Oil Boom in Nigeria: What are the Socio-Economic Implications for Society from 1999-2014?

Chapter 1: Introduction Nigeria is one of the arch oil bearing countries in the world. Nigeria’s abridgement was abundantly characterised by agronomical assembly alongside alternative customer appurtenances up to the 1980’s, aback oil abundance took over the majority of the country’s economy. For added than three decades, Nigeria has exploited her oil assets for export. The actualization of oil as Nigeria’s capital antecedent of acquirement has generated a cardinal of questions apropos the acceptation of the oil abundance to the socio-economic development of Nigeria society. It has been frequently affected that Nigeria’s ample oil deposits would activation socio-economic advance and put the country amid the world’s aristocratic nations in agreement of bread-and-butter advance and amusing abundance (Ian and Terry, 2003). Since adeptness from Great Britain in 1960, Nigerians accept accomplished a cardinal of problems alignment from ethno-religious and bigoted conflicts to corruption. According to Gboyega (1996) the post-independent Nigeria is one that has bore the burden of leadership-induced abjection instigated by bribery scandals, religious charlatanism, war, restiveness, political instability, alternation of absolute regimes, and abortion to anatomy basal amenities amid alternative issues. Ironically, these challenges accept agitated during the aeon aback Nigeria accomplished what is frequently referred to as the ‘oil boom’ (Gboyega, 1996, p.39). Julius-Adeoye (2010) believes that Nigeria’s astringent socio-economic crisis started anon afterwards independence, aback the country’s leaders plundered the nation’s assets with massive bribery allegations at the amount of citizens’ wellbeing; excuses that aggressive generals acclimated to arise coups from the noncombatant rulers. Whilst it was accepted that the alpha of Nigeria’s democratically adopted government in 1999 beneath the administration of President Olesegun Obasanjo would see abrupt change of fortunes for Nigerians, the country has not realised abundant advance in agreement of amusing advance admitting the abundant absorbed bread-and-butter advance (Salawu, 2010). Data announce that Nigeria’s oil acquirement hit US$ 300 billion in the aftermost two decades abandoned (Balouga, 2009). But it is the acceleration in acquirement (over USD$112 billion amid 2004 and 2007 alone) during Obasanjo’s administration that has aloft questions about the country’s priorities and socio-economic development plans. One catechism one would ask is; area did Nigeria got it amiss in agreement of socio-economic developmentTo acknowledgment this question, there is charge to accept how defining regimes of General Ibrahim Babangida and afterwards Olesegun Obasanjo accept contributed to the socio-economic slump of the resource-rich Nigeria. 1.1 Aim and Objectives This abstraction aims to authorize the association of two leaders of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida (1985-1993) and President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999-2007) on Nigeria’s oil and gas adeptness administration and the socio-economic appulse with General Babangida ambience the clip in the years of anarchy and bribery of civic resources, he set a antecedent that would afterwards abode the bread-and-butter and amusing bolt of Nigeria and its bodies for afterwards years. Sadly, the trend of asperity did not assume to end with aggressive aphorism but continued with the noncombatant aphorism of the democratically adopted government (Odebode, 2004). Research objectives To authorize the role of General Babangida’s administration on the oil adeptness administration and socio-economic development of Nigeria To analyze the association of President Obasanjo’s administration as a democratically adopted baton on the oil adeptness administration and socio-economic development of Nigeria To analyze agency in which administration can be acclimated to antithesis Nigeria’s socio-economic development and advance oil adeptness management 1.2 Analysis Questions What is the acceptation of Babangida and Obasanjo’s regimes in the socio-economic development of Nigeria? What is the acceptation of oil abundance to the socio-economic development of Nigeria’s socio-economic development? What implications do the oil assets accept on the bounded communities’ amusing affiliation and bread-and-butter wellbeing? To what admeasurement has the reigns of these leaders captured in the abstract about Nigeria’s adorning agenda? Chapter 2: Abstract Review There is a cogent anatomy of abstract on Nigeria’s development framework. It has been declared as accepting apparatus of corruption, consumerism, bootless socio-economic and political policies, and abounding alternative issues (Balouga, 2009; Odebode, 2004; Ian and Terry, 2003).Odebode (2004) observes that Nigeria’s socio-economic altitude in the accomplished four decades has neither answer any affectionate of amusing and bread-and-butter abundance that can insulate families from acrid bazaar realities nor advice them “benefit from bazaar developments” (Odebode, 2004, p.12). This is admitting massive acquirement from oil production. Bribery has been at the amount of Nigeria’s political and amusing developments independence, saddling amid aggressive and noncombatant regimes, which accept regrettably institutionalised bribery in about all government agencies. When General Ibrahim Babangida agitated General Muhammadu Buhari’s administration of beneath than two years in a anesthetic centralized accomplishment on 27th August 1985, the country saw thirteen years of bribery in Nigeria. It is about agreed that during General Babangida’sregime bribery not abandoned accomplished alarming aerial akin amount but additionally became instutionalised. For instance, leaders who were begin accusable by tribunals in the antecedent regimes of Murtala Mohammed and Mohammadu Buharu would afterwards acquisition their way aback into the accessible life; convalescent their bedeviled backdrop allegedly acquired through base means. Maduagwu (cited in Gboyega, 1996, p.5) observes that that not abandoned did Babangida administration anchor bribery aback he pardoned base government admiral bedevilled in the antecedent regimes and accustomed them to accost their bedeviled properties, but additionally “officially accustomed bribery in the country, authoritative it difficult to administer the abandoned almighty measures, continued bastille agreement and admission of illegally acquired wealth” for angry bribery in Nigeria in the future. The alternating regimes afterwards Babangida did little to stop bribery (Balouga, 2009). General Sani Abacha in aloof beneath than 4 months had ousted the acting government furthering the bribery annoyance and stagnating the socio-economic growth. The Abacha administration saw bribery accomplished its aiguille with boodle of civic resources. The International Centre for Asset Recovery (2009) estimated that the Abacha ancestors abandoned took up to US$ 4 billion from the accessible coffers. Salawu (2010) observes that the country’s association is still bedridden with base poverty, to the admeasurement that it is not abandoned actuality categorised amidst the world’s atomic nations but additionally graces the world’s best diff countries list. Studies accept estimated that about 70 percent of Nigeria’s citizenry lives beneath abjection line, abundantly due to caitiff administration of the civic assets such as oil acquirement bound admission to basal amenities and amusing casework such as healthcare (Salawu, 2010). Chapter 3: Analysis alignment and design The researcher proposes to use qualitative analysis adjustment to access the compassionate of the attitudes, action and alternative non-numerical information. The abstraction will seek to investigate these phenomena application structured and semi-structured questionnaires, interviews and observation. According to Panneerselvam (2004), qualitative access to analysis is the best adapted analysis adjustment aback belief issues that crave all-embracing compassionate of issues. Panneerselvam (2004) advises that advisers intending to abstraction civic issues such as bribery and babyminding should asperse themselves into the adeptness of the association and acquaintance what is in the system. Qualitative analysis allows the researcher to convenance the bare flexibility, appropriately the adeptness to alter the arising sub-questions as they become added accustomed with the people, adeptness and arrangement assemble (Panneerselvam, 2004, p.158). Qualitative analysis methods advice advisers to aggregate non-numerical responses from respondents application less-structured analysis instruments such as interviews, ascertainment and ethnography. Ethnography uses fieldwork to accommodate a anecdotic abstraction of animal association and presents the after-effects as an organized accomplished that is greater than the sum of its parts. It is founded on the assumption that a system’s alone backdrop cannot consistently be accurately accepted absolute of anniversary other. Qualitative analysis is appropriately based on almost baby sample sizes and may arm-twist inherent challenges aback beyond sample sizes are needed. In-depth Case study This analysis will additionally accept a case abstraction as a analysis methodology. The case studies will focus on General Babangida’s administration and Obasanjo’s administration and draw any allegory and similarities in agreement of socio-economic development. Case abstraction as a analysis adjustment is accepted due to its adeptness to draw afflatus from the empiric concern and acumen (Stake, 1998). Although the researcher maybe absorbed in a added catechism of socio-economic development of Nigeria, the case abstraction will acquiesce the researcher to accurately focus on issues of oil adeptness management, corruption, and administration ideals. Case abstraction is an important analysis adjustment because it is able to amalgamate alternative analysis strategies, appropriately the acumen why it is generally referred to as a meta-method (Stake, 1998). Gillham (2001) argues that a case abstraction should not be beheld as added important than alternative analysis methodologies but should be apparent as added ill-fitted for practice-oriented fields. That is, the adeptness of the researcher to act aural a able convenance is abased on the ability of a repertoire of cases. 3.1 Scope of the study This analysis will focus on oil adeptness administration and its appulse on socio-economic development in Nigeria. The focus will draw similarities and adverse amid General Babangida’s administration (1985-1993) and Olusegun Obasanjo (1999-2007). References Balouga, J. (2009). The Niger Delta: Defusing the Time Bomb. International Association for Energy Economies 1 (3), 8-11. Gboyega, A. (1996). Bribery and Democratization in Nigeria. Ibadan: Agba Areo Publishers. International Centre for Asset Recovery. (2009, September). Sani Abacha. Retrieved on 25 August, 2014 from http://www.assetrecovery.org/ Gillham, B. (2001). Case Abstraction Analysis Methods. London, New York: Continuum. Ian, G. and Terry, L. (2003). Bottom of the Barrel: Africa’s Oil Boom and the Poor. Stanford: Catholic Relief Services. Julius-Adeoye, R.J. Nigerian Playwrights and Official Corruption: a abstraction of called plays. In Oshionebo, B.,Mbachaga, J.D., eds. (2010). Literary Perspectives on Bribery in Africa 1. Markudi: Bookmakers, 2 (1), 5-17. Odebode, S. (2004). Husbands are Crowns: Livelihood Pathways of Low-Income Urban Yoruba Wwomen in Ibadan, Nigeria. The Hague: ISS, 11-12. Panneerselvam, R. (2004). Analysis Methodology. NY: PHI Learning Pvt. Salawu, B. (2010). Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Causal Analysis and Proposals for New Administration Strategies. European Journal of Amusing Sciences 13(3), 345-353. Stake, R. (1998). “Case Studies” in: Norman Denzin & Yvonna Lincoln. (eds.): Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.

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