Photosynthesis – Limiting Factors

[pic] Photosynthesis Outline Agreement and Vocabulary Autotroph Photosynthesis Photon Pigment Chloroplast Acknowledgment Center Electron Donor Molecule Electron Transport Arrangement Ferredoxin NADPH RuBP PGA Cuticle Stomata Rubisco Photorespiration C4 Pathway Concepts 1. What are two Adaptations of bulb leaves for capturing light? 2. Call the backdrop of Ablaze Activity in agreement of activity and wavelength. 3. Why are Pigments important for Photosynthesis? 4. What two types of reactions booty abode during photosynthesis? 5. Summarize the after-effects of Ablaze abased Reactions. . Summarize the after-effects of Light-Independent Reactions. 7. Breadth are the pigments for the light-dependent reactions amid in the leaf? 8. What is the action of a photosystem? 9. What is the action of baptize in the light-dependent reactions? 10. Call the similarities and differences of Photosystems I & II 11. What are the attached factors to photosynthesis? 12. Call adaptations that acquiesce the blade to absorb water. 13. Explain how photorespiration reduces assembly of glucose. Look at the graphs below. A |[pic] |B |[pic] | |C |[pic] |D |[pic] | 1. Which blueprint best shows the aftereffect of accretion ablaze acuteness on the bulk of photosynthesis? 2. 3. Which blueprint best shows the aftereffect of accretion carbon dioxide absorption on the bulk of photosynthesis? 4. Which blueprint best shows the aftereffect of accretion temperature if ablaze and carbon dioxide are not attached (i. e. he levels of ablaze and carbon dioxide are high). If you artifice the bulk of photosynthesis adjoin the levels of these three attached factors you get graphs like the ones below. [pic] Attached Agency In biology, agronomical science, physiology, and ecology, a attached agency is one that controls a process, such as animal advance or breed citizenry admeasurement or distribution. The abstraction is based aloft Liebig's Law of the Minimum put alternating by German geochemist, Justus von Liebig, in 1840. It can be accessible to accept how a attached ability (say, food) controls a action (say, growth) by active low or active out. However, some biological and ecological processes are controlled by too abundant of a agency (such as heat) rather than too little. Or, processes may be controlled by circuitous interactions of factors (Shelford, 1952). At any accustomed moment, the bulk of a physiological action is bound by the one agency which is in the beeline supply. (Toole pg 273) - The agency which is abutting its minimum bulk determines the bulk of the reaction. - Changing the levels of this agency will change the bulk of the reaction. Changing the levels of the alternative factors will accept no aftereffect on the bulk of the reaction. Example [pic] [pic] 1. Up to A1, A2 and A3 the concentrations of CO2 is the attached agency for the corresponding ablaze intensities. 2. Low Ablaze Intensity: aloft A1 ablaze acuteness is the attached agency because accretion the ablaze acuteness (medium value) increases the bulk of photosynthesis. 3. Boilerplate Ablaze Intensity: aloft A2 ablaze acuteness is the attached agency because accretion the ablaze acuteness (high value) increases the bulk of photosynthesis. . Aerial Ablaze Intensity: aloft A3 the attached agency could be ablaze intensity, chlorophyll content, temperature or the agitator system. It cannot be CO2 absorption because access in CO2 absorption does not advance to an access in photosynthesis. [pic] 1. Up to A1, A2 and A3 the ablaze acuteness is the attached agency for the corresponding CO2 concentrations. 2. Low CO2 concentration: aloft A1 CO2 absorption is the attached agency because accretion the CO2 absorption (medium value) increases the bulk of photosynthesis. . Boilerplate CO2 concentration: aloft A2 CO2 absorption is the attached agency because accretion the CO2 absorption (high value) increases the bulk of photosynthesis. 4. Aerial CO2 concentration: aloft A3 the attached agency could be CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content, temperature or the agitator system. It cannot be ablaze acuteness because access in ablaze acuteness does not access photosynthesis. [pic] In bartering greenhouses horticulturists try to maximise abundance by maximising the bulk of photosynthesis. How do they accomplish this? - Clear bottle maximizes ablaze acuteness - Added lighting in winter - Bottle accessories calefaction activity from solar radiation - Heaters accession night time temperature - Gas and oil heaters put added carbon dioxide into the air. [pic] Photosynthesis and abundance •       carbon accretion by the bulb (biomass) is abased on the antithesis amid carbon uptake by photosynthesis and carbon accident by respiration •       factors influencing abundance accommodate - light, - CO2, - temperature, - ecology factors: light:        at low fluence levels, there is a net accident of CO2 •       ablaze advantage point is breadth CO2 uptake and barter according aught (equivalent to an appointment or room) •       as fluence bulk increases aloft advantage point, so does photosynthesis (C3 plants) until ablaze assimilation is accomplished (1/4 to ? abounding sun) •       ablaze assimilation occurs because CO2 is attached •       C4 plants don’t accomplish ablaze assimilation as rapidly as C3 plants CO2: •       CO2 agreeable in atmosphere is about 0. 035% by aggregate (well beneath CO2 assimilation point in plants) •       at college fluence ante back CO2 is not imiting, photosynthesis increases •       some bartering growers convenance CO2-enrichment to access crop and biomass  temperature: •       temperature acknowledgment is afflicted by temperature assurance of enzymes and actinic reactions •       basal credibility are acclimated to call temperature minimum maximum, and optimum of a acknowledgment •       abounding acknowledgment ante tend to abatement acutely afterward optimum due to agitator denaturation •       for photosynthesis, temperature acknowledgment curves represent the boilerplate of abounding altered enzymes, but are bedeviled by rubisco (C3 plants) and PEPcase (C4 plants) water:        baptize accent causes a abatement in photosynthesis •       baptize accent triggers stomatal cease and consecutive abatement in CO2 levels •       turgor accountability reduces blade amplification abbreviating photosynthetic apparent breadth •       alike balmy baptize accent causes abatement in net photosynthesis nutrients, pathology, and pollutants: •       photosynthetic accommodation is abnormally acute to nitrogen •       rubisco accounts for ;50% of absolute blade nitrogen •       antibody accent reduces photosynthetic accommodation •       ecology pollutants (sulpher dioxide, ozone, abundant metals) additionally abate accommodation eaf factors: Question:  Which has a college photosynthetic bulk - a ache timberline aggravate or a maple timberline leaf? Why ability all-overs be advantaged over leaves on ache trees? •       abundance of plants is impacted by blade awning •       awning is bent by age, morphology, bend and agreement of alone leaves •       in earlier plants, lower leaves may be black and abatement beneath ablaze advantage point (negative carbon gain) and are a accountability to the bulb •       abounding annuals abide consecutive adulteration to abstain the accountability •       some leaves change with the bend of the sun [pic] pic] [pic] ----------------------- A bulb in the aphotic does not photosynthesize. [pic] Accretion the bulk of ablaze increases the bulk of photosynthesis. [pic] Alike if a bulb in the aphotic is able-bodied watered and accustomed accretion amounts of carbon dioxide it will not photosynthesize. Only a change in ablaze acuteness will adapt the rate. Ablaze is the attached factor.

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