1. Overview Padma Arch is one of above outstanding basement adapted for counterbalanced bread-and-butter development of Bangladesh. It is advancing that the gross calm artefact of the would admission by 2 percent already the arch was constructed. The bridge, which would affix the southwest arena with the blow of the country, could be acclimated for the trans-Asian route; the abbot said abacus "The Arch will advice accessory up industrialisation in the arena too. Ecology appulse of the arch would be adjourned during the alertness of design. Government is endeavouring to alpha architecture of the proposed Padma Arch in 2011 to comple it by 2014. The arch to be congenital at an estimated added than twenty thousand crore TK would be, the longest arch in the country with 6. 15km breadth and 25m width, he added. The arch will accept four lanes and a railroad in the middle. The arch will additionally accept a gas manual pipeline, ability manual band and telecommunication cable.
The Jamuna Multi-Purpose Arch Authorities (JMBA) that looked afterwards ample arch projects, in a abstraction in 2005 estimated that 918. 76 hectares of acreage would be bare to be acquired on both the abandon of Padma Bridge. The acreage accretion bulk is estimated at 3. 2 billion taka (about 46 actor U. S. dollars), said the study. According to a assay by JICA, about 30,000 bodies will lose their acreage due to acreage accretion for architecture of the bridge. The 6. 5 km continued 22-metre wide, four lane arch on the river Padma abutting Mawa (35km south of Dhaka) in Munshiganj with Jazira in Madaripur is additionally acceptable to accord badly to the action of the Mongla Anchorage in Bagerhat, the added anchorage of the country that fails to allure burden ships attributable to poor communications. The accommodation to assemble the arch was taken aback in 2001 but dilly-dally over selecting the architecture sites delayed the process. 2. INTRODUCTION
The three above rivers of Bangladesh - the Padma, Brahmaputra-Jamuna and the Meghna bisect the country into four arch regions such as north-west, arctic central, eastern and south-west regions. The Padma River separates the South-west arena from the basal burghal and requires time arresting bear crossings to above destinations. At present, busline of cartage and bales beyond the river is by ferries and to a basal admeasurement by launches and manually-operated boats, but their casework are grossly bare in both accommodation and account level.
The absolute bear casework absorb continued and capricious cat-and-mouse time at terminals defective basal account facilities. They are decumbent to abeyance orcancellation due to flood, fog and brutal acclimate conditions. The proposed Padma Arch is accepted to accomplish cross-Padma carriage added reliable and acutely abate the biking time and bulk beyond the river. The proposed arch affairs to body a multipurpose arch with added utilities like rail, telephone, gas and ability curve beyond the Padma.
It is advised to abolish the aftermost above accurate barrier in the alley affiliation amid Dhaka and the South-west arena of Bangladesh, breadth about one division of the citizenry of Bangladesh is living. The arch will abbreviate the ambit from the South-west to Dhaka by 100 km and travelling time will appreciably be reduced. The action is beheld as a actual important basement and busline network, which will badly facilitate social, bread-and-butter and automated development of this about arrested arena of the country.
The padma Arch will advice to activate bread-and-butter action in the SW arena by accouterment a reliable and accelerated carriage connection. It is estimated in the achievability abstraction that the action will admission the GDP by 1. 2% and that of South-West Arena by 2. 3%. The Padma Arch is on the Asian Artery Route A-1 and Trans-Asian Railway Route. When the railway will be finer connected, the Padma Arch will accord to the multimodal all-embracing carriage adjustment for the Eastern Arena of the Indian sub-continent and abundant account to GoB for bi-lateral burden movement amid India and Bangladesh. 3. PROJECT COMPONENTS
Among the action apparatus capital arch is by far the prime basic of the action accoutrement about 50% of the action cost. The capital apparatus of the Padma Multi-Purpose Arch Action abide of: * A 6. 15km continued two-level animate bandage capital bridge. (four-lane disconnected artery on top and distinct clue abuse on the basal deck); * The Admission Alley to the arch consisting of a 12. 4 km artery disconnected artery and includes bristles accessory bridges of 150~270m breadth over bounded waterways, 21 arising box canal and 8 bounded alley underpasses. * Alteration structures that includes the Admission Arch at Mawa breadth of 721. 50m and 756. 788m for the arctic and southbound carriageways respectively. The breadth of the Admission Arch at Janjira is 873. 250m and 797. 315m for the arctic and southbound carriageways respectively; * Arch End Accessories on both abandon of the river that includes Toll Plazas and Account Areas; * Admission anchorage accretion about 8. 9 km and 14. 5 km of account road. * Four Resettlement villages (two on the Mawa ancillary and two on the Janjira side). 4. MAIN BRIDGE The absolute breadth of the capital arch is 6150m and the capital arch is affiliated to admission viaducts on both ends and all-embracing amplitude of the arch is 22. m. The capital arch is in the anatomy of blended animate bandage with two levels, railway at lower accouter akin and artery at aerial accouter akin acceptable for fast clue construction. Longitudinally, the capital bandage is in the anatomy of a affiliated warren bandage and the accurate artery slab is affiliated to the top ambit by microburst stud. The railway accouter comprises longitudinal animate beams pning amid lower cantankerous beams and a accurate railway slab which is additionally compositely affiliated to the beams. The artery slab is able accurate in the axle direction, and is a pre-stressed accurate anatomy in the longitudinal direction.
There are 41 ps anniversary 150 m in breadth optimized in the computer program. It is sub-divided into 7 affiliated arch modules, and anniversary bore is comprised of 5 or 6 ps. At the interface amid adjoining modules, a movement collective is present to board the movement due to assorted actions. The above allocation of the arch is collapsed (0% vertical gradient) except at the two ends the arch akin decreases with about 0. 5% vertical acclivity to bout with the adjoining admission viaducts. The accumbent alignment of the arch consists of beeline sections, arced sections with onstant ambit and abbreviate alteration curves. The tightest ambit is begin in Bore 7, breadth the ambit is 3000 metres. 5. CROSSING REQUIREMENTS The arch is to backpack the afterward facilities: Artery The arch is adapted to backpack a bifold two-lane carriageway alley with a architecture cartage acceleration of 100km/hr. Anniversary carriageway shall comprise two 3. 5 beat advanced cartage lanes additional a 2. 5 beat advanced adamantine accept and 650mm advanced median. The arch is advised to backpack automatic cartage only. Railway Provision shall be fabricated for approaching accession of a distinct clue ample barometer railway forth the bridge.
The railway is proposed to be an addendum of the Indian Railways Dedicated Bales Corridor (DFC) and is acceptable to be allotment of the Trans-Asian Railway. The architecture abuse acceleration is 160km/hr for commuter trains and 125 km/hr for bales trains. Ability Manual Band The arch will be adapted to backpack a aerial voltage ability manual band with a accommodation of 400kV as allotment of the developing ability accumulation adjustment in south west Bangladesh. Aerial Burden Gas Manual Band A 30 inch (76 cm) bore gas aqueduct is to be agitated by the bridge, which is accepted to accomplish at a burden of. 1135 psi.
The gas aqueduct shall be hydro activated to a burden of 1710 psi in accordance with procedures accustomed by Petrobangla. The aerial burden gas capital shall be advised in accordance with the requirements of Petrobangla with advertence to adapted accustomed all-embracing architecture standards such as the American 6. BRIDGE VIADUCTS The arch ps are afar into the admission alley and the railway viaducts. The capital arch is a two akin anatomy which adapted a arduous assignment in the adjustment of the viaducts to abstracted the railway from the artery and another options were advised during the Scheme Architecture Phase of the project.
There are a absolute of four viaducts acknowledging the highway, two on anniversary ancillary of the river. The breadth of the admission alley viaducts ranged from 720m to 875m continued and consists of 38m ps. The architecture consists of precast, pre-tensioned accurate Super-T girders which will become the aboriginal Super-T axle anatomy to be complete in Bangladesh. The Super-T axle is an economical axle frequently acclimated on artery bridges in Australia and is acceptable added boundless on projects throughout Asia. The addition of the Super-T axle to Bangladesh presents an befalling for approaching use on another projects throughout the country.
There is a absolute of two viaducts acknowledging the railway, one on anniversary ancillary of the river. The breadth of the railway viaducts ranged from 2. 36km to 2. 96km and consists of 38m ps agnate to the admission alley viaducts. The architecture consists of precast, post-tensioned accurate I-girders. The abundant architecture of the arch structures airish some above challenges in arch engineering accurately involving earthquakes beneath clay altitude awful afflicted to cogent base of liquefaction. A multi modal acknowledgment spectra assay was acclimated to analyse and the architecture the viaducts for a seismic accident with a acknowledgment aeon of 475 years.
This cardboard describes the activating assay action and the architecture appearance of the anatomy to bear these seismic events. A alteration berth is amid at the interface of the arch ps to the river ps and supports the end ps of the capital bridge, the admission alley arch anatomy and the railway arch structure. The alteration berth additionally provided the breadth for the aberration of the gas pipe, ability cables and telecommunication utilities amid on the capital arch whilst additionally anchor an admission stairwell for inspection, aliment and emergency evacuations. 7. SITE SELECTION
Four another arch sites were articular as another locations in the afterward areas: Site-1:Paturia-Goalundo Site-2 : Dohar-Charbhadrasan Site-3 : Mawa-Janjira Site-4 : Chandpur-Bhedarganj Four another locations were advised from the appearance credibility of absolute carriage of the action area, cartage appeal forecast, basic river abstraction and abstruse application in artery planning, basic arch planning, ecology & amusing consideration. JICA abstraction aggregation considers site-1 and site-3 to be best advantageous for a new anchored arch and recommends these sites for added abstraction until Interim report.
Survey After-effects Estimated bulk of acreage to be acquired is about aforementioned (about 1,250 ha ) in both cases The cardinal of afflicted households / anatomy varies due to differences in citizenry body Current appraisal suggests:- Mawa - Janjira 70,000 to 80,000 Paturia - Goalundo 40,000 to 45,000 Cartage Abstraction and Bread-and-butter Assay (Main Work Items) 1) Cartage Surveys (Traffic counts, OD Survey) 2) Establishment of Approaching Socioeconomic Framework (Population, GDP, GRDP) 3) Cartage Appeal Anticipation (Target year 2025) 4) Confirmation of Bread-and-butter Achievability 5) Bread-and-butter Impacts of the Padma Arch ) Improvement of Accessibility 2) Regional Bread-and-butter Development 3) Formation of All-embracing Alley Adjustment Summary of Comparisons of Two Sites from cartage and Bread-and-butter Point of Appearance Evaluation Criteria| Paturia-Goalundo| Mawa-Janjira| Cartage Appeal (2025)| 19,850 vehicles/day| 41,550 vehicles/day| Bread-and-butter Feasibility| EIRR=9. 6%| EIRR=16. 9%| Financial Action Bulk (Million US$)| 1,260| 1,074| Improvement of Accessibility| (Travel time) Dhaka - Mongla Dhaka - Benapole (Beneficiary Population) Within 3 hours from Dhaka Within 4 hours from Dhaka| 4. 5 hours 4. 6 hours ,791,000 (9%) 12,738,000 (42%)| 3. 6 hours 3. 6 hours 10,417,000 (35%) 22,247,000 (74%)| Body of Feeder Roads| No big difference| Formation of All-embracing Alley Network| | Asian Artery A-1. Abbreviate ambit to Benapole Acreage Anchorage and Mongla Sea Port| Regional Bread-and-butter Development| GDP of Southwest arena will admission by 18% (1. 2% /year)| GDP of Southwest arena will admission by 35% (2. 3% /year)| Growth centers about the arch sites| No big difference| Indicative Bulk Paturia - Goalundo| Mawa - Janjira| US$ 1,260 million| US$ 1,074 million| Evaluation of P-G & M-J sites
Evaluation Criteria | Paturia - Goalundo| Mawa - Janjira| Bread-and-butter Feasibility| EIRR| 9. 6%| 16. 9%| B/C Ratio| 0. 71| 1. 81| | NPV (Mil. Taka)| -9,857| 23,140| | Regional Development| Admission of GRDP of Southwest Region| 18% up (1. 2% per year)| 35% up (2. 3% per year)| Ecology Impact| Result of IEE| No big difference| Amusing appulse and Resettlement Issues| Households acute relocation| 1,842| 2,635| Community structures affected| 18| 60 `| | Absolute citizenry afflicted (both absolute and indirect)| 40,000-45,000| 70,000-80,000| Basic RAP cost| 23. 7 mil. US$| 38. 79 mil.
US$| Cartage Appeal Anticipation of the Padma Arch | Cartage Volumes beyond PadmaRiver (both means 2003: From Cartage Survey)| | Paturia-Goalundo| Mawa-Jajira| Cross-Padma| Light Vehicle| 572| 128| 700| Bus| 687| 227| 914| Truck| 1,217| 78| 1,295| Total| 2,476| 433| 2,909| Launch Passenger| 15,559| 9,126| 24,685| Present Cartage Movement Arrangement At present, cartage at Mawa is lower than Paturia due to the afterward reasons: 1) Alley action of NH 8 is now actual poor. 2) A attenuated admission alley to the Mawa ghat. 3) Quality of bear casework at Mawa is lower than Paturia in general. ) No acceptable parking amplitude for trucks. 5) Two hour river arch time at Mawa is decidedly best than 35 account of Paturia. Approaching Cartage Movement Arrangement Approaching cartage movement arrangement will be acutely afflicted if the Padma Arch is complete at Mawa with afterward reasons: 1) Improvement of NH 8 (Dhaka - Khulna Alley Action by ADB) will be completed by the end of 2004. 2) Absolute alley articulation from Dhaka for the better cartage demands to Khulna and Jcssore. 3) Elimination of two hour arch time. Criteria for Final Armpit Selection
Preliminary after-effects shows greater impacts In Mawa-Janjira over Paturia site Armpit alternative should be added on abstruse - engineering grounds-future assurance of the arch infrastructure Above Impacts of the action - Irrespective of sites Alternative of Final armpit Is analytical to set the abutting calendar alertness of RAP Assignment would be to abbreviate Impact, advance Improved action for acknowledgment of adverse Impacts, administration and accommodation architecture for resettlement management Experience of the Jamuna and another donor-funded projects will be acclimated In the planning and Implementation of RAP for Padma . CONCLUSION The Padma multipurpose arch is a continued admired dream of the bodies of the absolute southern region. The arch will articulation the greater Khulna, Greater Faridpoor and Greater Barisal arena with the blow of the country. It will accord amazing addition to civic abridgement as the absolute active biking ambit amid Dhaka and this arena will be abundantly bargain and hustles and aggravation bodies face in affective tradeable bolt to and from this arena will be removed.
The agro affluent arena of Barisal and Khulna can augment the blow of the country abundant easily. Mongla anchorage can accomplish greater contribution. Tourism industry in the arresting mangrove backwoods Sundarban and marvellous sea resort Kuakata will get massive boost. Nepal, Bhutan and 7 sisters about Bangladesh may utilise this arch to use Mongla anchorage which will accord our abridgement a massive attempt in the arm.
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