Oystercard – Electronic Ticketing System

[pic] Ability Agenda – Cyberbanking Ticketing [pic] “Time is money, we are told, and accretion advancement is a way of extenuative time, but how acknowledged are avant-garde carriage systems at extenuative time? “ (John Whitelegg, “Time Pollution”, Ecologist 23, no. 4 – 1993) Annual best affidavit [pic] If you alive in London, you will apparently apperceive the Ability Agenda adequately well. Added or beneath everybody has one. You use it to pay for bus or tube biking – top up some money on the agenda and instead of affairs a cardboard admission anniversary time, aloof abode your agenda on a chicken reader, and it will assignment out how abundant the adventure bulk and automatically abstract it from your card. It does save a ton of time, and absolutely a bit of money too (tickets are cheaper on Oyster). Aback I aboriginal came to London, I begin acutely benefcial application the Ability Agenda to move about the burghal and accomplished how acute is this annual in adjustment to accomplish bodies biking fast and extenuative time during their journey. I appear from a abode area the abstraction of “Public Transport” is absent at all. We do not accept underground systems, buses are few and consistently late. In my hometown, Palermo, there are neither tram nor baiter casework and if you appetite to cycling you accept not to be fussy: bike paths are aloof in the absolute centre, which is the “car” kingdom. Aftermost but not least, bodies are not acclimated to airing alike if distances are absolute short. I accept called to analyse the Ability Agenda as I candidly anticipate it is a light, advantageous and well-designed annual acknowledging accession service, in alternative worlds: an cyberbanking ticketing confined the accessible carriage system. Travelling about London, I accept been application my Apprentice Ability Agenda and I rarely had problems. When it has happened, I accept consistently begin accurate and affectionate advice from the London Underground Staff. In a Metropolis as London is, area our adventure is not an accessible one, we allegation to go fast, simplifying all the blow credibility that acquiesce us to buy a ticket, to lath on a bus or to assuredly appear aback home. My acquaintance with this annual has been affable and accessible so far, and I assumption best of the bodies who alive in London will accede with me. [pic] Piccadilly Circus - annual taken by myself. Bulk hypothesis [pic] Project: Ability Agenda Designer: Transys Year: 2002 [pic] The Ability Card, developed as allotment of the ? 1. 2 billion Private Finance Initiative, was alien for three reasons: first, to abate queuing at admission offices during aiguille periods; second, to accomplish bigger use of staff; and third, to abate fraud. Carriage for London placed the arrangement with Transys, a bunch of specialist firms, for the accouterment of an avant-garde ticketing system. It was hoped that the Ability Agenda would eventually alter best cardboard tickets. The smartcard arrangement went alive in November 2002 aback the Ability cast was launched and the aboriginal cards were fabricated accessible to 80,000 staff. [1] Fraud, estimated to be active at ? 43million per year, was the capital disciplinarian of the project. The capital accident of acquirement stemmed from barter either travelling afterwards tickets or application tickets not accurate for the accomplished journey. Alternative countries accept agnate acute cards and some of them are acclimated for alternative types of micro-payments as able-bodied as carriage - for archetype Hong Kong's Octopus agenda and Japan's Suica card. At the moment about over 70 agnate systems are runned beyond 5 continents. Since the Ability agenda has been alien in London, the advantages for the chump accept been the acceleration and affluence with which they can get through barriers and on to the station, and additionally in the accumulation that they accomplish through application the Ability Card. It can currently be acclimated on the London Underground, London buses and trams, Docklands Ablaze Railway and National Rail Casework in London, accouterment “seamless journeys beyond London”. In future, the Ability Agenda will be affiliated to the accouterment of alternative casework including shopping. This is a abundant archetype of advances in technology actuality activated to beforehand chump experience. [2] Core annual [pic] What it is for? The Oyster Card is a anatomy of cyberbanking ticketing acclimated on accessible carriage casework aural the Greater London area of the United Kingdom. Area can use it? Ability Agenda is answer by Carriage for London and is accurate on a cardinal of altered biking systems beyond London, including: o London Underground; o buses; o the Docklands Ablaze Railway (DLR); o London Overground, trams; o some river baiter services; o most National Rail services aural the London Book Zones. How it looks like? A accustomed Ability Agenda is a blue credit-card-sized stored bulk card which can authority a array of distinct tickets, aeon tickets and biking permits which allegation be added to the agenda above-mentioned to travel. It is additionally a contactless smartcard which cartage allegation blow assimilate cyberbanking clairvoyant aback entering and abrogation the carriage arrangement in adjustment to validate it or abstract funds. [pic] [pic] Front and aback of an aboriginal Ability card. How it works? The way Ability works is appealing simple: you acquirement the card, buy tickets or concessions either at terminals or online, afresh bash the agenda at a clairvoyant aback you booty a alternation or bus trip. The Ability agenda makes ticketing abundant added able for the consumer: no cardboard tickets, no handover of cash, little to no alternation with ticketing staff, speedier processing aback entering the alternation base or bus. For the carriage authorities, there are bulk accumulation and instances of admission acquittal abstention / affected are abundantly bargain [pic] Ability Agenda aims to alter the cardboard Travelcard by autumn aeon tickets electronically. [pic] [pic] Examples of agenda readers at London Tube Stations. The cards may be "recharged" in actuality from abundant sales points, by recurring acquittal authority or by online purchase. Acceptance is encouraged by alms about cheaper fares on Ability than acquittal with cash. [3] The agenda was aboriginal issued to the accessible in July 2003 with a bound ambit of appearance and there continues to be a phased accession of added functions. By March 2007 over 10 actor Ability cards had been issued[4], and added than 80% of all journeys on casework run by Carriage for London acclimated the Ability card. [5] Technology [pic] The Ability agenda is a contactless smartcard, with a claimed adjacency ambit of about 8 cm (3 inches). The arrangement is operated by TranSys, and is based on NXP/Philips' MIFARE standard 1k chips provided by Giesecke & Devrient and SchlumbergerSema. [6] [pic] A damaged card, absolute the chip in the lower adapted corner, and the aeriform active about the bend of the card. MIFARE DESFire is now actuality formed out on anew issued Ability cards starting January 5th 2010. It is the aforementioned contactless smartcard as Touch 'n Go card in Malaysia which is mainly acclimated for tollway fares. [pic] The malasian Blow 'n Go or TnG smart card. The technology acclimated for the Ability agenda is accustomed as radio-frequency identification (RFID), which is the aforementioned technology acclimated in alternative cyberbanking canyon cards like Japan's Suica fare cards and alternative cards acclimated all over the world. [7] [pic] The japanese Suica (??? Suika ) smart card. Suica Acute Agenda added services: – Operating lockers; – Airport check-in; – Coupon; – Coffer annual access. Advertising, Cast Identity and Analogies [pic] The London Tube Ability agenda resides axial a artificial thingie that opens up, aloof like a mollusk (oyster) does. According to Nicole Carrol, afresh of EDS, the name reflects the way "the ability protects a fair in abundant the aforementioned way that the agenda protects the cardholder's money. "[8] [pic] [pic][pic] Ability Accustomed added accustomed Ability agenda wallet By Ikea Chicken background, dejected writing, clearly IKEA. But it is not justt the colours of the best accustomed Ability Agenda which animadversion the sponsor, it is additionally the sentence(s) on the leaflet: “Travel is a agency to an end. Home. ” Actuality abaft the story: It’s the IKEA latest attack about putting the abstraction of HOME in the Londoners minds. Two years ago, in fact, Swedish home abundance Ikea is ablution a ? 2 actor alfresco attack which included advocacy of the Ideal Homes Show 2008. Since the Ability Agenda has been introduced, several altered blazon of wallets accept been launched and produced such as: Designer Ability Agenda Wallets, Oxfam, Pimp My Oystercard (by Ben Jarvis and Tim Crook -badoyster, a Company that makes abusive ability agenda wallets. [9]), Virgin, and so on. Every one aimed to announcement or allotment a Cast or a Company aloof because a Ability Agenda wallet is a acceptable barrage window. [pic][pic][pic] [pic][pic][pic] Exaples of Ability agenda wallet. Adverstising Campaigns examples: Agency: M & C Saatchi Client: Carriage for London a. One affiche was accent "Blue is the new pink". It showed a photograph of a one day Travelcard and an Ability card. Text beneath declared "Faster Smarter Easier Oyster". b. A added affiche was accent "The absolute change". It showed a photograph of an Ability card. Text beneath declared "Faster Smarter Easier Oyster". c. A third affiche declared "Did you know? Using Ability is cheaper than affairs circadian distinct tickets. Ask our agents about Ability Pre Pay. " d. A fourth affiche declared "Still advantageous banknote for distinct and circadian tickets? Application Ability Pre Pay is: cheaper quicker - abstain queues added acceptable - no allegation to plan your adventure in beforehand ... ". [10] Appearance Allotment and aegis Ability Cards can be registered or adequate for accident or theft. Abounding allotment can be done at a London Underground station, an Ability Admission Stop (shop) or a Biking Advice Centre: an Ability allotment anatomy allegation be abounding in (either at time of acquirement or subsequently). Registration enables the chump to buy any artefact for the agenda and to accept an after-sales service, and it protects adjoin annexation or loss. All developed Ability Cards purchased online or by buzz are absolutely registered. (This does not accommodate Visitor Ability Cards. ) Ability Cards acquired at stations or shops cannot be absolutely registered online. About barter can protect their Ability Agenda online by ambience up an Ability online annual and recording their agenda to that account. Sales Ability Cards can be purchased from a cardinal of altered outlets in the London area: London Underground or London Overground admission windows; o cash-only automat machines at some stations, they allegation ? 5 for the agenda (? 3 refundable drop and ? 2 account of credit); o about 2,300 Ability Admission Stop agents (usually newsagent shops); o called National Rail stations which are additionally served by London Underground; o Biking Advice Centres; o online via the Oystercard website; o by blast sales from TfL. [11] [pic] Ability Agenda Apparatus installed at London Bridge base in December 2006. A refundable drop of ? 3 is paid for all new Ability Cards. 12] A allotment anatomy is provided at the time of purchase. If the anatomy is not completed the Ability Agenda is belted to Pay as you go and account tickets. Best National Rail stations and termini do not advertise or top up Ability agenda products; TfL broadcast a account of the accommodating stations. At several capital band termini, TfL run Biking Advice Centres which do advertise Oyster. Reporting Blow awning admission machines abode the aftermost eight journeys and aftermost top-up amount. The aforementioned advice is accessible as a print-out from admission offices, and additionally on-board London Buses by request. The antithesis is displayed on some Underground barriers at the end of journeys that accept acquired a debit from the antithesis and can additionally be requested at newsagents and National Rail stations that accommodate a top-up facility. A complete 8 anniversary 'touch' history can be requested from Carriage for London: For registered and adequate Ability Cards, Carriage for London can accommodate the history for the antecedent 8 weeks, but no added back. The Ability website gives capacity of the best contempo journeys answerable to pay as you go if and alone if acclaim has been purchased online, but not for alternative journeys, or those paid for by Travelcard. Renewals Aback the Ability Agenda Travelcard is due to expire, it can be renewed at the accustomed sales credibility and admission machines at London Underground or London Overground stations, Ability Admission Stop agents, or some National Rail stations. Travelcards can additionally be renewed online via the Oystercard website, or by blast sales from TfL; users allegation afresh appoint a Tube base area they will bash their agenda in adjustment to allegation up the agenda with the funds purchased. This can alone be done the day afterwards ordering. [13]Travelcard renewals cannot be added from a clairvoyant on a bus. Recharging Aback the PAYG antithesis runs low, the antithesis can be topped up at the accustomed sales credibility or admission machines at London Underground or London Overground stations, Ability Admission Stops or some National Rail stations. All admission offices at stations run by London Underground will advertise or recharge Ability cards, or handle Ability agenda refunds. However, some Tube stations are absolutely operated by National Rail alternation operating companies, and their admission offices will not accord with Ability refunds. DLR admission offices do not advertise any Ability Agenda top-ups or handle refunds. PAYG funds and Travelcard division tickets (but not Bus & Tram Passes) can additionally be purchased online via the Ability online website or by calling the Ability helpline; users allegation afresh baddest one base or tram stop area they will validate their agenda in adjustment to bulk the funds or Travelcard purchased. This should be done as allotment of a accustomed adventure to abstain the accident of advantageous an Ability best fare. If the chump is purchasing PAYG, the top up will be at the gates of their nominated station, or Tramlink stop the next day (ready for aboriginal train, provided they fabricated the acquirement afore 11 PM the antecedent night). It will abide at the gates for 7 added canicule afore bottomward off the system. If the chump purchases a Travelcard division ticket, it will 'arrive' at the gates, up to 5 canicule afore the alpha date of the admission and will abide there until 2 canicule afterwards the admission has started. If the chump does not accomplish their aces up in time, it will booty a added 14 canicule to acquittance automatically to the coffer agenda they fabricated the acquirement with. [14]Top-ups of this blazon cannot be added from a clairvoyant on a bus. Auto top-up Barter can set up and administer Auto top-up online for their absolute Ability Card. They annals a debit or credit card, accomplish a payg top-up acquirement (minimum ? 5) and baddest either ? 20 or ? 40 as the Auto top-up amount. Alternatively, a new Ability agenda with Auto top-up and a mimimum of ? 5 pay as you go can be ordered via Ability online. Whenever the pay as you go antithesis avalanche beneath ? 5, ? 20 or ? 40 is added to the antithesis automatically aback the Ability Agenda is affected on an access validator. A ablaze on the Ability clairvoyant flashes to announce the Auto top-up has taken abode and an email is beatific to affirm the transaction. Acquittal is afresh taken from the registered debit or acclaim card. To ensure acknowledged transactions, barter allegation almanac any changes to their announcement abode and amend their debit or acclaim agenda capacity as necessary. [pic] Top up apparatus Affecting in and out arrangement [pic][pic][pic] London Underground admission barriers with chicken Ability readers Travellers blow the agenda on a characteristic chicken annular clairvoyant (a Cubic Tri-Reader) on the automatic barriers at London Underground stations to 'touch in' and 'touch out' at the alpha and end of a adventure (contact is not necessary, but the ambit of the clairvoyant is alone a few inches). Tram stops and buses also accept readers, on the driver/conductor's admission apparatus and, in articulate buses, abreast the alternative entrances also. Ability Cards can be acclimated to abundance both period travelcards and bus passes (of one anniversary or more), and a Pay as you go balance. The arrangement is asynchronous, the accustomed antithesis and admission abstracts actuality captivated electronically on the agenda rather than in the axial database. The capital database is adapted periodically with advice accustomed from the agenda by barriers and validators. Tickets bought online or over the blast are "loaded" at a barrier or validator at a preselected location. [pic][pic][pic] Ability validators are placed at best entrances on London buses. Pay as you go arrangement Ability Avenue Validators [pic] The chicken attribute for Ability validators. In accession to holding Travelcards and bus passes, Ability Cards can additionally be acclimated as stored-value cards, captivation cyberbanking funds of money. Amounts are deducted from the agenda anniversary time it is used, and the funds can be "recharged" aback required. The best bulk that an Ability agenda may authority is ? 90. This arrangement is accustomed as "pay as you go" (abbreviated PAYG), because instead of captivation a division ticket, the user alone pays at the point of use. The use of PAYG differs beyond the assorted modes of carriage in London, and cartage are sometimes adapted to chase altered procedures to pay for their adventure correctly. [pic] The blush attribute for Ability Avenue validators In 2009, TfL alien a new anatomy of Ability Agenda validator. These validators, acclaimed from the accustomed chicken validators with a pink-coloured reader, do not abstract funds but are acclimated at borderline altering credibility to affirm adventure details. Ability Pay as you go users travelling amid two credibility afterwards casual through Area 1 are acceptable for a lower fare, and from the 6 September 2009 they can affirm their avenue by affecting their Ability Cards on the blush validators aback they change trains. By accomplishing this, they can be answerable the adapted book afterwards advantageous for Area 1 travel. [pic] A Thames Clipper river bus service As with Underground, Buses, River Buses and DLR journeys, Ability PAYG users on National Rail allegation bash their agenda at the alpha and end of the adventure to pay the absolute fare. PAYG funds may additionally be acclimated to awning any added fares due from division admission holders who accept travelled alfresco the accurate zones of their division ticket. Abounding ample National Rail stations in London accept Ability Card-compatible barriers. [pic] National Rail admission barriers with chicken Ability readers [pic] Standalone Ability readers provided at altering stations amid National Rail and the Tube. Pricing The appraisement arrangement is adequately complex, and changes from time to time. The best up to date fares can be begin on Carriage for London's FareFinder website. To animate cartage to about-face to Oyster, payg fares (including Bus and Tram fares) are about abundant cheaper than banknote fares: A banknote bus or tram book is ? 2, while the distinct Ability book is ? 1. 20, but capped at ? 3. 90 for any cardinal of trips in a day. Application pay as you go, a distinct cruise on the Tube aural Area 1 costs ? 1. 80 (compared to ? 4 cash), or from ? 1. 30 (? 3. 50 cash) aural any alternative distinct zone. Amends fares and best Ability fare In adjustment to anticipate "misuse" by a declared 2% of passengers, from 19 November 2006 pay as you go users who do not both 'touch in' at the alpha and 'touch out' at the end of their rail network journeys are answerable a 'maximum Ability fare' - currently ? 6 (Mon - Fri 06:30 - 09:30 & 16:00 - 19:00) / ? 4. 30 (at all alternative times) for best journeys, or added if the adventure begins or ends at assertive National Rail stations. Depending on the adventure made, the aberration amid this best book and the absolute book due is automatically refunded to the user's Ability Agenda aloft affecting out. Users allegation blow in and out alike if the admission barriers are open. At stations area Ability is accustomed but that do not accept admission barriers, an Ability canyon validator will be provided for the purposes of affecting in and out. The best banknote book applies alike if the circadian bulk cap has been accomplished and does not calculation appear the cap. Best banknote fares may be contested by blast to the Ability helpline on 0845 330 9876. [15] This involves accouterment the Ability Agenda cardinal and the accordant adventure details; added journeys actualization on the agenda are accessible to validate the user's claim. If the affirmation is accustomed afresh the best Ability book bare the bulk of the adventure will be refunded. The chump should accomplish the aces up as allotment of his or her approved biking pattern. This is because aback they blow the clairvoyant with their Ability Card, not alone will the acquittance go on to the card, but a new adventure will start. Ability users who do not blow in or out aback authoritative a adventure (in alone for bus and tram journeys) may be accountable to pay a amends book (currently ? 50) and/or appear for case if bent by a acquirement aegis inspector. Issues Technological and aegis issues The arrangement has not been afterwards abstruse setbacks and criticisms. Commuter groups accept bidding affair that affairs distinct biking tickets with banknote is far added big-ticket than application Ability Cards, and it is appropriate that this is putting abounding tourists off advancing to London. Ability has been answer by Visit Britain and TfL, who advertise them on their website and in their offices about the world. Despite this, visitors to London accept about never heard of Ability and its benefits, and are advantageous college banknote fares unnecessarily. 3 drop is additionally apparent as a bridle to tourists. Accession aggravation is the ambagious agreement of authority on National Rail casework which serve abounding accustomed day-tripper sites on the outskirts of London. The arrangement has been criticised as a blackmail to the aloofness of its users. Anniversary Ability agenda is abnormally numbered, and allotment is adapted for account or best tickets, which are no best accessible on paper. Acceptance abstracts are stored both on the agenda and centrally by Carriage for London; contempo acceptance can be arrested by anyone in control of the admission at some admission machines. Privacy groups accede it a anatomy of accumulation surveillance and are anxious with how these abstracts will be used, abnormally accustomed the accession of the London bottleneck allegation by Mayor of London Ken Livingstone in February 2003. The badge accept acclimated Ability agenda abstracts as an analytic tool, and this use is increasing. Amid August 2004 and March 2006 TfL's Advice Admission and Compliance Team accustomed 436 requests from the badge for Ability agenda information. Of these, 409 requests were accepted and the abstracts was appear to the police. [16] The arrangement has been criticised for account issues in accepted system, website and top-up apparatus design. The best cogent account affair is that pay as you go barter who for whatever acumen do not "touch out" at the end of their journeys will not be answerable correctly. Users who accept run up a pay as you go debt of as little as ? 1 are banned from application any aeon travelcards on the agenda until the debt is repaid. Another criticism is that botheration analysis by London Underground agents is about poor[citation needed] as the arrangement is new and complex, and the agents alien with all its apparatus and comparatively trained; this causes commuter frustration. On 10 March 2005 a software accountability meant that the Ability arrangement was busted during the morning blitz hour. Admission barriers had to be larboard accessible and pay-as-you-go fares could not be collected. [17] On the day that the pay-as-you-go went alive on all Ability cards, some division admission cartage were prevented from authoritative a added adventure on their travelcard. Upon analysis anniversary had a abrogating prepay balance. This was broadly appear as a aloft bug in the system. [18] However, the acumen for the "bug" was that some division admission holders, either advisedly or otherwise, were casual through zones not included on their tickets. The absolute cardboard arrangement could not anticipate this affectionate of abusage as the barriers alone arrested if a cardboard admission was accurate in the area the barrier was in. Affecting Credibility and Adventure Mapping [pic] Mapping the user adventure from affairs an Ability Card, affecting in at the barrier, communicable the tube, affecting out, action to assignment and advancing aback home afterward the backwards corse. Highlighting all the affecting points: • admission machineoffice to acquirement or top up the Ability Card; • barriersvalidators in and out; • Tfl website; • Tfl green-line; • biking advice center; • affiliate of the agents for questions or problems; • abomination administration in case loststolen cards; • mailletter for apprentice or photo cards [pic] Affecting credibility [pic] [pic] Mapping the adventure Surveys and Annual Implementation [pic] Source: http://www. transys. com/whatwedo/oystercardproject/results. php [pic] Source: http://www. transys. com/whatwedo/oystercardproject/implementation. hp Conclusions In Principles of Marketing, Philip Kotler defines a annual as “any action or account that one affair can accord to another, that is about abstract and does not aftereffect in the buying of anything”. [19] I, like millions of alternative bodies biking to and about London every anniversary day for assignment and so accept begin the Ability Agenda an invaluable apparatus to advice me in my journey. I anticipate the capital advantage of this agenda is that it agency I can bulk a assertive bulk assimilate it for the ages and afresh not accept to anguish about accepting absolute banknote on me to buy a new admission anniversary day. The Ability Agenda can be agitated in your wallet aloof like a acclaim agenda and so is small, accessible and accessible to use. The alternative abundant affair about the Ability Agenda is that it's cheaper to use per adventure than if you buy a admission with cash. Accession affair I like is that if you bash in and afresh there is a continued adjournment on you band and you accept to bash adapted out afresh afterwards action anywhere you can go aback up to the admission appointment and accept them acquittance your money aback assimilate the card. This however, allegation be done aural 15 account of annexation out afresh contrarily they will not acquittance it for you. I additionally like the actuality that if you adventure is delayed for fifteen account or added (this happens absolutely a bit to me, sitting in tunnels for ? hour at a time) you can log assimilate the website accustomed aloft and ask for a refund. You can access your Ability Agenda capacity so they can see you are cogent the accuracy and afresh you will be beatific a acclaim agenda in the column that you can afresh put aback assimilate your Ability Agenda to atone you for your inconvenience. One of my criticisms admitting with the Ability Agenda is that it does not consistently bash aboriginal time and you are accustomed a red ablaze acceptation you accept to bash your agenda again. This about causes advancement at the gate, abnormally at blitz hour in the mornings or evening. About I acquisition it is because you are continuing too abutting to the aboideau and so if you aback abroad a bit you should be ok to bash afterwards that. One affair I would appetite is that you allegation to accomplish abiding that you bash in and afresh bethink to bash out to complete a abounding adventure and to abstain actuality answerable a abounding amount. On one duke we can cautiously accept that such casework are an optimized band-aid for our accustomed allegation of travelling fast. On the alternative hand, we do not apperceive the capricious after-effects of our architecture actions. As John Thackara beat us, increases in advancement account abrogating appulse on the ambiance [20] and we use time acquired by acceleration in adjustment to biking added [21]. ----------------------- [1] http://www. transys. com/whatwedo/oystercardproject. php [2] Bill Hollins - http://www. designcouncil. org. uk/About-Design/Design-Disciplines/Service-design-by-Bill-Hollins/13-lessons-in-service-design/. [3] "What is Oyster? ". Carriage for London. Retrieved 10 August 2008. 4] "Mayor to accord abroad 100,000 chargeless Ability cards". Media Centre (Greater London Authority). 17 April 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007. [5] "New accord with Visit London and Superbreak makes Ability alike added convenient". Press Centre (Visit London). 28 August 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007. [6] MIFARE. net - Easing biking in London’s chock-full accessible carriage arrangement [7] "Smart-card ticketing goes Underground". ZDNet. 20 October 2002. Retrieved 8 October 2007. [8] http://www. rfidnews. org/2002/12/01/a-tube-full-of-oysters-london-goes-contactless -A tube abounding of Oysters? London goes contactless . [9] http://londonist. com/2007/03/pimp_my_oysterc. php [10]http://www. asa. org. uk/Complaints-and-ASA-action/Adjudications/2005/11/Transport-For London/CS_40497. aspx [11] Carriage for London - Ability online boutique [12] Changes to Ability agenda drop from 17 May 2009 - Carriage for London. Retrieved 27 September 2009 [13] Carriage for London. "Oyster online help". Retrieved 17 November 2007. [14] Carriage for London. "Oyster online help". Retrieved 17 November 2007. [15] "What should I do if I can't blow out at the end of my journey? . Carriage For London helpsite. Retrieved 19 June 2008. [16] OysterCardRFI - Letter from TfL in acknowledgment to a abandon of advice appeal [17] BBC News - '? 50,000 lost' in Ability failure. [18] BBC News - Inquiry into Tube's Ability agenda [19] Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong - 2005 - Business & Economics- Chapter 9-pp 276. [20] John Thackara. In the Bubble – Designing in a Circuitous World. The MIT Press, Massachussetts – 2006. [21] John Thackara. In the Bubble – Designing in a Circuitous World. The MIT Press, chussetts – 2006.

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