The company’s most valuable assets are its people, based in all concerns of the country. Organizations invest in measuring employee opinions and attitudes by incorporating employee satisfaction survey. NTPC ltd had introduced a frequent and continuous employee feedback processes so as to retain and develop their most valuable assets.
The world of business has changed rapidly and the limitations of the markets are not restricted only to regional or national but have now reached on international level. The business world has changed rapidly towards progression and shall continue to do so as technology becomes more advanced and available. Since the world has changed so much it is important that every organization and system must also adapt itself to new trends such as globalization, in order to survive the rough competition.
Job satisfaction is often related to having positive feelings regarding the job and is of great concern to both .the employers and the employee as it is directly related to organizational behavior. NTPC has always invested a lot of training and development with other various benefits due to which its has a very loyal staff who would not want to quit the job. The HR department has the freedom to adapt any HR practices to make sure that the employees needs are fully understood and take care of. It also has policies to pay the medical expenses of the employees and immediate family members even after retirement.
The top 5 important factors that were found to give a sense of job satisfaction were-
Communication, Culture, Leadership, Opportunities and job content
The least 5 important factors that were found to give a sense of job satisfaction were-
Rewards and recognition, Working conditions,Superior–subordinate, Team work and Job design
The productivity from the employees as a team can still full utilized by reducing the communication gap between the different levels of management and facilitating better training and development to increase decision making accuracy. Job rotation and role play will break the boredom and make the job more challenging, good work in the team shall always be appreciated to set an example for other teams that hard work will give reward and recognition. The work environment shall be as enjoyable as possible to express views and ideas
2. Statement of purpose
The purpose of the study was to analyse the job satisfaction level at NTPC ltd. It throws a light on overall job satisfaction levels. It address the following objectives-
uStudy the overall job satisfaction reported by the employees at NTPC ltd.
uDetermine the factors that motivates employees to perform better in their respective area of work in order to achieve high level of satisfaction
uTo obtain information relating to current policies and procedures exercised in the organization and understand present organizational climate.
uTo conduct a survey by interviews on employee satisfaction.
uTo evaluate different parameters of employee satisfaction and develop an importance satisfaction model.
uThe study was also targeted to determine motivating factors which form an integral part of employee satisfaction.
3.1What is Human Resource?
The world of business has changed rapidly and the limitations of the markets are not restricted toregional or national but has now reached on international level. The technological progress has made the business around the world easier and has encouraged competition to get maximum utilization from resources and improve its efficiency and effectiveness. The business world has changed rapidly towards progression and shall continue to do so as technology becomes more advanced and available. Since the world has changed so much it is important that every organization and system must also adapt itself to new trends such as globalization, in order to survive the rough competition.
Efficiency in business is very important for its long-term existence. Maximum utilization of resources is the main challenge that every organization needs to keep up with. It shall preserve its investment in manpower and technology to continue providing its services to customers, employees and partners. In order to achieve this human resource management is crucial for every organization
3.2 Human resource management (HRM) in an organization
People employed by a company are termed Human resource, they are the most important, valuable and expensive resource in almost every company. Companies require raw material to manufacture goods, computer systems to store business data and machines to facilitate the process of production. However, without people to sell the products, generate a new business idea, and interpret business information and to ensure maximum utilization of resources, in such situation the company would probably cease to exist. The term ‘Human resource management’ and ‘Human resource’ have largely replaced the term of personnel management which is involved in managing people in an organization. in simple term HRM means employing people, developing and improving their capacities, utilizing their skills, compensating and maintaining their services in tune with the organizational requirement and job
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
In simple words it can also be defined as administrative activities associated with human resources planning, recruitment, selection, orientation, training, appraisal, motivation, remuneration, etc. HRM aims at developing people through work.
3.3 Strategy and Human Resource
The SHRM literature is rooted in ‘manpower’ (sic) planning, but it was the work of In?uential management gurus (for example Ouchi, 1981; Peters & Waterman, 1982), affirming the importance of the effective management of people as a source of Competitive advantage, that encouraged academics to develop frameworks emphasizing the strategic role of the HR function (for example Beer et al., 1985; Fombrun etal., 1984) and attaching the pre?x ‘strategic’ to the term ‘human resource management’. Interest among academics and practitioners in linking the strategy concept to HRM can be explained from both the ‘rational choice’ and the ‘constituency-based’ perspective. There is a managerial logic in focusing attention on people’s skills and intellectual assets to provide a major competitive advantage when technological superiority, even once achieved, will quickly erode (Barney, 1991; Pfeffer, 1994, 1998a). From a ‘constituency-based’ perspective, it is argued that HR academics and HR practitioners have embraced SHRM as a means of securing greater respect for HRM as a field of study and, in the case of HR managers, of appearing more ‘strategic’, thereby enhancing their status within organizations (Bamberger & Meshoulam, 2000; Pfeffer & Salancik, 1977; Powell & DiMaggio, 1991; Purcell & Ahlstrand, 1994; Whipp, 1999).
Strategic HRM can be regarded as a general approach to the strategic management of human
resources in accordance with the intentions of the organization on the future direction it wants
to take. It is concerned with longer-term people issues and macro-concerns about structure,
quality, culture, values, commitment and matching resources to future need. It has been
All those activities affecting the behavior of individuals in their efforts to formulate and implement the strategic needs of business
The pattern of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable the forms to achieve its goals.
Strategic HRM can encompass a number of HR strategies. There may be strategies to deliver fair
and equitable reward, to improve performance or to streamline structure. However, these strategies are not strategic HRM. Strategic HRM is the overall framework which determines the shape and delivery of the individual strategies.
4. Main body
4.1COMPANY PROFILE- NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION LIMITED (NTPC)
‘’SANKALP SHUDDHA HI SIDDHA’’
(If your intentions are pure, you are bound to succeed in letter and spirit)
Shri Arup Roy Choudhury(Chairman NTPC)
VISION- ‘’to be the world’s largest and best power producer, powering India’s growth to become an integrated power commanding height with total power value chain’’
MISSION-‘’ “Develop and provide reliable power, related products and services at competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco-friendly technologies and contribute to society.”
CORE VALUES (B-COMIT):
uOrganizational & Professional Pride
uMutual Respect & Trust
uInnovation and Speed
uTotal Quality for Excellence
uImproved Business Portfolio Growth
uSteady Customer Focus
uHuman Resource Development
uTo be a 75000 MW plus company
uTo rank in Fortune 500 company
uDiversified Business Portfolio (Hydro, Nuclear Distribution, Trading, Coal Mining and washries)
uTop Indian MNC
uGroup of over Rs. 1,40,000 crore with about 30,000 employees
uLeading Corporate Citizen
HR VISION: “To enable our people to be a family of committed world class professional.”
SOME FACTS ABOUT NTPC
uThird largest thermal power company in the world, second largest in Asia & largest in India.
uIncorporated on November 7, 1975 under companies act as a private limited ,which was later changed to ‘Public limited’ September 30th 1976
uThe name NTPC Ltd. is given in 28th October 2005
uAreas NTPC thinking to diversify in:
v Equipment Manufacturing
v Power Trading
v Power Distribution
v Over Seas
v Coal Mining
v Hydro Power
v Thermal Power
uFirst challenge is to get the people to deliver.
uFirst plant of 200MW was set up in Singrauli unit.
uIn 2001 the nomenclature for industrial relation has to change to employee relation.
uIN 1984, received a world bank loan of US $150 million through government of India (GOI)
uIn 2009, enters memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd(NPCIL) to work together for development of nuclear power inIndia
uNTPC inks JV agreement with SAIL, RINL, COALINDIAand NMDC.
BADARPUR THERMAL POWER STATION (BTPS)
The Badarpur Thermal Power Plant is a coal-based power plant situated at Badarpur in Delhi. Beginning its power generation in 1973, this plant generates an average of 705 MW of power from its 5 units annually. The coal for the power generation is taken from Jharia Coal Fields and water from Agra Canal. This power plant is owned and operated by National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC), the largest thermal power generating company of India. The idea behind creating BTPS was to provide a backup for the generation of hydro power in the northern region. Delhi was the sole beneficiary of the power generated from this station from 1st April 1987(see Diagram 2)
4.2 JOB SATISFACTION AND ITS IMPORTANCE
“Job satisfaction is defined as “the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs” (Spector, 1997, p. 2). This definition suggests job satisfaction is a general or global affective reaction that individuals hold about their job. While researchers and practitioners most often measure global job satisfaction, there is also interest in measuring different “facets” or “dimensions” of satisfaction. Examination of these facet conditions is often useful for a more careful examination of employee satisfaction with critical job factors. Traditional job satisfaction facets include: co-workers, pay, job conditions, supervision, nature of the work and benefits.” (Williams)
Job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings with which the employees rate their work.
4.3 APPROACHES TO STUDY JOB SATISFACTION
THE 2 APPROACHES TO STUDY JOB SATISFACTION ARE-
GLOBAL APPROACH: it relates to job satisfaction as single, overall feeling towards towards job
FACET APPROACH: it relates to different aspects of job such as nature of work, condition of work, rewards, people at work, etc
In this case we shall be using the facet approach as it gives a complete picture of job satisfaction. It depends on how an individual prioritizes his satisfaction levels. He might be very satisfied with the fringe benefits but at the same time be dissatisfied with the conditions at work and superiors (see Diagram 3)
EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION
The 5 main effects of job satisfaction are-
I.Performance-performance of an individual at job depends on 2 opposite situations. First, as we now know that satisfaction is related to performance, people who enjoy their job work harder which leads to them performing better. Second, people who feel satisfied by performing better
II. Absenteeism- an individual would try to avoid being absent from work if he is a satisfied person with positive outlook but this also does not mean that highly satisfied people would not be absent. A study showed that managers were the most satisfied workers followed by the technical staff. Workers who have a record of being absent have a sense of insecurity and negative outlook towards their job, also lacking motivation
III. Employee grievances and health- passive aggression and complaints are associated with high level of dissatisfaction amongst the workers. Poor management practices and unfair means of treatment at work lead to health issues and brings a sense of negative attitude towards the industry
IV.Turnover- there is no evidence that satisfaction leads to increase in the turnover but it does help. An employee’s does not quit only because he is dissatisfied but there can be various other factors like- better opportunities elsewhere, better management practices and pay security#
V.Goodwill- when an organization has strong value in the market, it attracts young and dynamic entrants towards the company. Which is beneficial to both , the company by having talented people to choose from and the employees are satisfied to work for a company having high market standing and fair employee treatment policy
(See Diagram 4)
4.4 JOB SATISFACTION AT NTPC
Job satisfaction is a positive feeling about ones jobs from an evaluation of its characteristics. It is related more with the attitude of the person rather than behaviour. It is logical that a person with positive attitude will be more satisfied than a person with negative attitude towards work and the organization. Employees are the internal customer of any organization and are willing to participate in the business to accomplish business goals. Companies that set high level of work standards for their employees, sharpen their skills and knowledge through training and development. A satisfied and motivated employee’s proves to have a positive influence on the organizational performance.
The HR process helps to establish frequent and consistent feedback communication between them which helps them to retain the most valued asset of the company- THE EMPLOYEES.
NTPC has always invested a lot of training and development with other various benefits due to which its has a very loyal staff who would not want to quit the job. The HR department has the freedom to adapt any HR practices to make sure that the employees needs are fully understood and take care of. It also has policies to pay the medical expenses of the employees and immediate family members even after retirement. This extra step that the company has taken to show consideration towards its employees has proved to have a maximum retention rate throughout the lifetime of the company. Allowing workers to participate in management schemes where they can contribute their inputs about improving the standard of services has also been a scheme adopted by NTPC. Various schemes to improve the relation and understanding between employee and company have been exercised namely-
uEncouraging participation in management activities
uDeveloping better HR policies to improve the communication between the employees and the company
uImproving the levels of productivity , efficiency, knowledge and skills through regular training and development
uEncouraging the maximum utilization of resources and reducing wastage
uPromoting better communication within all levels of the organization
uSupport the employees in developing the techniques and process of sensible decision making
This priceless investment of the company management would be fruitful in
uBoosting the morale of the employees
uFlexible in receiving support from management
uLifelong loyalty and commitment
uGreater sense of contribution and involvement
4.5 FACTORS INFLUENCING JOB SATISFACTION
As we have learnt previously about the extrinsic factors that affect job satisfaction from the diagrma 3, we shall now throw light on other important factors such as-
Good communication gets the job done but Great communication is even more important for on organization that strives to achieve its goals and retain its employees. Satisfaction is related to clear communication on personal as well as organizational level as it motivates and stimulates the employee to perform better. Lack of communication can cause a lot of destruction to the image of the company resulting in low morale and loss on individual contribution in organizational productivity. Hence a clear communication shall be practised within all the level of the company, form the board of directors to the employees who represents the organization in front of the public
A collection of norms and values that are shared within the organization and also to interact with people outside the company compromises of organizational culture.
It is the responsibility of every employee to impose the values and standards of behaviour that reflect the objective of the organization. Habits prejudice and tradition that form human behaviour has a positive relation with culture. How employees view their organisational responsibility depends on how the culture has been set within the company
Its is the ability to influence an individual or a group towards achieving a set of goals. In most cases a good leader ensures that the employees are satisfied as they motivate and encourage their employees to perform well and achieve set targets. Great communication is a must for a leader who want to make sure that the vision of the organization is achieved by collective efforts and inputs of the team rather than just a few doing all the hard work. Leadership is multi skilled and it is not necessary that all managers can prove to be good leaders.
The provision of good workplace and well organised workspace is essential for employee satisfaction. These conditions shall influence and motivate the employees to share positive opinions with others as well as take constructive and honest feedback. An ideal working condition should be free from destructive criticism, harassment, bias judgments in order to improve and increase overall efficiency
Rewards and recognition-
Employees feel a sense of satisfaction when there is transparency in being paid fairly for the work done by them. They want the promotional policies to be just and not bias and in line with their expectations. Money is not the only factor for satisfaction but is one of the essential element that motivates them to perform better and earn more. There are others who do not seek money and are happy to receive lower pay or a less demanding job, for such employees what matters is the freedom they get to complete the given task in their own methods and the recognition they get for it.
Superior –subordinate relationship-
The relationship between the superior and the subordinates is of trust, respect, friendship and warmth and it is essential for both to have a positive attitude towards each other to increase productivity at work. This would result in having constructive interaction with superiors and fulfil employee functional and interpersonal need
Every organization shall involve its employees in regularlearning process to sharpen their skills, concepts and knowledge so they can get better at decision making process, as the attitude and behaviour keeps changing rapidly , regular training shall ensure that they are tuned with the mindset and vision of the organization
5 THEORIES ON JOB SATISFACTIOn
5.1HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
In the late 1950s Frederick Herzberg, was considered to be a pioneer in motivation theory, he interviewed a group of employees to find out what made them satisfied and dissatisfied on the job. He asked the employees essentially two sets of questions:
Think of a time when you felt especially good about your job. Why did you feel that way
Think of a time when you felt especially bad about your job. Why did you feel that way
From these interviews Hertzberg went on to develop his theory that there are two dimensions to job satisfaction: ‘’motivation and hygiene”.
(See Diagram 5)
Hygiene factors cannot motivate employees but can help in reduces the dissatisfaction, if handled properly. It is a topic that includes company politics, salary, supervision, working condition and interpersonal relations which help in decreasing dissatisfaction amongst the employees. Whereas, Motivators are responsible for creating satisfaction by fulfilling individual needs. It focuses more on achievement, recognition and responsibility. It helps in making the employee’s more creative and committed towards work. Herzberg said ‘once the hygiene factors are addressed, the motivators will promote satisfaction and increase production
5.2 MASLOW’S HIERACHY OF NEEDS
Abraham Maslow developed a model in which basic low level needs such as psychological requirements and safety must be satisfied before higher level needs such as need for self fulfillment (Robbins, 2005).
According to this model when a need is satisfied it is no longer a motivating factor and the next higher need takes its place ( See diagram 6)
5.3 ERG Theory
Clayton Alderfer has showed three distinguishing categories of human needs that have influence on employee’s behavior, growth and relatedness
These categories are:
Existence needs: Psychological and safety needs
Relatedness needs: Social and external needs
Growth needs: Internal needs and self actualization
According to ERG theory the order of these needs may vary from individual to individual. Managers must realize that there may be a possibility to fulfill multiple needs at the same time, this view contradicts Maslow’s view; his model proceeds from the most basic (bottom) to most complex(top) needs in an order and is same for all individuals. According to ERG theory it may not be effective to focus at only one need at a time. The theory suggests that if a higher need is not fulfilled than an individual may choose to fulfill a lower level need that appears to satisfy- this stage is known as the frustration regression principle. For example if the employee is not provided with growth opportunities than he may regress to relatedness needs and start socializing with co-workers. But corrective measures are taken in time by the management to satisfy frustration needs than it will bring the employee back on track to pursue achieving goals (Robbins,2005)(See Diagram 7)
6 Method of collecting data
To find out the job satisfaction level in the organization, I had randomly interviewed 12 people through chat rooms and telephone conversations, who were from different departments of the company (Executives and Non-Executive).
The 10 different sections that I use for evaluated the job satisfaction were-
uReward and recognition
The above sections were asked to be rated between 1 to 5 scale, where 1 being most satisfied and 5 being least satisfied
The top 5 important factors that were found to give a sense of job satisfaction were-
The least 5 important factors that were found to give a sense of job satisfaction were-
uRewards and recognition
8 Main Observations
it was observed that the communication system adapted by NTPC was not much effective and there is not been clarity of communication exercised . certain percentage of employees were not aware of the latest news and development within the company
This showed a very mixed response as some had an extrovert personality to share information but there were also some introverts who were still to open up and be comfortable to participate in discussing issues
It is not possible to satisfy everyone in the organisation and the same scenario is seen here, there were lot of delays seen in decision making process, which showed that they were not happy with their current leaders.
The HR policy is ‘Grow your own timber’ and NTPC has lived up to is policy by providing multiple opportunities to its employees to grow and develop their skills. Its provides enough freedom at work and time to be with their families
There was lack of clarity in the design due to which there was confusion among the employees as to what is exactly expected from them. Due to this employees were dissatisfied with current job design
There is no doubt that is has a good working environment, but the conditions were not found to be satisfactory with regards to health and safety. As employees are asset of any organization , a lot of work will need to be done in condition department
This department needs to be worked on as the employees feel that the training is not sufficient to improve their productivity levels and there are some loopholes that still need to be fixed in order for the training to be more effective and in line with the job
Rewards and recognition
The contributions of the employees are been appreciated and praised by the superior which gives them a sense of satisfaction and encouragement to perform better . good works lead to good chances of promotion at NTPC
Superior- subordinate relationship
There is a professional yet friendly atmosphere at work amongst the senior and juniors. There is a sense of fair treatment within the employee’s and can be improved. Work issues are handles with great concern