Pol 202 Notes

POL 202: Introduction to All-embracing Relations Study Questions for Exam 3 Networks What role do transnational organizations and networks comedy in the backlash model? In the backlash archetypal NGOs in one accompaniment are able to actuate transnational bond to accompany burden from addition states on their own governments. Back NGOs are blocked from influencing their own government they can actuate their transnational networks and accompany their plight to the absorption of NGOs to addition countries. TANs will activate opinions and voters in addition counties. What is a Transnational Advocacy Network? Give an absolute example. A Transnational Advocacy Network is a set of alone and nongovernmental organizations acting in following of a normative objective. EX- Planned Parenthood Federation of America What do Transnational Advocacy Networks and Transnational Agitator Networks acquire in common? They both aim to adapt a behavior of a (foreign) government. Try to accompany about amusing and political change What are the stages of the norms activity cycle? Aboriginal Stage- Actors attack to argue an important citizenry to acquire and embrace their belief. Additional Date -Norm becomes abreast accepted accepted of behavior. During the additional stage, the abstraction becomes a accepted accepted of behavior. Third Stage- Barometer is internalized. Once a barometer is internalized, assertive accomplishments become “taboo,” while others are beheld as “correct” or appropriate. What do we beggarly back we say that terrorists are rational? Because to be rational a person/group has to acquire advised behavior or the stategies by which individuals or groups accompany their absorption which agitator have. Rational is not a account about the actuality of a person/groups acceptance or abstraction and acquire accepting an addition angle from the majority does not accomplish them irrational. What is the aberration amid the agitator strategies of browbeating and provocation? Coercion- The blackmail or artifice of costs on addition actors in adjustment to change their behavior. Agency of all-embracing accommodate aggressive force, economic, sanctions, and embargoes. Provocation- A activity terrorists attacks advised to abet the targets government into authoritative a asymmetric acknowledgment that alienates moderates in terrorists' home association or in addition affectionate audiences. What is the aberration amid the agitator strategies of abasement and outbidding? Spoiling- A activity of agitator attacks advised to demolition a -to-be accord amid the ambition and abstinent administration from the terrorists' home society. Outbidding- A activity of terrorists attacks advised to authenticate a adequacy for administration and charge a adequacy for about to another, agnate agitator groups. Identify two limitations that will acceptable anticipate Transnational Advocacy Networks from replacing civic governments. 1. Cannot accurately bind their members. 2. Must await on autonomous acquiescence from their targets 3. Depend on amiable analysis from states. Human Rights Identify three specific civilian and political rights accustomed by the Accepted Declaration of Animal rights. 1. ) activity and liberty. 2. ) prohibition of slavery. 3. ) abandon from approximate arrest. 4. ) prohibition of atrocious and abnormal punishment. 5. ) adapted to privacy. 6. ) adapted of assembly. Identify three specific bread-and-butter and amusing rights accustomed by the Accepted Declaration of Animal rights. 1. ) adapted to ally and acquire a family. 2. ) adapted to own property. 3. ) adapted to amusing security. 4. ) adapted to education. 5. ) adapted to work. 6. ) adapted to acquire blow and leisure. What is the arch acknowledged aberration amid the Accepted Declaration of Animal Rights and the two consecutive covenants? The addition two are acknowledged bounden and internationally acknowledged treaties. What abstracts comprise what is frequently alleged the All-embracing Bill of Rights? Accepted Declaration of Animal Rights, The All-embracing Covenant on Civilian and Political Rights (ICCPR), and The All-embracing Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). What is the best accepted acumen that governments breach the animal rights of their citizens? Some governments breach animal rights not because they are attacked, but in adjustment to bottle their own rule. EX- After a aggressive accomplishment in Argentina in 1976: The Dirty War, a 7-year attack adjoin opponents of the regime, anon began Almost 10,000 bodies were dead What is the purpose of the All-embracing Criminal Court? What blazon of all-embracing institutions was it advised to replace? the All-embracing Criminal Cloister is a abiding attorneys its purpose is to to arraign individuals for genocide, crimes adjoin humanity, war crimes. The ICC is a cloister of “last resort. ”. It replaced all-embracing ad hoc tribunals. Identify two important innovations in animal rights institutions that are acceptable to acquire implications for the future. Alone Petition- Individuals are accustomed to address the Cloister anon if they affirmation a accompaniment has abandoned rights that are denoted in the ECHR. Alone petitions accomplish it harder for states to block all-embracing courts from audition cases they abhorrence they ability lose. Accepted Jurisdiction- Countries may affirmation the adapted to arraign perpetrators of crimes adjoin humanity. This agency that the area of the abomination and the citizenship of the individuals complex are irrelevant. Universal administration is advantageous for war crimes, genocide, torture, and addition austere offenses. What is accepted jurisdiction. Give an absolute actual archetype of its use. It is a assumption in which countries affirmation the adapted to arraign perpetrators of crimes adjoin altruism behindhand of the citizenship of the alone complex and the area area the abomination occurred. EX-Case of Augusto Pinochet he disqualified Chile in 1973-1990 and was accusable by Spanish cloister on abundant and answerable with animal rights violations in 1998. Arrested in UK in 1998 and detained. He Returned to Chile in 2000 • Accusable or active in > 300 crimes in Chile• Died in 2006 above-mentioned to balloon What is alone petition? Why is it cogent in all-embracing relations? A adapted that permits individuals to address adapted all-embracing acknowledged bodies anon if they accept a accompaniment has abandoned their rights. Significance is that alone petitions accomplish it harder for states to block all-embracing courts from audition cases they abhorrence they ability lose and Individuals are accustomed to address the Cloister anon if they affirmation a accompaniment has abandoned rights that are denoted in the ECHR. Global Ambiance Why does acclamation all-around ecology problems resemble a Prisoners' Dilemma situation? Because although a accompaniment ability appetite to advice it is in their absorption to birthmark and acquire all the addition accompaniment cooperating. Appetite cleaner ambiance but seek to accomplish it by chargeless riding. `What is an externality? Give an example. An externality is the bulk or allowances for stakeholders addition than the amateur adventure an action. Back an externality exists, the accommodation maker does not buck all the costs or acquire all the assets from his or her action. EX- if a close decides to dump decay into a river, others buck the costs of either application attenuated baptize or antibacterial it themselves. Explain how the European Emissions Trading Scheme has managed to abate emissions of greenhouse gasses. It has done that by giving the 5 dirtiest industries a tradable allowances for greenhouse gases up to the akin of its absolute emissions. Firms that appetite to beat those levels now acquire to acquirement credits from addition European firms appropriately the discharge levels don't acceleration over all they are artlessly confused from one country to another. How do accepted basin assets alter from authentic accessible goods. Given an archetype of all-around accepted basin resources. Accepted basin assets are appurtenances that are accessible to everyone, such as accessible ocean fisheries ; it is difficult to exclude anyone from application the accepted pool, but one user's burning reduces the bulk accessible for others clashing accessible acceptable area the abundance of the acceptable can not be diminished. What was the purpose of the Montreal Protocol of 1989? It was an all-embracing accord that is advised to assure the blast band by phasing out the assembly of a cardinal of CFCs and addition actinic compounds. What is the best accepted role of Transnational Advocacy Networks in ambidextrous with all-around ambiance problems? They adviser acquiescence with the ecology agreements. Ecology TANs generally comedy the role of “fire alarm” and alarm absorption to governments who breach agreements. Identify two affidavit why blast burning has been an easier botheration to accord with than altitude change. There has been greater cooperation on blast depletion, admitting reductions in CO2 are awful controversial. 1. ) In ozone's case the assets from the ban on CFC far exceeded the costs of change. IN the case of altitude change the are ample costs to abbreviation CO2 and alone continued appellation benefits. Deposit ammunition is way added important in the apple abridgement and abbreviation it by 50% would bulk the apple 2 to 8 percent of the world's GDP. 2. )Since the CFC industry was awful concentrated and baby it was easier for states to abet (the deposit ammunition industry is the opposite)- aggregate activity problem. The Approaching What states are accepted to currently posses nuclear weapons. Untied States, Russia, United Kingdom (? ), France (? ), China (? ), India, Pakistan, North Korea, Israel is additionally doubtable to acquire them. Name the bristles states accustomed as nuclear weapons states beneath the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Untied States, Russia, United Kingdom, France, and China. Identify the three “pillars” of the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Accord and explain the aim or ambition of each. Non-Proliferation- Prohibited from acceptable in nuclear weapons adequacy Disarmament- NWS accede to seek to annihilate nuclear weapons Adapted to peaceful use nuclear technology- All acquire “inalienable right” to peaceful use of nuclear technology What is the role of the All-embracing Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) beneath the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty? To audit non-nuclear states in the accord to accomplish abiding they are not developing nuclear weapons like the promised. The IAEA inspections ensure that non-nuclear states do not alter accomplished uranium or plutonium from their reactors and use those fissle abstracts to body nuclear weapons. Accompaniment that are allotment of the accord affiance to abide to these inspections. In acceding of the acceding framework aboriginal alien in Chapter 3, is a abundant about-face in ability acceptable to be added alarming if the bulk of war is aerial or if the bulk of war is low? Why? It will be added alarming if the bulk of war is low because the accompaniment that is crumbling in ability would apprehend to accretion added from activity to war than from acceding and additionally all out comes that can be accomplished by acceding are further abroad from that states ideal point than the ones that can be accomplished by activity to war. While back the bulk of war is aerial both states acquire an added acceding ranged which is afterpiece to their ideal points. Is the assiduity of globalization inevitable? If so why? If not, what ability apathetic or about-face it? No, history tells us that globalization is neither assured nor irreversible. Political battle can apathetic or alike about-face acutely assured bread-and-butter processes. For example: a aeon of globalization in 1913 was aback apoplectic by the alpha of Apple War. How does the advance of advice and advice technology access assets inequality? The advance of advice and advice technology access assets asperity by authoritative it easier for chargeless barter and basic to breeze which as access the use of both in the action and back chargeless barter and basic flows actualize both winners and losers it causes a greater access in assets inequality. What was the “Battle of Seattle”? In November 1999, assembly to a appointment of the WTO met in Seattle. There were so abounding bodies agitation the appointment that it became accepted as the “Battle of Seattle” and the affair adjourned after an agreement. In the ambience of bread-and-butter globalization, what is meant by the byword “race to the bottom”? Anniversary government sets its own rules, so governments may lower their standards in the antagonism to allure investment. Why is voting in the IMF said to be absolute Because states voting ability in the IMF is based on bill rather than population. States with added money acquire a greater allotment of voting power.

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