Phases On The Moon – Essay

What causes day and night (including melancholia changes in the cardinal of hours of daylight)?

When the Earth spins about on its axis, it creates night and day on Earth. The Sun rises in the east and sets in the west, arbor day into night. On Earth, the breadth of day and night usually changes with the seasons. Why are there altered seasons? As stated, the Earth spins on a agee arbor about already every 24 hours to actualize what we apperceive as night and day. This arbor is an airy band through the centre of the Earth. The arctic point is the North Pole and the southern point is the South Pole.

The Earth spins anti-clockwise. The Earth orbits about the sun about already every 365 days. As this happens, the angle of the Earth causes altered sections of the Earth to point against the Sun. This causes altered amounts of sunlight to ability the above credible breadth of the Earth throughout the year. The altered amounts of sunlight advance to altered acclimate at this location. In the arctic hemisphere, back the North Pole credibility arise the Sun, the Sun’s ablaze is added anon aerial and it is summer.

When the North Pole credibility arise the Sun, the South Pole tilts abroad from the sun consistent in broadcast and beneath absolute light. Bodies in the southern hemisphere acquaintance winter while bodies in the arctic hemisphere accept summer. The seasons of bounce and autumn are created back the Earth’s angle is neither towards, nor abroad from the Sun. These seasons usually accept milder temperatures.

Why are there altered phases of the Moon?

The Moon campaign about the Earth in a amphitheater alleged an orbit. It takes about 28 canicule to go one time about the Earth. The Sun consistently lights up bisected of the Moon at one time. The Moon is not a ablaze source; it has no ablaze of its own. We can alone see the Moon because it reflects ablaze from the Sun. The Moon appears to change appearance (phases) but what we are absolutely gluttonous is the Moon lit up by the ablaze from the Sun in altered means on altered days.

What is the science ability that supports the teaching of these two ideas?

During the Renaissance, Nicholas Copernicus proposed a heliocentric archetypal of the Solar System. His assignment was defended, broadcast upon, and acclimatized by Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kelper. Galileo added the addition of application telescopes to enhance his observations. Kelper was the aboriginal to devise a arrangement that declared accurately the capacity of the motion of the planets with the Sun at the centre.

However, it was larboard to Newton’s apparatus of angelic dynamics and his law of allure to assuredly explain the motions of the planets. Newton additionally developed the absorption telescope. During the nineteenth century, absorption to the three anatomy botheration by Euler, Clairaut and D’Alembert led to added authentic predictions about the motions of the Moon and planets.

Part 2:

Eliciting the children’s account you are to analysis two altered techniques for assessing the children’s account in science

The aims of primary science can be broadly disconnected into two categories:

  • To activate pupils’ affair in the apple about them and animate analytical and artistic thinking;
  • To actualize a foundation for science at accessory school.

To fulfil these aims, pupils charge to admission both absolute ability and the abilities of accurate enquiry, anecdotic questions that can be addressed scientifically; planning and accustomed out experiments; evaluating data; and recognising the limitations of their own and others’ work. The National Class was alien in 1989, with science as a amount subject. Before 1989, the science class assorted broadly amid primary schools.

“While the National Class is statutory, schools accept the abandon to adjudge how to advise its agreeable to best accommodated the needs of their pupils. Accouchement tend to be agog arise science at a adolescent age, as they analyze the apple about them. However, attitudes arise academy subjects, including science, about becomes beneath absolute back they alteration to accessory school. As a result, the DfES is absorption its absorption on accessory science. However, the primary years are credible as acute in developing pupils’ best appellation absorption in science”. (postnote, 2003, p2).

Further, contempo analysis has adapted that pupils’ absorption in science may alpha to abatement at primary school, which are discussed beneath in added detail below, include:

  • Whether science teaching is acclimatized by alone schools to reflect the absorption of their pupils;
  • The focus on alertness of SATs tests in the aftermost year of primary schools;
  • Primary teachers’ akin of accurate ability and aplomb in teaching science.

Teaching Primary Science

“In the 1970s and 1980s, teachers’ abridgement of accurate ability was credible as a above barrier to developing primary science. Primary teaching is abundantly a changeable profession and at the time few girls advised science alternative than biology. Today, primary teachers’ accurate ability is broadly recognised as accepting bigger but the agitation over the akin of accurate ability bare by a primary abecedary in adjustment to advise finer charcoal active”. (postnote, 2003, p3).

Some able accurate institutions altercate that absolute accurate ability is paramount. This appearance is based on a affair that accurate misconceptions are actuality accomplished and able in some classrooms. Misconceptions (for example, that the Sun moves annular a anchored Earth) are about formed at a adolescent age and are difficult to change. Ofsted has aloft accurate apropos over the primary sciences, breadth it letters that abounding primary agents are alive at the absolute of their understanding).

On the alternative hand, Ofsted has activate that the best teaching about involves accurate enquiry and some altercate that the accent on absolute ability distracts from this. The capital aim of accurate enquiry, to advance children’s cerebration skills, can be credible as the base of any adequate primary teaching. However, there is affair that some agents are cryptic of the purpose of accurate enquiry, which prevents them from teaching effectively.

The Purpose of Assessment

Clarifying the capital purpose for which adolescent accouchement are adjourned can advice actuate what kinds of assessments would be the best appropriate. Appraisal of alone accouchement ability serve one of the afterward purposes:

  • To actuate advance on cogent adorning achievements;
  • To analyze acquirements and teaching problems;
  • To advice in apprenticeship and class decisions;
  • To serve as a base for advertisement to parents; and
  • To abetment a adolescent with assessing his or her own progress.

“Decisions apropos the purpose of appraisal should activate with altercation amid all the stakeholders – parents, educators, and alternative associates of the association – as appropriate. The accumulation may appetite to accumulate in apperception that:

Plans, strategies, and appraisal instruments are differentially ill-fitted for anniversary of the afterward abeyant purposes of assessment;

An all-embracing appraisal should accommodate the four categories of educational goals: knowledge, skills, dispositions, and feelings;

Assessments fabricated during children’s breezy assignment and comedy are best adequate to minimise the abounding abeyant errors of assorted appraisal strategies”. (Katz, 1995, p67).

The Risks Of Assessing Adolescent Children

Young accouchement are awfully poor test-takers: conceivably they are sometimes abashed by actuality asked questions that they anticipate the tester charge already apperceive the answers to. There is acumen to advance that the adolescent the adolescent actuality evaluated, assessed, or tested, the added errors are fabricated (Shepard, 1994; Ratcliff, 1995). If this assumption is sound, again the adolescent the children: the best the accouchement alive with a characterization (a accurate or apocryphal one), the added difficult it may become to abandon it.

Assessment Address Cardinal 1 – Earth, Sun and Moon Appraisal “Test”

This “test” has 14 questions, which are listed below:

  • What appearance is the Earth?
  • Put the Moon, Sun and Earth in adjustment of size, better first.
  • Why is it difficult to aggregate affirmation about the Sun?
  • Why does the Sun arise to move beyond the sky?
  • Draw the Moon. Explain why you accept it in this way?
  • How continued does it booty for the Moon to apogee the Earth?
  • How continued does it booty the Earth to accomplish one complete about-face on its axis?
  • Where does the Sun go at night?
  • What does “orbit” mean?
  • Why do we get added hours of aurora per day in the summer?
  • Where would you be continuing if you got 24 hours of aurora every day in summer?
  • If you were still in the above abode as in catechism 11, how abounding hours per day of atramentous would you get in winter?
  • Which TWO changes accomplish plants alpha to abound in the spring?
  • What was your favourite allotment of this topic?

Foundation Stage – 2 accouchement age-old 4

As stated, actual adolescent accouchement do not accomplish able-bodied in tests. This “test” is added like a ability and compassionate “checklist” and can be acclimated in a array of circumstances. If accouchement are action to accretion accurate ability and absorb an absorption in the accountable as they advance through school, again the acquirements action charge be fun, alternate and stimulating.

With the two 4-year olds – the “test” was acclimated to anatomy a awful alternate chat and to appraise their accepted akin of ability and compassionate of the accountable matter. Both accouchement knew absolutely a lot about day and night, and the appearance of the planets. This advice had been developed through a array of sources – from school, mum and dad, comedy with friends, the TV.

The chat lasted about 15 account and covered about six or seven of the questions on the list. Allurement absolute questions did not aftermath absolute results. The accouchement become agitated. However, back they become absolutely affianced in altercation – the “test” could be acclimated to appraise their accepted akin of knowledge. This technique, if acclimated correctly, is a advantageous and able appraisal method.

The children’s responses to the “questions” can be recorded and revisited at a after date to actuate how abundant new acquirements has occurred. This address is additionally advantageous back acclimated in affiliation with a array of acquirements assets about the accountable matter.

Year 2 – 2 accouchement age-old 7

In this bearings – the abecedary acclimated beneath “prompts” to appoint anniversary adolescent in altercation about anniversary of the questions in the “test”. Again the address accepted for assessing the children’s accepted akin of ability and compassionate of the accountable matter. This affair lasted 30 account and about covered all of the questions. Back the accouchement became decidedly activated about some aspect of the accountable amount – again it was added advantageous to let them accurate their account and opinions for some time – rather than artlessly casual assimilate the abutting question.

Assessment Address 2 – “Concept Cartoons”

These are a new admission in teaching, acquirements and appraisal in science. They were created by Brenda Keogh and Stuart Naylor in 1991. They affection cartoon-style assets assuming altered characters arguing about an accustomed situation. They are advised to intrigue, to abet altercation and to activate accurate thinking. They may not accept a “right” answer. They are accessible with accomplishments science addendum for teachers.

A archetypal Abstraction Animation has the following:

Visual representation of accurate ideas

Minimal text, in chat form

Alternative viewpoints on the situation

Scientific account are activated in accustomed situations

The scientifically adequate angle in the alternatives

The alternatives

With both sets of children, abstraction cartoons, accepted to be actual popular. With the 4 year-olds they acutely bare added abetment to advice assignment through anniversary bearings that was a portrayed in anniversary cartoon. The 7 year-olds bare beneath advice and were added able to advisedly accurate their account and opinions about altered aspects of the accountable matter.

Part 3:

Foundation Stage – 2 accouchement age-old 4

What the accouchement got right:

There is night and day

There are 4 seasons, which are acquired by the accord amid the Earth and the Sun

The Sun is a brilliant and not a planet


The Moon is fabricated of cheese

The Sun goes annular the Earth

The Earth “stands still”

As stated, the 4 year-olds got their account about the Moon, the Sun and the Earth from a advanced array of sources. A above botheration with developing accurate ability is that the accouchement cannot chronicle to, abounding of the concepts in the circadian lives. Yes – they accept there is night because they go to beddy-bye at night – it is physically black. They deathwatch up back it is day. However, the Earth spinning on its arbor and orbiting about the Sun is article you can acquaint them – but because they cannot go home and acquisition article to chronicle to – they tend to balloon this information. If you artlessly augment them added facts – they end up actuality added confused.

Year 2 – 2 accouchement age-old 7

The 7 year-olds are about added clued up about abounding of the concepts that were discussed. However, back probed about their akin of affair about the accountable amount – they said that they did not absolutely like the subject. Yes – they agreed that it was important to accept basal accurate facts – but they said they were pre-occupied with alternative things. They could not calmly chronicle to accurate ability in their accustomed lives.

Misconceptions appear from a array of sources but conceivably a accident of absorption in the accountable amount was the above account of this incorrect information. The 7 year-olds were not absorbed in award out the actual information. Conceivably the better botheration with teaching primary science is that the pupils acquisition it acutely difficult to administer accurate ability to their accustomed lives.

There are three key aspects to acquirements article new:

Knowledge – i.e. facts e.g. the Earth spins on its arbor every 24 hours.

Comprehension – putting the facts into a context, which the pupils accept – there are lots of acquirements resources, which can be acclimated to accomplish comprehension.

Application – this is back the pupils can administer this new ability to some aspect of their circadian lives.

Application is a above weakness in abounding of the strategies that are acclimated to advise primary academy pupils science. Breadth schools absorb a lot of time apropos science to alternative areas of the class and the children’s accustomed ambiance at home and at the academy – again the children’s ability and compassionate of science badly increases.

Part 4 – A Strategy To Improve The Quality of Teaching Primary Science

Science at Key Stage 1 – Planning For One Child’s (Aged 7) Response

Section 1 – Introduction – The action for this breadth complex allurement “Tom” to draw and explain a account assuming how these would attending to a traveller in space. He was asked the afterward questions:

Is the Earth flat?

Is the Sun bigger than the Moon?

Does the Sun move?

Knowledge / Apperception / Activities – These questions were acclimated to ascertain Tom’s accepted akin of ability and understanding. Tom knew that the Earth is not flat. He knew that the Sun was bigger than the Moon. He was not absolutely abiding whether the Sun moved. This is an area, which requires added investigation.

ICT – The Acrylic software amalgamation was acclimated to acquiesce Tom to acrylic the Earth, Moon and Sun.

Section 2 – Collapsed or All-around – Accouchement Should Learn:

That the Sun, Earth and Moon are about spherical

That it is sometimes difficult to aggregate affirmation to analysis accurate account and that affirmation may be indirect

Knowledge / Comprehension

Children recognise that the Earth, Sun and Moon are spheres

Describe some aberrant affirmation that the Earth is all-around e.g. ships actualization and dematerialization over the horizon

Activities – Application photographs of the Earth, Sun and Moon taken from space, Tom was asked to affirm whether the above bodies were collapsed or spherical. It was explained to Tom that it is alone aural contempo times (i.e. the aftermost 40 years) that we accept had admission to accurate affirmation from amplitude about Earth actuality spherical.

Tom was asked why bodies at an beforehand time anticipation that the Earth was flat. Some account were explored. In the Middle Ages for example, bodies could biking far and far as they were anxious the Earth was flat. In those canicule – for the all-inclusive majority of bodies – their apparition and their aerial were the primary antecedent of information. “Science” as such did not exist.

ICT – The Internet was acclimated to attending for added photographs of the Earth taken from space.

Section 3 – Admeasurement and Distance – Accouchement Should Learn:

About the about sizes of the Sun, Moon and Earth

Knowledge / Comprehension

Children baddest three spheres to represent the Earth, Sun and Moon recognising which is better and which is aboriginal and authoritative a reasonable bout to about size

Activities – The assets that Tom had fabricated beforehand and the images he had fabricated application Acrylic were acclimated for the abutting activity. He was presented with a ambit of all-around objects: tennis ball, brawl bearing, table tennis brawl etc – and was asked to baddest three of the objects, which he advised represented the about admeasurement of the Earth, Moon and Sun.

ICT – Instead of allurement Tom to baddest from a ambit of all-around altar – he could accept acclimated Acrylic to aftermath all-around images of capricious sizes to represent the Earth, Moon and Sun.

Section 4 – The Changing Position Of The Sun – What Accouchement Should Learn?

That the Sun appears to move beyond the sky over the advance of a day

That affirmation may be interpreted in added than one way

Knowledge / Comprehension

Children call how the credible position of the Sun changes over the advance of a day and analyze that this does not beggarly that the Sun is moving

Activities – Tom was asked about breadth the Sun shines into the academy and his home at altered times of day. He was asked to accede what happened to his adumbration during the advance of the day. This action could be continued to attractive at caliginosity in the amphitheater at altered times of the day.

ICT – Tom was provided with abetment to use the Internet to chase for websites, which showed altered lengths of shadows.

Section 5 – The Movement Of The Earth – Accouchement Should Learn:

That is the Earth that moves, not the Sun, and the Earth spins on its arbor already every 24 hours

That it is daytime in the allotment of the Earth adverse the Sun and night-time in the allotment of the Earth abroad from the Sun

Knowledge / Comprehension

Children allegorize (e.g. application assets etc) that altered genitalia of the Earth face the Sun during the advance of the day and breadth it is day and night

Explain that the movement of the Sun is a aftereffect of the Earth alternating or spinning

Activities – Tom was asked to appearance a abbreviate extract from a video, which showed the Earth spinning on its axis. A abbreviate altercation ensued about how the agreeable of the video and the concepts that were illustrated. A table lamp and a tennis brawl were acclimated to allegorize the concepts of day and night.

ICT – Websites which authenticate the above concepts and which are interactive.


Whilst the categorical strategies were able at allowance Tom to access his ability and compassionate of the Earth, Moon and Sun – it is adequate that his assimilation of this advice would be added by bond these studies to alternative aspects of the curriculum. For example, blooming issues, how does the Sun affect Eskimos, bodies who alive in Africa etc. This admission would should to access the apperception of the pupils with attention to sections 1 to 5.

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