Porter five forces analysis is a framework for industry analysis and business strategy development formed by Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979. It draws uponindustrial organizationeconomics to derive five forces that determine the competitive intensity and therefore attractiveness of a market. Attractiveness in this context refers to the overall industry profitability. An “unattractive” industry is one in which the combination of these five forces acts to drive down overall profitability.
A very unattractive industry would be one approaching “pure competition”, in which available profits for all firms are driven to normal profit. Five forces Threat of new competition Profitable markets that yield high returns will attract new firms. This results in many new entrants, which eventually will decrease profitability for all firms in the industry. Unless the entry of new firms can be blocked by incumbents, the abnormal profit rate will tend towards zero (perfect competition). * The existence of barriers to entry (patents, rights, etc. The most attractive segment is one in which entry barriers are high and exit barriers are low. Few new firms can enter and non-performing firms can exit easily. * Economies of product differences * Brand equity * Switching costs or sunk costs * Capital requirements * Access to distribution * Customer loyalty to established brands * Absolute cost * Industry profitability; the more profitable the industry the more attractive it will be to new competitors. Threat of substitute products or services The existence of products outside of the realm of the common product boundaries increases the propensity of customers to switch to alternatives.
Note that this should not be confused with competitors’ similar products but entirely different ones instead. For example, tap water might be considered a substitute for Coke, whereas Pepsi is a competitor’s similar product. Increased marketing for drinking tap water might “shrink the pie” for both Coke and Pepsi, whereas increased Pepsi advertising would likely “grow the pie” (increase consumption of all soft drinks), albeit while giving Pepsi a larger slice at Coke’s expense. * Buyer propensity to substitute * Relative price performance of substitute Buyer switching costs * Perceived level of product differentiation * Number of substitute products available in the market * Ease of substitution. Information-based products are more prone to substitution, as online product can easily replace material product. * Substandard product * Quality depreciation Bargaining power of customers (buyers) The bargaining power of customers is also described as the market of outputs: the ability of customers to put the firm under pressure, which also affects the customer’s sensitivity to price changes. Buyer concentration to firm concentration ratio * Degree of dependency upon existing channels of distribution * Bargaining leverage, particularly in industries with high fixed cost * Buyer switching costs relative to firm switching costs * Buyer information availability * Availability of existing substitute products * Buyer price sensitivity * Differential advantage (uniqueness) of industry products * RFM Analysis Bargaining power of suppliers The bargaining power of suppliers is also described as the market of inputs.
Suppliers of raw materials, components, labor, and services (such as expertise) to the firm can be a source of power over the firm, when there are few substitutes. Suppliers may refuse to work with the firm, or, e. g. , charge excessively high prices for unique resources. * Supplier switching costs relative to firm switching costs * Degree of differentiation of inputs * Impact of inputs on cost or differentiation * Presence of substitute inputs * Strength of distribution channel * Supplier concentration to firm concentration ratio * Employee solidarity (e. g. labor unions) Supplier competition – ability to forward vertically integrate and cut out the BUYER Ex. : If you are making biscuits and there is only one person who sells flour, you have no alternative but to buy it from him. Intensity of competitive rivalry For most industries, the intensity of competitive rivalry is the major determinant of the competitiveness of the industry. * Sustainable competitive advantage through innovation * Competition between online and offline companies * Level of advertising expense * Powerful competitive strategy * Flexibility through customization, volume and variety