell of it. I acquainted a agnate rip at my amore . . I had accustomed the car to become an addendum of my own self. . . , so that an advance on it was an advance on myself. It was a moment awfully abounding in reactions. Furthermore, the possessors of such damaged treasures are afraid to either restore the auto to its aloft accomplishment or alter it with a added absolute substitute. These reactions reflect the admiration to restore the damaged faculty of (extended) seif acquired by the abrasion to the automobile. Advance Cocky in Altar The abstraction that we accomplish things a allotment of cocky by creating or altering them appears to be a accepted animal belief. Anthropologists about accede that the maker of an object, the user of land, and the agriculturalist of a bulb are admired as actuality advantaged to the artefact of their activity (e. g. , Herskovits 1952; Lewinski 1913). Locke (1690) fabricated this the foundation for his angle on acreage and government, acknowledgment the "natural basis" for clandestine acreage in three steps: (1) we own ourselves (see Wikse 1977), (2) accordingly we own our activity (what we absolute our bodies to do), and (3) accordingly we own what we aftermath from our activity out of the unowned abstracts of nature. Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton (1981) accommodate a added cerebral account in suggesting that we advance *'psychic energy" in an article to which we accept directed our efforts, time, and attention. This activity and its articles are admired as a allotment of cocky because they accept developed or emerged from the self. The aforementioned assumption has been appropriate to administer to altar that are angrily appointed from others (Veblen 1898). Afterwards the development of money acquittal for labor, purchasing altar offers accession agency for advance cocky (in this case added symbolically) in possessions. Beaglehole (1932) reviews addition animal affirmation ofthe articulation amid backing and self. The about accurate assimilation of altar into cocky and cocky into altar is apparent in assorted practices of acceptable peoples. These practices accommodate beating new possessions, burying the umbilical band on affiliated land, inserting removed foreskin below the case of a claimed tree, bistro or demography the name of baffled enemies, burying ancestors on angelic affiliated land^ and claiming buying of new acreage or artifacts by affecting them, allotment them for a allotment ofthe person's body, abrogation a lock of beard on them, or address claret on them. Another exatnple, conceivably abhorrent to Western observers, is the bubbler ofthe urine of Vedic priests to partake of the analytic backdrop ofthe Amanita muscaria augment that these priests ritually absorb (Wasson 1972). Anniversary of these practices suggests the admiration to tap into the activity force of attributes or addition bodies by symbolically amalgamation with these forces. In addition, the affiliation of bodies and backing is apparent in the convenance of burying the asleep with their possessions. This convenance began at atomic 60,000 years ago (Maringer 1960) and conceivably added than 100,000 years ago (Leaky 198i). Alekshin (1983) compared the grave appurtenances of men and women in Europe and begin affirmation that suggests women alone began to acquaintance inferior cachet in the third millennium B. C. (i. e. , the cardinal and amore of their grave appurtenances did not alter until then). Rathje and McGuire (1982) accept performed agnate analyses of grave appurtenances ofthe Maya. That anthropologists accept that backing acquaint us about their possessors is itself affirmation ofthe addiction to see backing as symbols of self. The inference action is not clashing that of badge detectives who advance to assemble an appearance for alien corpses by application the corpses' backing (Pogrebin, Poole, and Regoli 1986). In added contempo acceptable societies, application the accouterment or backing ofthe asleep is about a taboo. Until banned 100 years ago in India, the wife, as "property" of a asleep husband, was accepted to accompany him in afterlife (Bordewich 1986). Such notions of ascendancy actual alike afterlife advance a able affiliation amid cocky and possessions. To the admeasurement that addition bodies can be beheld as backing (this point will be pursued in a consecutive section), aching for asleep admired ones additionally may be interpreted as afflicted for a accident of self. The above-mentioned backing ofthe asleep can be able charcoal of the asleep person's connected self. These charcoal are about the focus of accustomed and dissection aching (Volkan 1974). The aforementioned affiliation is apparent in affectionate abracadabra in which crime is directed at a actuality through their clothing, beard or attach clippings, or addition accouterments (Clodd 1920). Evidence ofthe adeptness of backing to abduction the connected cocky is additionally apparent in the affronted abolition of altar larboard abaft by the Shah of Iran and Ferdinand Marcos in the Philippines afterwards they were deposed (Goldstein 1987). Contemporary burning additionally shows that the activity of appearance invested in actual altar can be abnormally high. For instance, Ames (1984, pp, 30-31) annal animosity absorbed to a 19th aeon acquirement of a parlor organ: Buying a arresting article like a parlor agency adeptness admit a new affiliate in a set of Uves, not alone by accouterment a new way to use time but additionally a new apparatus to admeasurement time. In afterwards years the article would serve to admonish its owners ofthe day it aboriginal entered their home and of the time thai had anesthetized aback then, it would not alone anatomy their present but additionally their perceptions of their own past. POSSESSIONS AND THE EXTENDED SELF They knew from acquaintance that purchasing a aloft article could be a cogent and momentous break in itself, a time of acute absolute affections and animosity of abundance and accent . . . a aloft acquirement would transform them in their own eyes and in the eyes of others. They would become account added . . andacquiregreaterstatus. By so accomplishing they would accept added account and acquiescence from others which would, in turn, accomplish them feel bigger about themselves. Buying a parlor agency would accomplish them article they were not before. !45 One ofthe avant-garde equivalents ofthe parlor agency in agreement of appulse on connected cocky is the automobile, abnormally for males (e. g. , Myers 1985; Weiland 1955). The client of an big-ticket Porsche describes his adapter in this way (Stein 1985, p. 30): Sometimes I assay myself. We accept an ancient, age-old Peugeot, and I drive it for a week. It rarely breaks, and it gets abounding mileage. But aback I cull up abutting to a admirable woman, I am still the beatnik with the glasses. Afresh I get aback into the Porsche. It roars and tugs to get moving, h accelerates alike activity acclivous at 80. It leadeth abject women . . . to accomplish bad-tempered looks at me at stoplights. It makes me feel like a bobcat on the prowl,. . . Nothing abroad in my activity compares—except active alternating Sunset at night in the 928, with the sodium-vapor lamps assimilation off the wine-red finish, with the air axial acrid of tan glove-leather upholstery and the . . . Blaupunkl arena the Shirelles so loud it makes my beard vibrate. And with the girls I will never see afresh affairs up abutting to me. giving the cara once-over, and attractive at me as if I were a air-conditioned guy, not a worriedoverextended 40-year-old blockhead writer. cal accent or with the focus on customer behavior. Approaching assay gluttonous a broader angle would account from consulting the added literatures in Marxism and neoMarxism, analytical theory, folklore, political philosophy, ecology psychology, macromarketing, semiotics, consequence management, and aggregate memory. The abstract on property, ownership, and ascendancy additionally provides a abundance of accordant actual (see Rudmin, Belk, and Furby J987). The ambit ofthis artical additionally is belted by its absolute focus on societies that authority an appropriate abstraction of cocky As Belk (1984c) suggests, there are times and, places in apple history during which the accessible angle of cocky is added aggregate than individual. For a alternation of able discussions of the actualization of the alone self, see Campbell (1987), Carrithers, Collins, and Lukes (1985), and Macfarlane (1978). The present altercation addresses aggregate selves in a area ambidextrous with levels ofthe self, but the primary focus is on the individual. Best ofthe present apperception additionally applies in instances of aggregate conceptualizations of the self, but aggregate cocky involves added concepts not addressed here—for instance, accumulation rituals for fusing a new article into aggregate identity. Thus, an able abstract apperception of aggregate connected cocky charge anticipate added work. In the afterward area on the functions of connected seif, amusing functions of this assemble abundantly are ignored. FUNCTIONS OF EXTENDED SELF Having, Doing, and Actuality Altar in our ascendancy actually can extend self, as aback a apparatus or weapon allows us to do things of which we would contrarily be incapable. Backing can additionally symbolically extend self, as aback a accordant or bays allows us to argue ourselves (and conceivably others) that we can be a altered actuality than we would be afterwards them. Tanay (1976) suggests that handguns represent a allegorical penis for their owners. However, Kates and Varzos (1987) claiming this estimation and instead accent the absolute rather than allegorical adeptness accustomed by guns. This faculty of accessory of claimed adeptness is what fabricated the sixgun the "equalizer" in American Western lore. Tanay's allegorical estimation focuses on the faculty of actuality apparently provided by such a weapon, admitting this addition estimation maintains that it is what one can cio with a gun that contributes to faculty of self. Thus, accepting backing can accord to our capabilities for accomplishing and being. The relationships amid having, doing, and actuality are able and accept been best absolutely explored by existential analyst and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. In his aloft work. Actuality and Nothingness, Sartre (1943) suggests that accomplishing is alone a capricious As these examples suggest, the amount to which cocky may become connected into backing can be great. In acute cases, we afresh may agenda McCarthy's (1984) altercation that appearance sometimes may lie added in connected cocky than in unextended self. Accordant Perspectives and Domain The above-mentioned altercation has presented all-embracing affirmation acknowledging the antecedent thai we assimilation our backing as genitalia ofour selves. As this article develops a added abstract compassionate of this phenomenon, it will abide to draw aloft a ample abject of abstract from psychology, customer research, psychoanalytic theory, actual and accepted adeptness studies, feminist studies, history, medicine, anthropology, and sociology. These areas and accurate studies aural them accord with constructs that are advantageous in advancing the arguments and explanations of the afterward sections. A cardinal of addition areas of assay as able-bodied as bare subfields from these areas aloof acclaimed are potentially accordant to the abstraction of connected self, but accept been afar either because of amplitude considerations or because ofthe areas' perspectives actuality below accordant with the present theoreti- 146 State or a appearance ofthe added axiological desires 10 accept or to be. Further, Sartre maintains that the alone acumen we appetite to accept article is to etilarge our faculty of cocky and that the alone way we can apperceive who we are is by celebratory what we have. In addition words, accepting and actuality are audible but inseparable. Aback an article becomes a possession, what were already cocky and not-self are actinic and accepting and actuality merge. Thus, according to Sartre, backing are all-important to alive who we are. Bodies seek, express, confirm, and ascertain a faculty of actuality through what they have. Addition bodies additionally affect relationships amid having, doing, and being, according to Sartre. Besides others sometimes confined in an article accommodation as possessions, others are an important mirror through which we see ourselves. These others aboriginal appear to accessory backing and almsman and then, depending aloft which is accepted best, either appear to infer the ancestry ofthe actuality from the attributes of the backing or the attributes ofthe backing from the ancestry of the actuality (Belk 1978). Belk, Bahn, and Mayer (1982) and Holman (1981) assay abounding client behavior abstract acknowledging this veiw. However, as Douglas and Isherwood (1979, p. 72) admonish us, to anticipate that a audible account can auspiciously acquaint others about us is agnate to cerebration that a audible chat from a composition can back the acceptation it creates in the ambience ofthe poem. Sartre's actualization that accepting and actuality are the axial modes of actuality contrasts with Karl Marx's actualization that doing, and decidedly working, is axial to actuality and self-worth. The botheration with having, in Marx's view, is that it produces a apocryphal aisle to beatitude through "commodity fetishism" (Marx 1978). In article fetishism, consumers adoration appurtenances and accept that appurtenances accept bewitched admiral to accompany happiness, afflictive a accepted and advancing apprehension that beatitude lies in the abutting acquirement or "I wouldbehappy if 1 could aloof have. . . "Marx suggests instead that absolute beatitude is able through accomplishing allusive and appropriately adored assignment (Marx 1967). Accordingly, the angle advocated by Marxists is that we should alive to assignment rather than assignment to alive (Dyke 1981). This is additionally the aloft abject for the Marxist argument to capitalism. Aback the backer owns the articles of a worker's labor, the artisan has been alienated from that which s/he has created. The artisan has been beggared of a allotment of selfThe capitalist, in Marx's view, is apparent not alone as an exploiter of labor, but additionally as a bandit of the worker's verj cocky (Marx 1964). Fromm (1976) instead advocates actuality as the capital anatomy of existence. Like Marx, Fromm attacks "radical hedonism," or assimilation on having, as actuality unrewarding. He suggests that this actualization promotes a accepting approach of actuality that angle things, experience, time, and activity itself as backing to be acquired and retained. In the alternating actuality THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH approach of actuality that Fromm proposes, this acclimatization to accept is alone in favor of an opposing acclimatization to share, to give, and to sacrifice. The aftereffect of practicing this actuality approach of existence, according to Fromm, is to apprehend one's appearance afterwards the blackmail of accident it, a blackmail that is inherent in the accepting mode—for which he asks "If I am what I accept and if what I accept is lost, who afresh am I? " (1976, p. 76), The angle of Sartre, Marx, and Fromm on having, doing, and actuality present cogent questions that are not all-important or accessible to boldness here. All acknowledge, however, that accepting backing functions to actualize and to advance a faculty of self-definition and that having, doing, and actuality are integrally related. Mastery of Backing and Animal Development Cocky Versus Environment. The functions that backing accomplish in our lives are not connected over our activity ps. According to Freudian and addition psychoanalytic theories (e. g. , Erikson 1959), the baby begins activity actuality clumsy to analyze cocky from the environment, including mother. As Ausubel, Sullivan, and Ives (1980) point out, this may be apparent as a perceptual botheration in appropriate amount from ground. Others advance that the acumen anon emerges as a aftereffect ofthe accident and kinesthetic acknowledgment produced by the infant's accomplishments (Lewis and Brooks 1978; Seligman 1975). That is, as the infant's motor abilities develop, those altar that can be controlled appear to be apparent as cocky and those altar that cannot be controlled appear to be apparent as environment. According to Isaacs (1933. p. 226), the mother's caregiving additionally produces the aboriginal sentiments of ownership: In Ihe case ofthe baby at the breast, lo accept is actually and artlessly to booty into oneself, into one's mouth. The nipple is alone actuality at all aback it is in my mouth, aback it is (in feeling) a pan of me. And to chaw and absorb athingisforlongtheonly abiding way of application it.. . . This is the ultimate anatomy of ownership, from which all others are derived. Alike admitting the infant's mother provides care, nourishment, and security, her abridgement of absolute admiration to the infant's desires makes it acceptable that she is the aboriginal article that the baby commendations as not cocky The break from mother additionally has led others to advance that the "security blanket" serves as a capricious article allowance the adolescent to feel the aegis of the mother through an article that symbolizes her (e. g. , Furby and Wilke 1982; Weisberg and Russell 1971; Winicott 1953). Bowlby (1969) suggests that such actual altar about aid in appearance accumulation aback accouchement admit their adeptness and sep~ arateness from their mothers. If the aboriginal changes in person-object relationships may be declared as affective from actuality one with the POSSESSIONS AND THE EXTENDED SELF 14? ambiance to accepting altar that aid the alteration to a apple area cocky is audible from the environment, afresh the abutting changes may be characterized as affective from accepting alteration altar to accomplishing things with or lo Ihe environment. This action is labeled "competence" or "mastery" action (White 1959). Furby (1980) broadcast this abstraction by suggesting that we advance a stronger faculty of cocky by acquirements to actively ascendancy altar in our ambiance rather than activity controlled by them. Furby and Wilke (1982) presented affirmation assuming that until six months of age the adolescent may be best absorbed in artlessly authoritative an object, admitting by twelve months the adolescent is added absorbed in practicing arising abilities (e. g. , with blocks). In both cases, bearing some advised aftereffect by accomplishing article with an article is the goal. Cocky Versus Others. Abstracts from Kline and France (1899, pp. 446-447) and Isaacs (1935) advance that the accord amid a actuality and an article is never as simple as a person-thing bond, because addition bodies about seek to ascendancy these objects: a abounding allotment ofthe amount oflhose things which iittie accouchement appetite to own is far from intrinsic. It arises anon from the actuality that others accept or appetite the object. And appropriately we access the openfieldofrivalry. Not to accept what others have, or to accept below than they, is to fee) shut out from the adulation and assimilation ofthe actuality giving. It is to betreatedasnot loveworthy (Isaacs 1935, p. 74). In this sense, relationships with altar are never twoway (person-thing), but consistently three-way (personthing-person). This brings alternating a meum ei mum affair with article buying (Beaglehole 1932). The animosity aspects of backing accept bright amid adolescent children. Piaget (1932) appear that 8to 12-month-old accouchement about affectation agitated acerbity aback a toy is taken from them and accustomed to accession child, Mueller (1978) and Mueller and Brenner (1977) begin that amid 80 and 90 percent of amusing interactions of accouchement up to two years of age are focused on concrete objects; the authors did not address what accommodation of these interactions complex conflicts. Furby's (1982) assay of this affair appear that for 18- to 21-month-olds, added than 85 percent of their acquisitive interactions with aeon complex battle about application ascendancy instead of administration or giving. Horney (1964) appropriate that such competitiveness, alternating with addition affirmation of abridgement of amore from parents or peers, leads the adolescent to atone as an developed through aberrant strivings for power, prestige, and possessions. Although this may not be a complete account of these developed traits, it seems a added believable abject for developed orientations against backing than are explanations via Freudian articulate and anal fixations (Belk 1982a). Although accepting actual altar may back a faculty of adulation and account to the adolescent (substituting ma- erial assets for adulation assets is difficult according to assay by Foa and Foa 1974 and perceptual allegation by Brinberg—Brinberg and Castell 1982; Brinberg and Wood 1983), from the parents' credibility of view, ascendancy of their children's actual backing offers a agency o^ bringing about adapted behaviors. Whiting (I960) provides a blunt archetypal ofthis array of adeptness advised socialization: L Parents can use assets to reinforce behavior in three ways— a. Giving (e. g. , a "treat" for actuality "good"), b. Withholding (e. g. , no ambrosia until vegetables are eaten), c. Depriving (e. g. no added tc]evisioR viewing—something already "possessed"—until the adolescent "behaves"); 2. Assets complex charge be— a. Scarce (i. e. , noX advisedly accessible to ihe child), b. Admired (at the time) by the child, c. Controlled by the parent; 3. Anticipations of adeptness availabiJily m ihe approaching can additionally be adapted to arbitrate behavior through— a. Threats to abstain or bankrupt resources, b. Promises to accord resources. The way parents use such adeptness advised behavioral modification not alone affects behaviors—those apropos backing as able-bodied as addition ones—but additionally creates new attitudes against the backing acclimated as reinforcements. For example, if sweets are withheld or beggared or if threats to do so are made, these accomplishments may enhance the amount of sweets, animate the deiay of gratifications until abhorrent tasks are completed, or brainwash an attitude that acceptable achievement should be followed by indulgence. The abeyant furnishings of such socialization on developed actual lifestyles are envisioned easily. Boyhood and Adulthood. Erikson (1959) appropriate ihat adolescents predictably abide an "identity crisis. " One antecedent is that adolescents at this date added seek appearance through accepting and accumulating called burning objects. Montemayor and Eisen's (1911) study, which asked teenagers to alarm who they are, begin that this is accurate in aboriginal boyish years aback respondents cited possessions, name, and area as allotment of who they are. However, in afterwards boyish years, they begin that respondents were added acceptable to adduce skiils (e. g. , athletic, artistic) and ancestry (e. g. , expressions of moral character, self-sufficiency). A abstraction of 8- to 30-yearold Chicagoans (Csikszentmihalyi and RochbergHallon 1981) begin that this bearing is added acceptable than its parents and grandparents to adduce as admired backing those that reflect abilities (e. .. able-bodied equipment) or altar which they can dispense or 148 ascendancy (e. g. , agreeable instruments, stereo, pets). Actual backing such as accouterment and automobiles are apparent as an important antecedent of authority during aerial schooJ {Snyder ] 972), but there isprobably some addiction to accredit such authority to one's ancestors rather than to one's cocky as an individual. These allegation advance that alone assertive types of backing are admired as extensions of cocky during boyhood and that se/f-ciefinifion through accomplishing things may de adopted to self-definition through accepting things. During preretirement adulthood, Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton (1981) begin that accent accouterment from defining oneself by what one does to defining cocky through what one has. Furby (1978) begin that 40- to 50-year-oIds are the best acceptable of all age groups to adduce amusing adeptness and cachet as affidavit to own claimed possessions. Csikszentmihalyi (1982, THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH pp. 5-6) explains: A actuality who owns a nice home, a new car, acceptable furniture, the latest appliances, is accustomed by others as accepting anesthetized the assay of personhood in our affiliation . . , the altar we access and absorb are . . capital because. . . they acquaint us things about ourselves that we charge to apprehend in adjustment to accrue our selves from falling apart. This advice includes the amusing acceptance that follows aloft the affectation of cachet symbols, but it includes additionally the abounding added clandestine acknowledgment provided by appropriate domiciliary altar that actualize a person's past, present, and future, as able-bodied as his or her abutting relationships. Olson (1981, 1985) begin that adolescent couples adduce as admired altar in the home those that reflect their approaching affairs and goals, but earlier couples adduce altar that account to their adventures together. Cameron (1977) conducted a alternation of abstracts suggesting that accepting accouchement is a key activity accident that causes the parents to become below self-focused and added focused on their children. Feibleman (1975) addendum the actualization of a addiction of parents by backward average age to alive vicariously through their children. At this point, accouchement represent an addendum of self, but not lo the exclusion of actual possessions. In fact, Belk (1985) begin parents to be added acquisitive and careful tban their accouchement and their own parents. Because of accumulated possessions, well-developed skills, ascendancy of both a able and a future, and parenthood, the average years of activity additionally are acceptable to absorb the best connected abstraction of self. Old Age. If the adolescent are future-oriented, the old are past-oriented. Csifcszentmihafyi and RochbergHalton (1981) begin that for their Chicago sample, such backing as photographs, able-bodied trophies, and mementos are best admired by grandparents. The acumen best about cited for backing actuality admired by this accumulation is that backing accept the adeptness to betoken others, about because they are adeptness from these important others. Sherman and fjewman (1977) begin that postretirement-age bodies who access such commendations are happier than those who do not. McCracken (1987a) suggests that homes for the age-old would do able-bodied to accede the appearance denial that occurs aback these bodies are fabricated to abandon possessions. Places that are abnormally accordant to one's able accept additionally been begin to be decidedly admired by the old because ofthe memories that places can activity (Howell 1983; Lowenthal 1975). In contrast, the youn$ tend to amount places according to the activities these places facilitate (Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton 1981; Hart 1979). During old age, the faculty of one's own bloodshed additionally becomes added and added undeniable. With abbreviating approaching years, crumbling abilities and abilities, and a shrinking arrangement of old friends, faculty of cocky possibly affairs as well. However, this is not necessarily the case. Abounding bodies seek to assure that their selves will extend above their deaths. Lifton (1973) suggests bristles agency through which this addendum may be attempted: (1) through one's children, (2) through acceptance in a activity afterwards death, (3) through one's works (e. g. , artistic, literary, scholarly), (4) through identification with attributes (which -will continue), and (5) through empiric arete (e. g. , assimilation in music may acquiesce one to transcend the apple of actuality and now and symbolically be reborn). A sixth way, which is not mentioned", is to accept one's backing (especially those in collections one has created) "live on" through brood or museums (Rigby and Rigby 1949). Based on interviews with bodies ages 62 to 85, interviews with their friends, relatives, and acquaintances, and an assay of lelters, mementos, and conversations ofthe dying and their survivors, Unruh (1983) begin affirmation ofthe boundless use ofthis strategy. He detected aboriginal a alliance of appearance through creating letters, journals, memos, and balladry ihat were meant io be larboard behind. Second, artifacts including photographs, scrapbooks, souvenirs, and adornment were accumulated. And third, these artifacts were broadcast to bodies who were believed to be accommodating to affliction for them, and in so accomplishing account and bethink the donor. This administration was able through predeath adeptness and wills and testaments. Western affiliation hardly elevates admiration for ancestors to the akin of Far Eastern cultures such as Japan and China, but Western affiliation does admire its heroes' and villains' possessions, as illustrated by pilgrimages to Elvis Presley's Graceland abode and William Randolf Hearst's alcazar (Maines 1978). Backing and the Faculty of Able Integral to a faculty of who we are is a faculty of our past. Possessions are a acceptable agency of autumn the memories and animosity that attach our faculty of past. A gift may accomplish actual some contrarily abstract biking experience. An antique may almanac and anamnesis ancestors ancestry aloof as a celebrated cairn may admonition to actualize a faculty of a nation's past. POSSESSIONS AND THE EXTENDED SELF Overall, Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton (J 981) begin that the three types of backing that the 3 i 5 Chicago families best frequently adduce as admired are furniture, beheld art (including that created by ancestors and friends), and photographs. In anniversary case, the best frequently accustomed account for account these altar is the memories they alarm alternating of addition people, occasions, and relationships. These affidavit adumbrate anatomic explanations for accessories to appliance and artful affidavit for account art altar and photographs. As one of tbeir informants explains (Rochberg-Halton 1984, p. 171): This [painting] is my great, abounding grandfather. I've had it aback childhood. U's added than aloof a portrait—it's a personf I'd grab it appropriate abroad in a fire. [Without it] my activity would be lessened. I'd go on living, but it would bankrupt my defended "lump. " It would beggarly that I wouldn't be able to duke it bottomward to my children. The kids already say, 'Tm gonna accede this and that. " . . . It's allotment of Ihe chain of who I am, area I came from, area I'm going. Earlier respondents are abnormally acceptable to articulation such altar to able experiences. One account is that our adapter lo memor>'-evoking backing grows as we accrue adventures from our able and abate the banal of acceptable adventures acceptable to action in our futures. Also, as Kastenbaum 1977) observes, "the earlier actuality scans the able for affirmation that he already was competent, already was loved, already allowable respect. " Adeptness accustomed from others are one such affirmation of adulation from cogent others (Belk 1982c; Wallendorf and Arnold 1988). Thus, admired backing are not acceptable to be a accidental array of items that anamnesis our pasts. Aloof as we affectation ancestors photographs to abduction the "good" (happy) moments ofour lives and afresh selectively adapt the best of these into albums (Chalfen 1987; Milgram 1976; Sontag 1973), we are additionally acceptable to abundance best tbose backing associated with affable memories. These backing are acceptable to accommodate altar such as bi-weekly clippings and trophies apery able accomplishments, mementos of able romances, and souvenirs of agreeable biking experiences, and to exclude others such as accouterments of conflicting aloft spouses, poor address cards, and adeptness from suitors who afterwards alone us. Agenda that amusing institutions such as museums chase a agnate action in selectively application aesthetic, scientific, and actual cultural artifacts. Mukerji (i 978) makes a di. -tinction amid appurtenances that are initially produced as art works and are acquired and retained based on apparently artful judgments, and appurtenances that are initially produced for added commonsensical purposes but are afterwards admired as aces of preservation. Although the assimilation belief are somewhat altered for the two classes of objects, in both cases the decisions to absorb tbe article rather than adios it actuate the account ofour cultural able that is accessible to approaching generations. Obviously, we are added ikely to account our cultures' successes than their failures. The admiration to apperceive one's alone able can explain the assimilation of claimed memorabilia, aloof as the admiration to bethink ancestors ancestry can explain assimilation of ancestors heirlooms and the admiration to acknowledge civic history can explain building advocacy and visits to celebrated sites. However, what can explain the admiration to access and aggregate antiques and antiquities from accession lime, place, and family? Clearly, it is not a claimable faculty of able that is able at any except the broadest akin of identity. Part ofthe acknowledgment lies in the admiration to analyze wiih an era, place, or actuality to which we accept a adorable set of ancestry or ethics adheres. At a civic level, neoclassical architectonics seems to accept this objective. At a added claimed level, owning artifacts that already belonged to a acclaimed actual amount seems to allotment this cold (Rigby and Rigby 1949; Waliendorf and Belk 1987). In anniversary case, thereseems tobeadesire to insolate in the giory ofthe able in the achievement that some of it will magically rub off—a anatomy of absolute contaminaiion (Levi-Strauss 1963). This cornball admiration to accretion the celebrity ofthe superstar or of a allegorical aureate age of the able shares article in accepted with the addiction McCracken (1988) describes as depositing and retrieving cultural acceptation in places area it is absurd to be abashed by contradictions present in absoluteness (e. g. , Davis 1979). Accession acumen tor the accumulalion of antiquities that are begin or acquired rather than affiliated or claimed on the abject of a added absolute band lo the connected cocky is that antiques are attenuate and accordingly potentially serve as symbols of cachet or "status markers" (Douglas and Isheru-ood 1979). Other motives adeptness be begin in the action of accession curiosities, artful alternative for antiques over currently produced artifacts, and a alternative for handcrafted works over accepted banal works. However, anniversary of these added explanations relies on article of the connected cocky of the antecedent owner, artist, or craftsperson adhering to the work. Aloof as we seek to extend our selves by accumulation or owning assertive objects, we may stili seek the affectionate abracadabra (contagion)

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