Pipeline Inspection at Petronet, South Africa

Introduction Petronet, a bounded aggregation that transports accustomed gas through underground pipelines beyond South Africa, had approached MA2K Testing Labs to conduct an assay on a arising on the pipeline, which was begin during a accidental aperture inspection. The Activity operates from Johannesburg to Potchefstroom. Upon assay a collective was singled out as actuality a above antecedent of leakage. The afflicted breadth was abutting application a base bond and able with a clamp. This area was dissected and assay appear that the arising was due to abridged admixture in the bond which accomplished the accumulation of angle cracks and cavities in the ancestor actual anon adjoining to the weld. External stresses from the ambiance may accept accelerated the advance of the cavities and cracks yet the catch added the backbone of the collective acceptable in the blockage of any accelerated growths of the defects. As a abbreviate appellation band-aid it is brash to alter the damaged area with a new pipe. It charge be accurately anchored of the aforementioned actual and as an added anticipation to bond an added sleeve over the anew abutting and anchored section. As a continued appellation band-aid it is brash to alter the absolute activity with a new aggregate of materials. 1. Background Petronet, a arch aggregation in South Africa which transports accustomed gas through underground pipelines conducted a accidental aperture assay assay on one of their pipelines operating from Johannesburg to Potchefstroom, and it was apparent that there was a gas aperture at the specific joint. The aqueduct carries accustomed gas and it is acute that the aperture should be fixed, due to the airy attributes of gas as able-bodied as the accident of resource, in about-face profits. The systems comprised of abundant seamless pipes and affiliated application a base weld; these joints were able by clamps anchored on. MA2K Testing Labs had been approached by Petronet, to audit the arising and was active to analyze the accurate account of abortion and as able-bodied as accomplish abounding acceptable recommendations for the adjustment and blockage of malfunction of the joint. The activity was able back the 20th February 1995; this put the activity age in the arena of 15 years. Figure 2.1 (Below) was taken on site 2. Description The abnormal area of the pipe, including the catch was again marked, cut out and removed from the armpit for added assay and analysis. The assay and assay was agitated out in MA2K Testing Labs in Durban. Two brand A 106 GR.B SCH40 seamless pipes with alfresco diameters of 168.3mm and bank array of 9mm were base anchored end to end. A base bond consists of the two pipes acrimonious to a able admixture temperature again abutting by agency of force. The collective was added anchored by a clamp. The operating centralized gas burden was 2620 kPa (380 psi). Chemical agreement of the pipe: Element C Si Mn P S Cr Mo Cu Ni V % ? 0.30 ? 0.10 0.291.06 ?0.035 ?0.035 ?0.40 ?0.15 ?0.40 ?0.40 ?0.08 3. Possibilities Of Failure

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